Fitzgerald biosphere recovery plan



Yüklə 1,44 Mb.
səhifə3/6
tarix24.08.2017
ölçüsü1,44 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6
References

Barrett, S., Comer, S., McQuoid, N., Porter, M., Tiller, C. & Utber, D. (2009) Identification and Conservation of Fire Sensitive Ecosystems and Species of the South Coast Natural Resource Management Region. Department of Environment and Conservation, South Coast Region, Western Australia.

DEWHA (2010) Adenanthos ellipticus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 7/4/2010

Robinson, C.J. & Coates, D.J. (1995) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District, Wildlife Management Program No 20. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Adenanthos ellipticus (Oval-leaf Adenanthos). Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au/
biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/4570-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 7/4/2010.

Anigozanthos bicolor (subspecies minor) (Haemodoraceae)

(Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Mike Fitzgerald (DEC)



Description

Small rhizomatous perennial herb. Leaves flattened and 5-10cm long. Flowers hairy and held on 5-20cm high scapes, with green perianth, 30-45mm long and strongly constricted in middle, with red ovary. Usually has several scapes with solitary flowers. Four subspecies of A. bicolor recognised and A. b. minor can be distinguished by its strong perianth constriction and relatively short leaves.


Distribution and Habitat

Known from 14 populations on the south coast of WA between FRNP, Lake King and Condingup Peak (290km range). Nine of these populations within the Fitzgerald Biosphere. Many locations are unconfirmed or have not been resighted since initial discovery. Distribution is disjunct from other subspecies of A. bicolor.

Favours moist sandy soils in heathland communities but also occurs in shallow soils over granite outcrops.
Important Populations

All known populations of this species.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species; and

  • The local catchment area where the species occurs; and

  • Additional areas of similar habitat that may contain the species or suitable for translocations.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers from August to October. Flowers once in the first year and then disappears, making difficult to survey. Fire is presumed the primary germination stimulus but other stimuli may include washouts caused from heavy rain and runoff.

Hermaphroditic flowers, observed to be pollinated by honeyeaters. Juvenile period from 1-2 yrs. Presumed not susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi but is susceptible to other fungal pathogens e.g. Alternaria alternata.
Threats

Lack of disturbance to stimulate germination (e.g. fire); Loss of habitat (e.g. clearance for farmland); Inappropriate fire regimes; Modification of habitat by Rabbits; Grazing by stock and other herbivores; Salinisation and altered hydrology; Environmental weeds.






References

Barrett, S., Comer, S., McQuoid, N., Porter, M., Tiller, C. & Utber, D. (2009) Identification and Conservation of Fire Sensitive Ecosystems and Species of the South Coast Natural Resource Management Region. Department of Environment and Conservation, South Coast Region, Western Australia.

Patten, J., Butler, R., Stack, G. & Brown, A. (2008) Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) Recovery Plan 2006-2011. Interim Recovery Plan No. 223. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Kensington, Western Australia

Western Australian Herbarium (1998) Florabase - The Western Australia Flora, Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor (Benth.) Hopper. http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/12102 - Accessed on 7/4/2010



Beyeria cockertonii (Euphorbiaceae)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Not Listed

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A small under-shrub to 25cm high with upright stems. New growth yellow and resinous with short glandular hairs, older growth with grey tessellated bark. Leaves 6-7mm long and held upright with recurved margins. Flowers yellow, solitary and 1-2mm in diameter. Fruit dark-green and glabrous with three lobes.


Distribution and Habitat

Restricted to two populations south-west of Bandalup Hill near Ravensthorpe. Area of occupancy of these populations is estimated at 17.2ha within mining tenement. Overall population estimated at 318,000 plants.

Grows in mallee-heath in smectite clay over komatiite geology on rocky slopes and hilltops.
Important Populations

All known populations are considered important as the species has a restricted range (endemic to Bandalup Hill).


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Killed by fire and regenerates from soil-stored seed. Stands are typically uneven-aged suggesting some inter-fire recruitment occurs.


Threats

Loss and degradation of habitat from mining activities and salinisation, Stochastic events, Climate change.





References

Cockerton, G. & Evelegh, N. (2005) Habitats, Vegetation and Flora of the Ravensthorpe Nickel Operation Tenements for BHP Biliton Ltd, Perth, Western Australia.

