Egypt (Badr et al. 1986); Greece (Nel and Nel 2003); India (Robinson et al. 2007); Indonesia, Japan [Osaka City, Honshu] (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003); Korea [Republic of] (Park et al. 1994); Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Thailand (Robinson et al. 2007).
Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton, 1907)
Euthrips orchidii Moulton, 1907
citrus rust thrips, anthurium thrips, orchid thrips, red rust thrips of banana, banana rust thrips
Main hosts of Chaetanaphothrips orchidii are Alternanthera (Joyweed), Anthurium andreanum, Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum (daisy), Musa (banana), Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and Zea mays (maize).
Minor hosts are Acer palmatum (Japanese maple), Adiantum (maidenhair ferns), Amaranthus (grain amaranth), Begonia, Citrus reticulata x paradisi (tangelo), Citrus sinensis (navel orange), Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit), Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears), Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort), Epiphyllum, Euphorbia (spurges), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Iresine (blood-leaf), Litchi chinensis (lichi), Lycopersicon, Paspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum), Passiflora (passionflower) and Pisonia (CAB International 2007)
Chaetanaphothrips orchidii is present in Australia (New South Wales, Queensland), Brazil (Minas Gerais), China (Taiwan), Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Honduras, India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java), Jamaica, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Nepal, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobargo and United States of America (California, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts) (CAB International 2007).
Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, 1895)
Frankliniella intonsa f. norashensis Yakhontov and Jurbanov, 1957
Thrips intonsa Trybom, 1895
Frankliniella formosae Moulton, 1928
China (Guangxi, Hunan, Sichuan (CAB International 2008); Jiangsu (EPPO 2007); Taiwan (EPPO 2007); Japan (Kyushu and the Ryukyo Islands (White and Elson-Harris 1994; EPPO 2007); Vietnam (EPPO 2007).
Sphaceloma fawcettii Jenkins
Sphacelomafawcettii var. fawcettii Jenkins
Sphacelomafawcettii var. scabiosa Jenkins
Ramulariascabiosae McAlpine and Tryon
Elsinoëfawcetti Bitancourt and Jenkins [teleomorph]
Citrus scab, common scab of orange, sour orange scab (CAB International 2004).
Members of the family Rutaceae particularly: Citrusaurantium (sour orange), C. hystrix (papeda lime), C. jambhiri (rough lemon), C. latifolia (Tahitian limes), C. limon (lemon), C. limonia (lemandarin, Mandarin lime), C. madurensis (calamondin), C. x nobilis (tangor), C. x paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin), C. sinensis (some cultivars of sweet orange), C. unshiu (Satsuma orange) and Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange) (CAB International 2004; CABI and EPPO 1997b).
Most cultivars of C.latifolia (Tahitian limes), Fortunellamargarita (oval kumquat), C.sinensis (sweet orange) and C. maxima (pummelo) are more resistant. C. aurantium (sour orange) is attacked by only the Florida Broad Host Range pathotype that is also capable of infecting C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit. C. x paradisi (grapefruit) is affected by the Florida Broad and Narrow Host Range pathotypes but not by Tryon’s or the lemon pathotypes. All pathotypes affect C. jambhiri (rough lemon) and C. limon (lemon). Tryon’s pathotype attacks certain C. reticulata (mandarin) cultivars whereas the lemon pathotype does not (Timmer et al. 1996a).
American Samoa; Argentina; Australia (Tryon’s and lemon pathotypes only - New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland and Victoria); Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bolivia; Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo); Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Cayman Islands; China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hong Kong (restricted), Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan (restricted), Yunnan, Zhejiang); Colombia; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Ethiopia; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Ghana; Georgia; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India (Assam, Karanataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan); Jamaica; Japan (Honshu, Ryukyu Archipelago); Kenya; Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Laos; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Maldives; Martinique; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of (dubious record); Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Lucia; Samoa; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain (Canary Islands); Sri Lanka; Suriname; Tanzania; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas); Uruguay (restricted); Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (restricted) (CABI and EPPO 1997b; CAB International 2004).
