Fitzgerald biosphere recovery plan



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Important Populations

All known populations considered important due to restricted range (endemic to Ravensthorpe Range).




Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers July to September and has a juvenile period of ±4 yrs. Presumed to be hermaphroditic and bee-pollinated consistent with other Daviesia spp. which also set seed around three months after flowering. Seed is high in starch and oil content and attractive to animals. Killed by fire and regenerates from soil-stored seed after disturbance events. Such regeneration can be prolific. Susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi is unknown but related Daviesia spp. are known to be susceptible.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes (insufficient intervals between disturbance events for seed bank regeneration); Habitat loss and degradation from mining activities; Phytophthora dieback; Small population size; Stochastic events (e.g. drought); Climate change.





References

Hartley, R. & Barrett, S. (2005) Long-sepalled Daviesia (Daviesia megacalyx) Recovery Plan. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Albany, Western Australia.



Daviesia obovata (Fabaceae)

(Paddle-leaved Daviesia)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A distinctive, erect, slender shrub up to 1.5m high. Leaves erect and paddle-shaped. Flowers yellow and black. Fruits woody.


Distribution and Habitat

Endemic to South Coast region of WA and known from 11 small populations in Stirling Range NP and FRNP. Two of these populations occur in the Fitzgerald Biosphere on Thumb Peak, and Mid Mt Barren in FRNP, together comprising c.500 mature plants. Extent of its occurrence is approximately 500km² and the area of occupancy is estimated at 0.3km².

Favours stony or sandy loam but also grows on hill-slopes and outcrops.
Important Populations

Due to limited information on populations, all populations are considered important.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers September to October. Presumed to be hermaphroditic and bee-pollinated as for other Daviesia spp. which also set seed around three months after flowering. Seed is high in starch and oil content and attractive to animals. May resprout after fire but also recruits from seed. Known to be susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi.


Threats

Phytophthora dieback; Inappropriate fire regime (insufficient intervals between fires to allow seed bank regeneration); Small population size and risks associated with low genetic diversity; Stochastic events; Climate change.






References

DEWHA (2010). Daviesia obovata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 8/4/2010

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Daviesia obovata. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au
/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/17311-listing-advice.pdf - Accessed 8/4/2010

Eremophila denticulata (subspecies denticulata) (Scrophulariaceae)

(Fitzgerald Eremophila)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Damien Rathbone (DEC)



Description

An erect shrub to 2.5m high. Leaves (50mm long) and stem resinous. Buds are orange-yellow and mature flowers are carmine-red, tubular and arranged on S-shaped stalks. Sepals 3.5-9mm long and lower corolla lip reflexed. Fruits ovoid (10-11 x 8-9mm) with 1-2 seeds. Leaf margins denticulate and the fruit prominently ‘beaked’, distinguishing it from E. denticulata subsp. trisulcata.


Distribution and Habitat

The nominate form is known from four populations to the south and east of Ravensthorpe, three of which occur in the Fitzgerald Biosphere. Approximate extent of occurrence is 70km² comprising of c.5,000 mature plants, although this is likely to fluctuate with fire (S. Barrett, pers. comm.).

Recorded growing on both alluvial soils along riverbanks and sandy clay loam plains over granite geology. It occurs in tall open woodland over shrubland.
Important Populations

All known populations are considered important as the species has a relatively restricted range.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers October to January. Plants begin to senesce after 10 years. Regenerates in large numbers from soil-stored seed-bank after fire. Presumed not susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi.


Threats

Grazing and trampling by native and invasive fauna; Competition from environmental weeds; Inappropriate fire regime (insufficient intervals between fires to allow seed bank regeneration); Degradation of habitat from road maintenance, Climate change.







References

Craig, G.F. & Coates, D.J. (2001) Declared and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District, Wildlife Management Program No 21. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Robinson, C.J. & Coates, D.J. (1995) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District, Wildlife Management Program No 20. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eremophila denticulata subsp. denticulata. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au


/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64569-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 8/4/2010

Eremophila subteretifolia (Scrophulariaceae)

(Lake King Eremophila)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Critically Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A prostrate, mat-like plant up to 10cm high and 1.5m in diameter. Leaves glossy green, flowers erect and orange in colouration.


Distribution and Habitat

Known from eight populations in Lake King-Ravensthorpe area, one of which occurs in the Fitzgerald Biosphere. Extent of occurrence approximately 530km² comprising <50 mature individuals. Area of occupancy estimated at 2ha.

Occurs in slightly saline, light, sandy loam over clay and favours open woodland over open scrub and low sedge on margins of samphire flats and salt lakes. It occurs under a range of Eucalyptus spp.
Important Populations

As the species has a small population size, all known populations are considered important.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers July to March, (possibly throughout year). Probably a disturbance opportunist. Presumed to be killed by fire and regenerates from soil-stored seed-bank.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes for recruitment and regeneration; Salinisation and altered hydrology; Loss and degradation of habitat (trampling from recreational activities, road maintenance); Climate change.





References

Graham, M & Mitchell, M. (2000) Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & Brown, A. (2002) Lake King Eremophila (Eremophila subteretifolia ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2002-2005. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eremophila sp. subteretifolia (K.R.Newbey 10924) WA Herbarium. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82039-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 8/4/2010



Eucalyptus burdettiana (Myrtaceae)

(Burdett Gum)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A multi-stemmed mallee or shrub to 4m high. Bark dark-grey over dark orange. Mature leaves (6-9 x 1-1.7cm) glossy green to blue-green, have a dense vein network and numerous small oil glands. Buds (4-5 x 0.7-1cm) have erect stamens. Flowers usually arranged in sessile clusters of 7-11 (on flattened peduncle with unfused hypanthia and long horn-shaped opercula) and are cream to yellow in colouration. Valves of fruit often united at tip and seeds black, irregular or ovoid in shape or sometimes flat or flanged.