DEC (2009a) Priority Ecological Communities for Western Australia. Species and Communities Branch, Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Western Australia.

DEC (2009b) SAP 1. Beyeria sp. Bandalup Hill (G. Cockerton 7553) Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Western Australia. (Unpublished)



Boronia clavata (Rutaceae)

(Bremer Boronia)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

An upright, slender shrub, 0.5-1.5m (up to 2.1m) high. Leaves 10-20mm long on short stem and flowers yellow-green.


Distribution and Habitat

Endemic to the Bremer Bay area of the south coast of WA. Known from five populations all within 18km of each other in a continuous area of uncleared vegetation, with all but one population on UCL or within FRNP. Extent of occurrence is approximately 76km² and area of occupancy unknown but predicted to be <5km². Total of 97 mature plants known to exist.

Favours alluvial sand and loam on floodplains and is associated with shrubby thickets. It is largely confined to alluvial flats on Bremer River between spongolite cliffs, where populations remain healthy.
Important Populations

All known populations as the species has a small known population size.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • The alluvial flats of Bremer River as is potential habitat for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers August to October. Germination may be stimulated by flooding, when scarification (removal of hard coating) of the seed takes place. Susceptibility to salinity unknown. Floral structure suggests it is an insect-pollinated species. Presumed not to be susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi.


Threats

Habitat loss and fragmentation; Salinity or altered hydrology; Competition with environmental weeds; Climate change.





References

DEWHA (2010). Boronia clavata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 7/4/2010

Robinson, C.J. & Coates, D.J. (1995) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District, Wildlife Management Program No 20. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Boronia clavata. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au


/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/5538-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 7/4/2010

Caladenia bryceana (subspecies bryceana) (Orchidaceae)

(Dwarf Spider Orchid)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

One of the smallest spider orchids in WA, rarely exceeds 5cm in height. Leaves 4-6cm long; broadly lanceolate and semi-prostrate. Flowers are usually borne singly on erect stems, 1-1.5cm wide and generally green although occasionally apricot in colour. A glossy, dark, globular band of calli run down the centre of the labellum. Its colour and size make this species difficult to survey.


Distribution and Habitat

Known from 10+ populations spanning a range of 190km between Boyup Brook and Boxwood Hill. Eight populations occur within the Fitzgerald Biosphere totalling approximately 330 plants.

Habitat varies across its range but it appears to favour sandy clay to red loam over granite geology. General habitat preference is open woodland in association with species including Allocasuarina huegeliana, Eucalyptus occidentalis, E. wandoo and Acacia acuminata, as well as other low shrubs, grasses and sedges.
Important Populations

The species has a small known population size, therefore all known populations of the species are considered important to its survival.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of all species distribution records that provides a potential habitat buffer for the species; and

  • Areas of habitat that historically contained the species and may be suitable for translocation.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers August to September. Pollinated by male Thynnine wasps (Tiphiidae) through sexual attraction cues. Seeds dispersed by wind. Germination requires specific soil-borne fungi and the number of years from seedling to maturity varies with growing conditions. Killed by fire during growing season. Presumed not susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi.


Threats

Small population sizes and risks associated with low genetic diversity; Fragmentation, loss and degradation of habitat; Competition and modification of habitat by environmental weeds; Inappropriate fire regimes (during Spring growing period, high frequency); Grazing by native and invasive fauna; Stochastic events; Altered hydrology, Climate change.






References

Department of Environment and Conservation (2009). Dwarf Spider Orchid (Caladenia bryceana subsp. bryceana) Recovery. Commonwealth Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.

Holland, E., Brown, A. & Kershaw, K. (1999) Dwarf Spider Orchid (Caladenia bryceana subsp. bryceana ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Calochilus pruinosus (Orchidaceae)

(Hopetoun Beard Orchid)



Conservation Status


  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Not listed

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Critically Endangered

Photo: © John Tucker



Description

A orchid with small (14-19mm long) pinkish-green to pinkish brown coloured, pruinose (white powdery coating) flowers. Leaf absent, replaced by a basal sheathing bract.


Distribution

Currently only known from three populations near Hopetoun. Historically recorded from three further sites: south of Stirling Range, west of Hopetoun and south-east of Cocklebiddy near Eyre Bird Observatory.


