Explore the biological, psychological, and social aspects of the human stress response. Explore the biological, psychological, and social aspects of the human stress response



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Explore the biological, psychological, and social aspects of the human stress response.

  • Explore the biological, psychological, and social aspects of the human stress response.

  • Describe the difference between adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies.

  • Understand coping strategies that increase resilience to promote productive living and healthy aging.



Diminished Immunity

  • Diminished Immunity

  • Headache

  • Fatigue

  • Weight gain

  • Dyslipidemia

  • Hypertension

  • Heart Disease

  • Psoriasis/Eczema

  • Digestive problems



Stress: A state of disharmony or a threat to homeostasis

  • Stress: A state of disharmony or a threat to homeostasis

    • Physiological changes increase alertness, focus, and energy
    • Perceived demands may exceed the perceived resources
  • Coping: The ability to maintain control, think rationally, and problem solve

  • Resilience: Resistant quality that permits a person to recovery quickly and thrive in spite of adversity



Eustress

  • Eustress

    • Manageable Stress can lead to growth and enhanced competence
  • Distress

    • Uncontrollable, prolonged, or overwhelming stress is destructive.
  • Acute Stress

    • Immediate response to a threat or challenge
  • Chronic Stress

    • Ongoing exposure to stress, may seem unrelenting


External causes

  • External causes

    • Family, work, economics, work, school, major life changes, unforeseen events, etc.
  • Internal causes

    • Worry, uncertainty, fear, attitudes, unrealistic expectations, etc.


For patients

  • For patients



Alarm—when one feels threatened

  • Alarm—when one feels threatened

    • Activation of the fight or flight reaction
  • Resistance—mobilization of resources to solve the problem

    • Continued stress causes adaptation
  • Exhaustion

    • Adaptation fails and level of function decreases


Catecholamines

  • Catecholamines



Adaptation occurs

  • Adaptation occurs

    • Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis continues
  • The stressor may be resolved

    • The body returns to homeostasis
  • May progress to exhaustion

    • Stress continues as resources are depleted


Occurs when the demands of the stress exceeds the persons ability to adapt.

  • Occurs when the demands of the stress exceeds the persons ability to adapt.

  • Functioning declines

  • May result in health problems

    • Physical symptoms
    • Mental symptoms


Cognitive

  • Cognitive

    • Decreased concentration, comprehension, & memory
  • Behavioral

  • Emotional

    • Fear, anxiety, depression, fatigue
  • Physiological

    • Increased BP, HR, Respirations, etc
    • Somatic symptoms
    • Decreased immune response


Genetics

  • Genetics



Coping

  • Coping



Adaptive Coping

  • Adaptive Coping

    • Contribute to resolution of the stress response
  • Maladaptive Coping

    • Strategies that cause further problems
  • Active Coping

    • Actively seeking resolution to the stress


Realistic expectations

  • Realistic expectations

    • Set realistic goals
  • Planning

    • Anticipate problems, have a backup plan
  • Reframing

    • Change the way you look at things
  • Relaxation

  • Discuss the problem

    • Utilize existing social supports to problem solve


Training

  • Training

    • Prepares for stressful events
  • Nutrition

    • Eat healthy, avoid skipping meals
  • Exercise

    • Include regular exercise
  • Sleep

    • Get adequate sleep—avoid fatigue


Blurring of boundaries

  • Blurring of boundaries

  • Avoidance/withdrawal

  • Negative attitude

  • Anger outbursts

  • Alcohol/Drugs

  • Hopelessness

  • Negative self-talk

  • Resentment

  • Violence



Positive Role Models

  • Positive Role Models

  • Optimism

  • Humor

  • Moral Compass

  • Altruism

  • Religion & Spirituality

  • Social Support



Transmit:



Positive Beliefs

  • Positive Beliefs

    • Associated with well being
    • Cognitive reframing
    • Positive thinking
    • Refute the negative thinking
    • Believe in a meaningful cause
  • It is important to acknowledge relevant negative factors



Highly effective

  • Highly effective

  • Mature coping mechanism

  • “Another of the souls’ weapons for the fight for self-preservation, it is well known that humor, more then anything else in the human makeup, can provide an aloofness and the ability to rise above any situation, even for a few seconds.”