Distribution and Habitat

Known from a single population in FRNP comprising of 4,000 individuals.

Occurs in shallow sandy soils over quartzite geology and grows in association with other mallee species (Eucalyptus spp.). Occurs on slopes and ridges of mountains, with one sub-population occurring on a roadside verge.
Important Populations

The single known FRNP population in considered important


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers intermittently throughout the year, often January to March and July to August. Resprouts from lignotubers after fire or disturbance. Seedlings not observed to date. Susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi unknown.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes; Climate Change.






References

Robinson, C.J. & Coates, D.J. (1995) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District, Wildlife Management Program No 20. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus burdettiana. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, http://www.environment.gov.au/ biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/13505-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 8/4/2010.

Eucalyptus coronata (Myrtaceae)

(Crowned Mallee)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A multi-stemmed mallee or shrub to 2.5m high. Leaves blue-green and 12 x 3cm. Buds 5cm long and 3cm in diameter, strongly ribbed and in threes on a broad flattened stalk 1.5cm long. Fruits are large (5cm long) with a broad disc crown-like protruding valves.


Distribution and Habitat

Known from three populations in the FRNP with an estimated 2,000 individuals occurring over 47km², although total numbers have fluctuated with occurrence of bushfire.

Favours shallow soils over quartzite geology on slopes and summits of peaks in the east of FRNP.

Important Populations

As the species is restricted to the FRNP, the three known populations are considered important.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers July to August. Resprouts from lignotubers following fire. Seedlings not observed to date. Susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi unknown.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes; Climate change.






References

Robinson, C.J. & Coates, D.J. (1995) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District, Wildlife Management Program No 20. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus coronata. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au
/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/2308-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 8/4/2010

Eucalyptus nutans (Myrtaceae)

(Bremer or Red-flowered Moort)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Not Listed

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

An erect mallet to 10m high. Leaves (52-73 x 34-48mm) ovate or orbicular and glossy dark green. Buds (9-15 x 4-5mm) obtusely conical and slightly warty with a broad, strap-like down-curved peduncle. Flowers red (rarely cream). Fruit sessile and four-winged with descending valves in a wheel-like arrangement. Seed black and compressed, obovoid to ovoid.

Has only recently been described as a separate species from Eucalyptus cernua. It is known to hybridise with Eucalyptus occidentalis.
Distribution and Habitat

Restricted to a single wild population near Bremer Bay in South Coast region of WA, with c.20,000 plants over several hectares. Has been cultivated elsewhere in WA (e.g. Perth and Albany).

Occurs naturally on gravelly-clay over spongolitic marine sediments near the coast at Bremer Bay.
Important Populations

The single wild population near Bremer Bay is considered important for the survival of this species.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers November to April. Non-lignotuberous and is killed by fire, regenerating from canopy-stored seed (serotinous). Juvenile period unknown.

Known to hybridise with Eucalyptus occidentalis.
Threats

Inappropriate fire regime (e.g. insufficient intervals between fires to allow seed bank regeneration), Climate change.






References

McQuoid, N.K. & Hopper, S.D. (2007) The rediscovery of Eucalyptus nutans F. Muell. from the south coast of Western Australia, Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 90: 41-45.



Eucalyptus purpurata (Myrtaceae)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Not Listed

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Anne Cochrane (DEC)



Description

An erect mallet to 10m high. Bark dull grey over cream, smooth, decorticating into long strips. Flowers cream. Recently recognised as distinct species from Eucalyptus argyphea and differs by red-purple new growth and smaller buds and fruits.


Distribution and Habitat

Restricted to single population in four areas around Bandalup Hill near Ravensthorpe with an extent of occurrence of 16.5ha. Age classes of this population vary from c.19 to c.124 yrs.

Grows on white powdery loam over magnesite geology on eastern/north-eastern slopes and ridges.

Important Populations

The single known populations restricted to the Bandalup Hill area is considered important to the survival of the species.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers November. Fire sensitive species that regenerates from canopy-stored seed (serotinous).


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes; Degradation and loss of habitat from mining activities, Altered hydrology, Climate change.





References

CALM (2004) Proposed Change to the Database of Threatened Ecological Communities (TECs) – Eucalyptus purpurata woodlands on magnesite soils of the ridge-tops and upper slopes of the Ravensthorpe Range. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia. (Unpublished)

Nicolle, D. (2002) Two new species of silver mallet (Eucalyptus – Myrtaceae) of very restricted distribution in south-western Western Australia. Nuytsia 15(1): 77-83.

Western Australian Herbarium (1998) Florabase - The Western Australia Flora, Eucalyptus purpurata D.Nicolle - http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/20050 - Accessed 8/4/2010



Grevillea infundibularis (Proteaceae)

(Fan- or Funnel-leaved Grevillea)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A sprawling or decumbent shrub to 1m high. Leaves are 3cm wide and hemispherical to fan-shaped, almost lacking stalks with the leaf-base clasping the stem with new leaves conical in shape. Leaves denticulate with eight large, short-pointed teeth on each leaf and are prominently veined. Flowers bright red and irregular, forming small terminal raceme. Two forms of the species may be distinguished which differ in habitat preferences as the dune form has cuneate (not stem-clasping) leaves and a prostrate shape.


Distribution and Habitat

Endemic to central coastal region of the FRNP around Mid Mt Barren and Thumb Peak in two populations comprising c.5,500 mature plants.

Prefers shallow sandy or loamy soils amongst quartzite boulders, in open shrub-mallee.
Important Populations

The species is restricted to the FRNP, so all populations are considered important.




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