Guide to plants of northern and east-central Mali

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(monocots; also includes Hyacinthaceae and/or Agavaceae in some classifications)
Asparagus [in Boudet under Alliaceae]

Asparagus flagellaris 50091

records: San, Niono, Bamako (Boudet); Kikara, Anda, Kiri (near Koro) (JH)

habitat: moist zones

notes: scrambling vine with brittle needle-like leaves


(monocots; family recognized by APG II, but optionally subsumed under Xanthorrhoeaceae; previously included under Aloaceae or broad Liliaceae)

Aloe buettneri 50091

records: southern Mali (Boudet); Walo, Kubewel, Kundialang (JH)

notes: succulent stems (cf. Caralluma), stems partially folded, margins dentate

ethnobotany: medicinal, dried stems known in some areas where the plant itself does not grown

taxonomy: other aloes not native to the zone are grown in gardens

Aloe vera 50715

notes: like A. buettneri, broader and thicker leaves, planted

ethnobotany: sap used to treat wounds

Asteraceae (=Compositae)

in Berhaut vol 2 as Composées

flowers of two types cluster together in a capitulum (like daisy): 1) infertile ligulate (ray) flowers on the outside, and 2) fertile disk flowers in a corolla tube on the inside

leaves composite: Ambrosia, Bidens

leaves alternate with these exceptions

leaves opposite, with ring around stem (most of tribe Heliantheae)

leaves emerge all around stem: Vernonia perrottetii

base of leaves: (* = in part)

sessile or attenuated at base: Acanthospermum, Aspilia, *Bidens, Dicoma, Eclipta, Gnaphalium, Helichrysum, Herderia, Picris, Vernonia

clearly petiolate: Ageratum, *Bidens, Blainvillea, *Blumea, Synedrella, Tridax

auriculate or leaf-wings extending to stem: *Blumea, Centaurea, Ceruana, Conyza, Grangea, Launaea, Pentanema, Pseudoconyza, Pulicaria, Senecio, Sonchus

extend as “wings” down stem: Sphaeranthus spp.
flower colors: (* = in part)

red/pink: Dicoma, Launaea, Pseudoconyza, *Vernonia

mauve: *Centaurea, Litogyne

purple/violet: Aspilia (dark red purple), Herderia (dark violet), Sphaeranthus, *Vernonia

blue: Ageratum, *Vernonia

greenish: Helichrysum

yellow: Acanthospermum, Asteriscus, Bidens, Ceruana, Conyza, Cotula, Grangea, Pentanema, Picris, Pulicaria, Senecio, Sonchus, Synedrella, Tridax

yellow & white: *Bidens, Gnaphalium, Tridax (cream instead of white)

green & white: Eclipta

white: Blainvillea, *Centaurea, Aspilia (variant)

dark red-purple: Aspilia
subfamily Cichorioideae


Cardueae: Centaurea, Echinops (alternatively Cynareae)

Lactuceae: Lactuca, Launaea, Picris, Sonchus

Mutisieae: Dicoma

Vernonieae: Herderia, Vernonia

(also: Arctotideae, Eremothamneae, Liabeae, Tarchonantheae)
subfamily Asteroideae


Anthemideae: Cotula

Astereae: Ceruana, Conyza, Grangea

Eupatoriae: Ageratum

Gnaphaliae: Epaltes, Gnaphalium, Helichrysum

Heliantheae: a) leaves opposite (usually with ring around stem at base of leaves): Acanthospermum, Aspilia, Bidens, Blainvillea, Eclipta, Synedrella, Tridax

b) leaves alternate: Ambrosia, Chrysanthellum

Inuleae: Asteriscus, Blumea, Francoeuria, Pegolettia, Pentanema, Pulicaria

Plucheae: Sphaeranthus

Senecioneae: Kleinia, Senecio

(also: Calenduleae, Heleniae, Tageteae)


Acanthspermum hispidum 50093 (introduced)

records: Bamako, Koulikoro, Segou (Boudet); Douentza, Boni, Segue, Bendiely, Songho, and widely in Dogon country (JH)

habitat: sandy or clayey-sandy (Boudet); common weed around fields (JH)

notes: erect herb forming dense low stands around fields; leaves opposite; leaf sessile, obovate, attenuated at the base which connects to a ring around stem, where the sessile flower/fruit is placed and where the stem forms a binary branch; stem hairy; thorny extensions on flowers and fruits (thorny fruits persist on ground for years); male flowers yellow