  • Viktor Frankl



Conduct a moral inventory

  • Conduct a moral inventory

    • “Look not for any greater harm then this, destroying the trustworthy, self-respecting, well-behaved man within you.” Epicetus
  • Maintain your integrity

    • “Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.”
    • Viktor Frankl


Unselfish regarding the welfare of others

  • Unselfish regarding the welfare of others

  • Believe in a meaningful cause

  • Mutual cooperation

    • Activates of the brain’s reward center


Associated with psychological and physical well being

  • Associated with psychological and physical well being

  • Guards against despair

  • Provides social support

  • Provides positive role models

  • Provides a positive mission



Social support has a profound effect on life expectancy

  • Social support has a profound effect on life expectancy

  • Patients have better outcomes with strong social support

  • Isolation and poor social support are associated with a poor stress response

  • Few hardy individuals “go it alone”



Recognize skills and talents

  • Recognize skills and talents

    • Inventory strengths
  • Use your strengths and talents

    • Decide what works
  • Actively cope

    • Apply concepts to enable active coping.


Stress is part of everyday life

  • Stress is part of everyday life

    • It can promote growth and competency
    • If unrelenting or overwhelming it can cause adverse effects
  • Adaptive coping enhances resilience

  • Maladaptive coping causes additional problems

  • Enhanced coping increases resilience while diminishing the adverse affects of stress, thus promoting health



Set realistic expectations

  • Set realistic expectations

  • Exercise regularly

  • Eat healthy

  • Get adequate sleep

  • Maintain a work-leisure balance

  • Positive Reframing & optimism

  • Enhance social support



Building resilience: http://www.slideshare.net/3dogMcNeill/building-resilience

  • Building resilience: http://www.slideshare.net/3dogMcNeill/building-resilience

  • Diet, exercise, stress and the immune system: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/chronic_fatigue_syndrome/hic_diet_exercise_stress_and_the_immune_system.aspx

  • Exercise: Rev up your routine to reduce stress: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise-and-stress/SR00036

  • Positive thinking: Reduce stress, enjoy life more: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/positive-thinking/SR00009

  • Stress management for patient and physician: http://www.mentalhealth.com/mag1/p51-str.html

  • Stress management: Understand your sources of stress: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-management/SR00031

  • Stress reduction techniques: A must for a healthy lifestyle: http://www.managestresstips.com/category/stress-reduction/



List your current sources of stress.

  • List your current sources of stress.

  • Conduct an inventory of coping strategies that you use or have used in the past.

    • Include maladaptive strategies
  • List your signature strengths and factors that may enhance your resilience.

  • While considering the above, develop a personalized stress management plan to enhance your coping and resilience.



Ahern, N., Ark, P., Byers, J. (2001). Resilience and coping strategies in adolescents. Paediatric Nursing. 28(10).

  • Ahern, N., Ark, P., Byers, J. (2001). Resilience and coping strategies in adolescents. Paediatric Nursing. 28(10).

  • Beckmann-Murray, R., Proctor-Zentner, J., & Yakimo, R. (2009). Health promotion strategies through the life span. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

  • Bhui, K., King, M., Dein, S., & O’Conor, (2008). Ethnicity and religious coping with mental distress. Journal of Mental Health. 12(2).

  • Copstead, L. C. & Banasik, J. L. (2010). Pathophysiology: Biological and behavioral perspectives (2nd ED.) USA: W. B. Saunders Company

  • Fielding, R (Undated) Retrieved September 25, 2007 from:http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/beh0091/img007.GIF&imgrefurl

  • Hildon, Z., Smith, F., Netuveli, G. & Blane, D. (2008). Understanding adversity and resilience at older ages. Sociology of Health & Illness. 30(5).

  • Posen, D. B. (1995). Stress management for patient and physician. Retrieved September 21, 2007 from: Http://Serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro00/web3/edmundson.html

  • Pranulis, M. S. (1975). Coping with acute myocardial infarction. Psychological Aspects of Myocardial infraction. Mosby: St. Louis

  • Southwick, S. M. (2007). Cleveland Clinic’s posttraumatic stress disorder symposium. California: Audio-digest

  • Steinhardt, M. & Dolbier, C. (2008). Evaluation of a resilience intervention to enhance coping strategies and proctitive factors and decrease symptomatology. Journal of American College Health. 56(4).

  • Images retrieved from Microsoft: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/images/?CTT=97



Allan Sanders, MN, ARNP

  • Allan Sanders, MN, ARNP

  • asanders@wsu.edu




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