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (ex Hasse 1915) Gabriel et al. 1989
Bacillus citri (Hasse) Holland 1920
Bacterium citri (Hasse) Doidge 1916
Phytomonas citri (Hasse) Bergey et al. 1923
Pseudomonas citri Hasse 1915
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. aurantifolii Vauterin et al. 1995
Xanthomonas campestris pv. aurantifolii Gabriel et al. 1989
The pathogen has also been associated with other plant species such as grasses and weeds, surviving in their root zone (rhizosphere). Goto et al. (1975a) reported its presence on the grass Zoysia japonica in Japan, which grew in close proximity with citrus canker infected trees in Japan. Similarly the pathogen has been associated with goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.) in India (Kalita et al. 1997). However, the epidemiological significance of these sources remains unclear.
Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia (restricted distribution, under official control) (QDPIF 2006a; ProMED 2007), Bangladesh, Belau, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Comoros, Congo Democratic Republic, Fiji, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea [Republic of], Korea [DPR], Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Micronesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, United States of America (Florida), Vietnam, Yemen (CAB International 2004).
The geographical distribution of X. citri subsp. citri differs for different strains of citrus canker. Canker A (Asiatic canker) is found in Asia, South America, Oceania and the USA; canker B (cancrosis B) in South America; canker C (Mexican lime cancrosis) in Brazil; and canker D (citrus bacteriosis) in Mexico. An outbreak of the Asiatic strain of X. citri subsp. citri occurred in a geographically isolated citrus growing region in Queensland in 2004 where the pest continues to be under eradication (QDPIF 2006a).
Appendix C: Biosecurity framework
Australia's biosecurity policies
The objective of Australia’s biosecurity policies and risk management measures is the prevention or control of the entry, establishment or spread of pests and diseases that could cause significant harm to people, animals, plants and other aspects of the environment.
Australia has diverse native flora and fauna and a large agricultural sector, and is relatively free from the more significant pests and diseases present in other countries. Therefore, successive Australian Governments have maintained a conservative, but not a zero-risk, approach to the management of biosecurity risks. This approach is consistent with the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement).
The SPS Agreement defines the concept of an ‘appropriate level of protection’ (ALOP) as the level of protection deemed appropriate by a WTO Member establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory. Among a number of obligations, a WTO Member should take into account the objective of minimising negative trade effects in setting its ALOP.
Like many other countries, Australia expresses its ALOP in qualitative terms. Australia’s ALOP, which reflects community expectations through Australian Government policy, is currently expressed as providing a high level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection, aimed at reducing risk to a very low level, but not to zero.
Consistent with the SPS Agreement, in conducting risk analyses Australia takes into account as relevant economic factors:
the potential damage in terms of loss of production or sales in the event of the entry, establishment or spread of a pest or disease in the territory of Australia
the costs of control or eradication of a pest or disease
and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative approaches to limiting risks.
Australia protects its human14, animal and plant life or health through a comprehensive quarantine system that covers the quarantine continuum, from pre-border to border and post-border activities.
Pre-border, Australia participates in international standard-setting bodies, undertakes risk analyses, develops offshore quarantine arrangements where appropriate, and engages with our neighbours to counter the spread of exotic pests and diseases.
At the border, Australia screens vessels (including aircraft), people and goods entering the country to detect potential threats to Australian human, animal and plant health.
The Australian Government also undertakes targeted measures at the immediate post-border level within Australia. This includes national co-ordination of emergency responses to pest and disease incursions. The movement of goods of quarantine concern within Australia’s border is the responsibility of relevant state and territory authorities, which undertake inter- and intra-state quarantine operations that reflect regional differences in pest and disease status, as a part of their wider plant and animal health responsibilities.
Roles and responsibilities within the Department
The Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry is responsible for the Australian Government’s animal and plant biosecurity policy development and the establishment of risk management measures. The Secretary of the Department is appointed as the Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine under the Quarantine Act 1908 (the Act).
There are three groups within the Department primarily responsible for biosecurity and quarantine policy development and implementation:
Biosecurity Australia conducts risk analyses, including IRAs, and develops recommendations for biosecurity policy as well as providing quarantine advice to the Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine and AQIS.
AQIS develops operational procedures, makes a range of quarantine decisions under the Act (including import permit decisions under delegation from the Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine) and delivers quarantine services.
Product Integrity, Animal and Plant Health Division (PIAPH) coordinates pest and disease preparedness, emergency responses and liaison on inter- and intra-state quarantine arrangements for the Australian Government, in conjunction with Australia’s state and territory governments.