Forestry practices that maintain genetic diversity over the longer term will be required as an integral component of sustainable forest management

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  1. Young AG, Boshier DH, and Boyle TJ, 2000. Forest conservation genetics: principles and practices. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia. 352 pp.

  1. Zhang L-B, Simmons MP, and Renner SS, 2007. A phylogeny of Anisophylleaceae based on six nuclear and plastid loci: Ancient disjunctions and recent dispersal between South America, Africa, and Asia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 1057–1067.

1 Polyploids in conifers include Sequioa sempervirens (hexaploid) and Fiztroya cupressoides (tetraploid) – see for a review of polyploidy in gymnosperms see Ahuja (2005)

2 Populus trichocarpa has been determined to have 41,335 loci containing protein-coding transcripts (; accessed 9 March 2013).

3 The species may die out in the wild due to the recent introduction of the virulent root rot pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, but is well conserved globally ex situ by a successful campaign to promote its use as an ornamental.

4 Byrne 2008; Butcher et al. 1999; Gandara 1996; Hamrick and Murawski 1990; Kitamura et al. 1994; Lepsch-Cunha et al. 2001ab; Mandal et al. 1994, Moran et al. 1989. Muluvi et al. 2004; Murawski and Hamrick, 1991; Murawski and Bawa 1994; Murawski et al. 1994ab-Murawski, 1995-Nason and Hamrick, 1997-O’Malley and _awa 1987-Olng’otie 1991-Sebbenn 2000-Stacey et al. 1996; Ward et al.2005.

5 Forest cover is a crude measure of FGR conservation as, at either extreme, forests may range from well-connected, highly biodiverse, well-managed tree-species rich communities, with limited immediate threats to their integrity, and which conserve substantial amounts of FGR through to clonal monocultures which have no meaningful FGR conservation role.

6 The UN’s 2012 Millennium Development Goal report estimates that, despite progress in eradication of extreme poverty, almost 1 Billion people will be living on an income below USD 1.25 per day in 2015, while FAO estimated that 850 Million people (or 15/5% of the world’s population) was living in hunger in the period 2006-8.

7 The current global population of around 7 billion is projected to reach 9.3 billion by 2050, according to the medium variant of the 2010 Revision of World Population Prospects.

8 According to the World Bank’s 2002 strategy on Sustaining Forests, there are about 60 million people (mainly

indigenous and tribal groups) are almost wholly dependent on forests, and some 350 million people who live within or adjacent to dense forests depend on them to a high degree for subsistence and income.

9 The United Nations Population Fund has described how the movement of people from rural to urban areas has contributed to the explosive growth of cities around the globe, whereby in 2008, for the first time in history, more than half of the world’s population was living in towns and cities.

10 Trees outside of forests in non-agricultural land use systems, such as urban landscapes, also may comprise important FGR but are considered to be outside of the scope of this first SWR-FGR.

11 In the case of Cook Islands forested landscapes such as dominate the main island of Rarotonga, are vital for water catchment and tourism. The type of tree cover is less important as use of local timbers for wood carving has almost disappeared, but important NWFPs such as maile (Alyxia stellata) for leis and herbal medicines may still be gathered, and endemic forest species may require particular tree species for their survival.

12 By well characterized it is meant the growth and adaptability attributes, including genotype by environment interactions, and the type and quality of end products and/ or services that they will be able to provide.

13 This includes large woody shrubs attaining more than 2-3 m in height, given that the unclear boundary between trees and woody shrubs, and that individual species may exist as either trees or shrubs depending on environmental factors

14 The IUCN Red list included is widely regarded as the most comprehensive, objective global approach for evaluating the conservation status of plant and animal species

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