Guide to plants of northern and east-central Mali

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Monsonia senegalensis 50372

records: Ansongo, Timbuktu (Boudet); Hombori (JH)

habitat: sand on slopes near rocks

notes: perennial herb, base more or less woody, stems erect or sprawling; leaf oval (roughly triangular) 1.5-4 cm x 0.8-3 cm, edges dentate; petiole 1-1.5 cm; several leaves and short stems emerging from each axix; petiole and stem reddish; isolated pink flowers on peduncle then pedicel each 1-2 cm, the peduncle and pedicel separated by 2 small bracts; fruit is a long thin "beak" 6-9 cm


(recognized as a separate family in APG II; previously in Aizoaceae or Molluginaceae, in Berhaut under Molluginaceae)

Gisekia pharnaceoides 50373

records: Adrar, Timbuktu, Ansongo, Djenne (Boudet); Timbuktu, Dianwely, Bounou (JH)

notes: fleshy annual herb, erect or sprawling; can be pinkish due to fungal attack (Exobasidium gisekiae); 2 opposite leaves (s.t. with one or two shorter leaves at same joint), form of leaf variable, often linear-lanceolate 3-4 cm x 0.3-0.5 cm, top glabrous, bottom with whitish scales; small greenish flowers with reddish sepals on edges, no petals, in glomerules on short peduncles; fruit with 5 carpels

ethnobotany: UPWTA 1.34-5 (purgative)



Gyrocarpus americanus subsp. pinnatilobus 50374

records: Timbuktu, Kita, Dira-Bandiagara (Boudet); Kikara, Adia (JH)

habitat: rocky hills

notes: tree 8-15 m, alternate palmatilobate leaves; bottom of leave densely pubescent, whitish; small greenish fruits in corymbiform terminal panicle; fruits have two long wings


(for Loeseneriella, see Celastraceae)


“wild onions,” see also Amaryllidaceae

(monocots; in APG II, optionally subsumed under Asparagaceae; see also Liliaceae)


Dipcadi viride (see Ornithogalum viride)
Drimia (plants toxic)

Drimia altissima 50375 (syn Urginea altissima [thus Berhaut])

records: Bamako (Boudet); perhaps none (JH, my previous reports need checking)

habitat: savanna

notes: bulb 8-12 cm thick; leaves in sheath (pseudo-stem); 1-2 short early leaves, then 2-4 full-sized leaves 25-35 cm x 2-4 cm with petiole 3-5 cm (often with red spots), leaves broadly linear, acute at tip; floral pedicel 1-2 cm long, inflorescence dense with more than 30 flowers, reaching 2m height

flowering: Feb-March

Drimia indica (syn Urginea indica [thus Berhaut])

records: San, Yanfolila (Boudet)

habitat: rocky savanna

notes: bulb 6-8 cm thick, leaves form rosette on ground, leaf narrowly linear 20-30 cm x 0.5-1 cm; floral pedicel 3-5 cm long; inflorescence lax, fewer than 30 flowers, 40-80 cm tall

flowering: March-June

Ornithogalum viride 50376 (syn Dipcadi viride, Dipcadi tacazzeanum [thus Berhaut])

records: Gao, Sanga, Timbuktu (Boudet); Adia (JH)

habitat: sandy

notes: bulb 1.5-2.5 cm diameter; rosette of 2-4 sessile leaves, linear, attenuated and acute tip, 20-30 cm x 0.5-1 cm; lax raceme with 6-12 flowers, inserted at axils of lanceolate bracts, sessile subglobular capsule 0.6-1 cm diameter

flowering: August

Urginea (see Drimia)

Hydrocharitaceae (= Limnocharitaceae)

[includes Najadaceae] [monocots]

Butomopsis latifolia

records: Gosi, Niafunke, Sotuba, Niono (Boudet)

habitat: swamps

notes: erect leaves emerge from base of plant on long petioles; triquetrous flower stems; umbel-like inflorescence with 3-11 flowers, umbel subtended by 2 bracts 1-2 cm long; flowers at tips of pedicels of unequal length, petals white; black follicles

drawing: Berhaut 9:442

Lagarosiphon [not in Berhaut]

Lagarosiphon muscoides

records: Banani pond near Sanga (Boudet)
Najas (submerged aquatics)

Najas spp. (graminea and/or welwitschii) 50377

records: Beni, Walo (JH)

Najas baldwinii (syn N. liberiensis)

records: Kita

notes: dark green becoming reddish; stems supple, 10-15 cm; leaf supple, linear 10-15 cm x 0.2-0.4 mm (including dentations); about 20 saw-like dentations on each side of leaf margin with point facing up; no floral spathes

Najas graminea

records: Sanga (Boudet)

habitat: ricefields (can form a “turf” on water surface), stagnant waters often with clayey bottom

notes: green becoming reddish; stems supple 10-60 cm; leaves linear, supple 1.6-2.5 cm x 0.5 mm, 30-55 dentations (single-cell) on each side seen with microscope; no floral spathes

Najas hagerupii [get description]

records: Gao (Boudet)

Najas liberiensis (see N. baldwinii)

Najas pectinata

records: Macina, Bourem (Boudet)

habitat: lakes, ponds

notes: floating, brown; stem rigid 30-100 cm; leaf linear 8-10 cm x 0.5-1 mm, curved, with 4-8 triangular dentations longer than width of leaf (without dentation); no floral spathes

Najas welwitschii

records: Bourem (Boudet)

habitat: stagnant water, inundated ricefields

notes: stems soft, 10-30 cm; linear leaf, soft, 1.5-2.5 cm x 0.5-1 mm (excluding dentation), about 12 thorny dentations on each side of leaf; male and female flowers covered with spathes

Ottelia ulvifolia

records: Bourem-Bamba, Ansongo, Sotuba, Gao (Boudet); in Niger R. (Gao area) (JH)

habitat: submerged aquatic in muddy swamps

notes: submerged aquatic with flowers emerging above surface; broad leaf with undulating margin 10-40 cm x 2-5 cm; single female flower, petals yellow; male flowers break off and float on water

drawing: Berhaut 9:394

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