Ageratum conyzoides subsp. conyzoides (introduced) (“billygoat weed”)

records: Bamako, Dire, Segou (Boudet); none (JH)

habitat: wet areas, semi-swampland, anthropic (weed)

notes: annual to 20-40 cm; leaf oval 5-8 cm x 4-6 cm, petiole 2-5 cm; leaves and stems pubescent; pale blue flowers in capitula 3-5 mm wide in erect terminal panicles

reference: Adventrop


Ambrosia maritima

records: San, Djenne, Kabara, Djenne, Bandiagara to Mopti, Gao (Boudet); Kabara on river near Timbuktu, Gao, Labbezanga (JH)

habitat: humid zones

notes: perennial bushy herb to 1 m; alternate composite leaves with many deep lobes on leaflets (cf. Bidens biternata); yellow-green flowers in small capitula grouped in spiciform panicles at tip of stem

Artemisia judaica subsp. sahariensis 50093

ethnobotany: sold as a spice or medicinal powder in Timbuktu

Aspilia kotschyi (var. kotschyi and var. alba)


var. kotschyi: San, Segou, Nioro (Boudet); Segue (JH)

var. alba: Nioro (Boudet)

habitat: moist areas during rainy season

notes: annual to 70 cm; sessile leaves opposite (by 2), with a ring around the stem at base; leaf lanceolate, attenuated at each end, 12-20 cm x 1-3 cm; 5-7 lateral nerves; two offshoot stems separate from main stem at each ring; white hairs with violet bases cover rough stems (giving appearance of violet dots); terminal sessile flowers (dark red-purple, except white in var. alba)

Asteriscus graveolens (syn Bubonium graveolens) (not in Berhaut) (resembles Pulicaria incisa)

records: El Guettara (Boudet), i.e. Sahara (also across North Africa)

notes: daisy like open flowers; inner and ligulate flowers all yellow


Bidens bipinnata (not in Berhaut)

records: Sokolo (Boudet)

habitat: humid areas, near settlements

notes: composite leaf with about 7 sections, each section deeply lobed (cf. Ambrosia); flowers yellow (in Missouri images)

Bidens biternata 50095

records: none (Boudet); Segue, Bendiely, Tupere, Kikara, Konna (JH)

habitat: in dense low vegetation (JH)

notes: annual herb to 1 m; composite leaf, opposite (by 2), resembles that of B. bipinnata but each leaflet has dentations rather than deep lobes; petiole 4-10 cm with large gutter above; yellow flowers in terminal capitula to 1.2 cm wide

Bidens borianiana (in Berhaut as Coreopsis borianiana)

records: Koulikoro, San, Bandiagara to Mopti, Nioro (Boudet)

habitat: moist savanna

notes: annual herb to 1 m or higher; distinctive leaves: sessile, opposite, trifoliate (less often simple), each leaflet elliptical-lanceolate 5-10 cm x 0.5-1.5 cm with acute tip, border of leaflets with many sharp dentations 5-10 mm apart; yellow daisy-like flowers 5-7 cm wide

Bidens engleri 50095

records: none (Boudet); one false report (Kikara) now reassigned to B. biternata (JH)

habitat: forest galleries

notes: leaves opposite; each leaf trifoliate (occasionally simple), with large dentations, terminal leaflet also may have lobes; petiole 2-4 cm; small yellow flowers in capitula 6-7 mm x 4-5 mm

Bidens pilosa (not in Berhaut)

records: Kita (Boudet)

reference: Adventrop

notes: daisy-like flower (white ligulate flowers around yellow inner flowers)

Blainvillea gayana 50098

records: Labbezanga, Bore, Gosi, Ouan Foras (Boudet): Kikara, Nando, Segue (JH)

habitat: humid areas

notes: herb to 60 cm; opposite leaves oval 7-12 cm x 5-8 cm, widest about 1/3 of way up, ending in acuminate point; petiole 2-6 cm; fine network of secondary nerves; quadrangular stem with rounded edges and with furrows; white tubular flowers in oblong capitula 1 cm long, arranged in panicles with multiple three-part branchings

Blumea aurita (see Pseudoconyza viscosa)

Blumea axillaris 50099 (in Berhaut as B. mollis, also syn B. solidaginoides)

records: Bamako, Tabako (Boudet for B. solidaginoides); Beni, Sevare (weed around houses) (JH)

habitat: savanna

notes: annual or biennial to 30-80 cm; base of plant with rosette of leaves; leaf obovate-elliptical or elliptical 8-15 cm x 2-5 cm, usually not lobed but with dentations; leaf pubescent on both sides (becoming glabrous on top later); variably sessile or with petiole 1-1.5 cm; stem fluted with fine pubescence; compact terminal inflorescences in short racemes around 2-5 cm, flowers mauve, not opening up

taxonomy: Boudet gives B. mollis as syn of B. solidaginoides; African Flowering Plant Database gives B. mollis as syn of B. dregeanoides, and B. solidaginoides as syn of B. axillaris; Westeran Australian Florabase gives B. axillaris as current, with synonyms B. mollis and B. solidaginoides; Berhaut has only B. mollis]