Habitat critical to survival

  • The known area of occupancy of important populations.

  • Areas of similar habitat surrounding important populations that may provide natural range extension and corridors for pollinators of the species.

The species occurs in deep well drained sands in mallee shrubland and woodland.


Biology and Ecology

Species of Calochilus from south-west WA have flowers that mimick female wasps to attact males. All Calochilus self-pollinate if insect pollination does not occur.


Important populations

All known populations are considered important populations for survival of the species.


Threats

Habitat degradation (road or firebreak maintenance, trampling); weeds; habitat loss (clearing for housing developments); inappropriate fire regimes (during Spring growing period); small population size; poor recruitment.









References

DEC (in prep.) Hopetoun Beard Orchid (Calochilus pruinosus) Interim Recovery Plan 2010-2015, Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth.


Conostylis lepidospermoides (Haemodoraceae)

(Sedge Conostylis)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Mike Fitzgerald (DEC)



Description

Tufted, sedge-like, rhizomatous perennial up to 35cm high and 40cm wide. Leaves 20-35cm long, flat and narrow, yellow-green and edged with two rows of short, dark bristles. Up to six lemon yellow flowers held in loose inflorescence on a 1-4cm long stalk. Floral whorl is up to 20mm long and the flowers are among the largest of this genus.


Distribution and Habitat

Recorded from 17 populations from Ravensthorpe north to 90 Mile Tank in southern WA. The single population known from the Fitzgerald Biosphere has not been seen in recent years. The extent of occurrence is approximately 4,400km².

The population in the Biosphere occurs in verges adjacent to cleared farmland on flat or gently undulating plains in yellow or grey sand over laterite clay.

Grows in low heath or sedge communities with scattered emergent shrubs on yellow or grey sand over laterite clay.



Important Populations

There are no populations considered important in the Fitzgerald Biosphere.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known population; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers September to October. Pollinated by both birds and insects.


Threats

Threats unknown in Biosphere as species not seen in recent years but likely to be: Loss and degradation of habitat (road maintenance, clearing for agriculture or gravel extraction); Competition from environmental weeds; Grazing by invasive fauna (especially Rabbits); Altered hydrology (e.g. waterlogging).





References

DEWHA (2010). Conostylis lepidospermoides in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 7/4/2010

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis lepidospermoides (Sedge Conostylis). Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://

www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/9254-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 7/4/2010



Coopernookia georgei (Goodeniaceae)

(Mauve Coopernookia)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A slender, erect shrub up to 1.5m high. Leaves 2-5cm long and shallowly denticulate. Flowers solitary, up to 2cm long, varying from mauve to pink or blue in colouration and held in leaf axils at the ends of branches. The two outer petals more deeply split than middle three.


Distribution and Habitat

Endemic to FRNP with four known populations comprising <500 mature individuals. Extent of occurrence is approximately 65km² and area of occupancy predicted to be <0.2ha. Populations appear to be stable and fire may stimulate recruitment.

Occurs in thick scrub in shallow siliceous soils over quartzite geology in stony gullies.
Important Populations

As the species has a restricted range (endemic to FRNP), all known populations are considered important populations.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers September to October. Germinates after fire from soil-stored seed-bank. Susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi unknown.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regime (high frequency and/or intensity fires); Phytophthora dieback; Stochastic events, Climate change.





References

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Coopernookia georgei (Mauve Coopernookia). Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au


/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/21218-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 7/4/2010

Daviesia megacalyx (Fabaceae)

(Long-sepalled Daviesia)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Stephen Kern (DEC)



Description

An erect, bushy shrub to 1.5m high. Branches angular and leaves are dull green, 4-8cm long, flat, broad and erect. Flowers have yellow standard petals with yellow centre, surrounded by red keel and are 1cm long arranged in clusters in leaf axils. Fruits are triangular; 1.5cm long with large calyx that becomes black and remains long after pods are shed.


Distribution and Habitat

Restricted to Ravensthorpe Range, occurs over a range approximately 25km with estimated area of occupancy of 85ha. Total population is estimated at <109,477 mature plants in nine populations.

Confined to heavy red gravely-clay over laterite geology on slopes and ridges, in mallee-heath.



Yüklə 1,44 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
1   2   3   4   5   6




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə