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1 A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products (FAO 2007b)
2 In earlier qualitative IRAs, the scale for the impact scores went from A to F and did not explicitly allow for the rating ‘indiscernible’ at all four levels. This combination might be applicable for some criteria. In this report, the impact scale of A-F has changed to become B-G and a new lowest category A (‘indiscernible’ at all four levels) was added. The rules for combining impacts in Table 2.4 were adjusted accordingly.
3 Biosecurity Australia does not specifically consider chemical residue issues in the IRA process as it is not under the jurisdiction of the agency. All food, i.e. imported and domestically produced food, available for sale in Australia, is required to comply with the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (the FSC). Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) is the Australian Government body responsible for the FSC. FSANZ randomly tests all food commodities to ensure that they are within Australia’s maximum residue limits (MRLs). FSANZ also recommends to AQIS appropriate monitoring and testing of imported foods, including horticultural products. Currently, horticultural products are deemed a low food safety risk by FSANZ and testing is therefore conducted by AQIS Imported Food Safety on a random basis at the rate of 5% of imported consignments in addition to items where there is reason to suspect that there may be residue issues.
4 This calendar summarises the individual active ingredients commonly used for the control of the listed pests during the unshu mandarin production season for the whole of Japan. Spray applications will vary between the unshu production regions in Japan, depending on the absence/presence of the pest and its varying pest pressure between production seasons.
5 The timing of in-field inspections has taken into consideration that young fruit, up to about 50% of its final size, is the most susceptible development stage to infection by X. citri subsp. citri (refer to Section 4.12.2). An inspection immediately prior to harvest provides the longest time frame for symptoms to become visible during a given production season.
6 An inspection after typhoon events that may have occurred by the end of August allows sufficient time for citrus canker infections to become visible. The typhoon season, which is a coastal event, may commence as early as May each year and generally ceases by October (refer to Section 3.3). The inspection prior to harvest is designed to detect symptoms that have developed through the whole of the production season, as it provides the longest time for symptoms to become visible during a given production season.
97 This pest categorisation table does not represent a comprehensive list of all pests associated with the entire plant of an imported commodity. Reference to soilborne nematodes (as listed in the technical issues paper in 2002), soilborne pathogens (such as Rhizobium radiobacter), wood borer pests (such as Anoplophora chinensis ), root pests or pathogens (such as Paracardiophorus pullatus), and secondary pests (such as Aschersonia aleyrodis) have not been listed, or have been deleted from the table, as they are not directly related to the export pathway of fresh unshu mandarin fruit and would be addressed by Australia’s current approach to contaminating pests.
8 Organisms are listed by their current taxonomic name; where stakeholders have referred to previous names, these have been included as synonyms in the table.
59 Strain, pathovar, subspecies or pesticide resistance profiles are considered only in instances where these are scientifically recognised in the literature.
60 The inclusion/exclusion of pests for which the host is stated as Citrus sp., rather than C. unshiu, has been made by expert judgement that has considered the relevant literature.
11 Pests that were proposed by stakeholders for consideration in this IRA and for which no evidence of their presence exists for Japan have been excluded from pest categorisation (e.g. Pseudococcus odermatti, Selanaspidus articulatus)
12Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hubner, 1800) [Tortricidae] - carnation tortrix, has been deleted from the pest categorisation table, as it is absent from Japan (MAFF 2009).
14 The Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for human health aspects of quarantine.