Blumea dregeanoides (see taxonomic note on B. axillaris)

Blumea laciniata

records: Bamako to Segou (Boudet)

notes: annual or biennial to 30-100 cm; leaf elliptical or obovate-elliptical 8-15 x 3-6 cm, barely pubescent (except on nerves); petiole 1-1.5 cm; yellow flowers, open capitula 8-10 mm wide with linear bracts

Blumea mollis (see B. axillaris)

Blumea solidaginoides (see B. axillaris)

Blumea viscosa (see Pseudoconyza viscosa)
Bubonium (see Asteriscus graveolens)

Centaurea perrottetii 50100

records: Bamako, Kita, Macina (Boudet); Hombori, Douentza, Bounou, Bore (edge of large pond), common in fields in the sandy plains from Mondoro to Bankass (JH)

habitat: sand

notes: perennial herb, ramified from base up, to 15-50 cm; polymorphic depending on habitat; long dentate or lobed leaves 10-15 cm x 3-5 cm, tomentose, whitish; leaf very thin at base but no true petiole; flowers in capitulum 1-2 cm wide constituted by numerous thorny bracts 2-3 cm long, each with two tiny thorns on each side of its base; flowers mauve, on short peduncles

Centaurea pungens (not in Berhaut)

records: none (Boudet); Saharan species

notes: thorny bracts as for C. perrottetii

Centaurea senegalensis

records: Timbuktu, Kabara, In Ouri (Boudet)

habitat: dunes

notes: each thorny bract has three to seven tiny thorns at their bases; flowers pale mauve, or white

ethnobotany: Berhaut comments that C. perrottetii is “généralement confondue” by natives with C. senegalensis

Ceruana pratensis 50101

records: Djenne, Macina, Bamako [Boudet]

habitat: river banks, drying out clayey swamp lands

notes: annual herb to 30-60 cm; unique sessile leaves 4-10 cm x 2-6 cm, base auriculate, thin toward base then expanding, with some lobes in middle and upper parts (no dentations or sharp edges); tubular yellow flowers half hidden by leaf-like bracts

Conyza aegyptiaca var. aegyptiaca 50100

records: Boukarila (Boudet)

habitat: ruderal

notes: annual or biennial to 15-80 cm, sometimes not branching; leaf sessile, dentate or with moderately deep lobes, leaf attenuated at base (but no true petiole); cylindrical stem; whole plant very pubescent; yellow flowers in partially opening capitula to 1 cm wide, many linear filiform bracts

taxonomy: Boudet suggests possible inclusion in genus Erigeron (since the sp. is omitted in Wild, les Conyza d’Afrique (1969))

Conyza boranensis 50103 (syn C. pedunculata)
Coreopsis borianina (see Bidens borianina)

Cotula cinerea (syn Brochia cinerea) (not in Berhaut)

records: Agueraktem (Boudet), i.e. Sahara

habitat: sandy

notes: in clumps; globular yellow flowers; greyish blue-green stems and leaves

Dicoma tomentosa 50104

records: Segou, Kita, Ansongo, Sokolo (Boudet); Gao area, Hombori, Walo, Tupere, generally not known in central/southern Dogon country (JH)

habitat: wet sand

notes: small annual herb to 25-60 cm; small sessile oblong lanceolate or linear leaves 3-6 cm x 0.3-0.8 cm, attenuated at base; leaves and stems covered with woolly white hairs; flowers reddish, in capitula 12-15 mm x 10 mm surrounded by thorny bracts; capitulum sessile or on short peduncle to 10 mm, with one leaf at base; flowers up and down stem roughly each two leaves

ethnobotany: soft plant tissue can be used as tinder with flint lighter (like several other plants)


Echinops pappii 50105 (syn E. spinosissimus [misapplied], E. spinosus) (not in Berhaut)

records: Nampala, oued Tedoft, Goundam, Lake Fati (Boudet); between Anda village and Douentza (JH

habitat: stable dunes

notes: large spreading bush to 1 m; prickly thistle-type leaves; large globular flower

Eclipta prostrata 50106

records: Dire, Timbuktu, Bamako, Douentza, Sanga (Boudet); Beni, common at Bounou (JH)

habitat: humid areas, near settlements

notes: annual herb, usually erect; subsessile leaves opposite (by 2) 5-10 cm x 1-2.5 cm, weakly dentate, subsessile; ring around stem at base of leaves; pubescence on both sides of leaves; flowers in hemispheric capitula 6-8 mm wide; outer flowers white 1 mm long; peduncles 2-6 cm
Epaltes (see Litogyne gariepina)
Francoeuria (see Pulicaria undulata subsp. undulata)

Gnaphalium indicum (see Helichrysum indicum)

Gnaphalium luteo-album

records: Dogo, Gao, Dire to Bandiagara (Boudet)

habitat: wet sandy depressions

notes: annual herb to 10-60 cm; sessile obovate spatulate leaves 2-8 cm x 5-9 mm (width about constant from base to near tip, sometimes edges nearly parallel until very tip of leaf, or gradually expanding from base to tip); leaf covered with white tomentous pubescence; compact terminal inflorescence containing numerous small capitula, yellowish, covered (before maturity) with white woolly hairs

Grangea ceruanoides (in Berhaut as G. maderaspatana)

records: Bourem, Gourma Rharous, Timbuktu, Bamako, Segou, El Oualadji (Boudet)

habitat: sands, wet zones as water retreats

notes: herb with rosette of larger leaves 8-15 cm x 3-4 cm on ground, smaller leaves on stems; leaves sessile, auriculate, usually profoundly lobed; entire plant covered with greyish velvety pubescence; golden yellow flowers in hemispheric capitula subtended by green bracts with obtuse tip; aromatic plant

taxonomy: both G. ceruanoides and G. maderaspatana are “accepted” by African Flowering Plant Database; G. maderaspatana was apparently misapplied to this sp. (cf. Boudet)

Grangea maderaspatana (see G. ceruanoides)

Helichrysum indicum 50107 (in Berhaut as Gnaphalium indicum)

records: Bamako, Djenne, Sanga, Mopti (Boudet)

habitat: humid areas near watercourses

notes: small erect annual 8-20 cm, forming bushy clumps; sessile leaf, oblanceolate, 1-5 cm x 3-7 mm, attenuated near base; leaf covered with woolly white tomentous hairs; greenish flowers in compact terminal panicles

Herderia truncata

records: Gao, Ngouma, Korienza (Boudet)

habitat: edges of inundatable plains, riverbanks

notes: herb spreading out in rosette form, with secondary roots; small obovate leaf, attenuated at base, sessile or with short petiole to 5 mm, top quartile with dentations; young plant with woolly white pubescence, becoming glabrous; dark violet flowers in terminal capital, base of capitulum not well differentiated from peduncle; after flowering, capitulum curves down

reference: Hutch., Kew Bull, 1914, 354 and fig.


Kleinia cliffordiana 50108 (not in Berhaut)

records: Hombori, Douentza, Dire to Bandiagara (Boudet); Hombori, Kikara, Walo, Segue (road to Kassagou) (JH)

habitat: inselbergs and rocky plateau

notes: unusual semi-succulent shrub to 2-3 m, sometimes smaller (bushy)

taxonomy: Boudet comments that this plant may belong to genus Notonia

reference: Jaeger, Ic. Plant. Afr. (I.F.A.N.), 6, no. 144 (1964), with drawing

Lactuca sativa (cultivated lettuce)


Launaea brunneri (syns L. chevalieri, Sonchus chevalieri)

records: Timbuktu, Goundam, Kabara to Mopti, lac Debo (Boudet, as L. chevalieri)

habitat: sandy ravines

notes: herb, usually erect, perennial or biennial, to 30-60 cm; leaf variably linear, oblanceolate, or 5-lobed, 4-12 cm x 0.5-2 cm, attenuating near base but extending as two small “ears” over stem; terminal capitulum, ligulate flowers pinkish white

Litogyne gariepina (syn Epaltes gariepina) (not in Berhaut)

records: Bore, Dire to Bandiagara, Douentza, Gao (Boudet); none (JH)

habitat: wet clayey sands

notes: flowers mauve
Notonia (see Kleinia cliffordiana)

Pegolettia senegalensis (not in Berhaut)

records: In Tillit (Boudet), i.e. Saharan (Boudet)

habitat: brousse tigrée


Pentanema indicum 50109 (in Berhaut/Boudet as Vicoa leptoclada)

records: Segou, Sikasso, Tin Ahara, Diarra, Bore (Boudet); Beni (JH)

habitat: humid soils, often near settlements

notes: annual to 50-100 cm; leaf linear lanceolate 5-10 cm x 0.8-1.5 cm, with rounded auriculate base, fine dentations around leaf, pubescence lightly scabrous under, longer and denser above; young plant has yellowish, pubescent stem; yellow flowers in small capitula 5-7 mm long x 5-6 mm; capitula in corymbiform terminal panicle; peduncle 1-5 cm

reference: Adventrop (as Vicoa leptoclada)


Picris humilis

records: Bamako, San, Diafarabe, Lac Debo (Boudet)

habitat: clayey sand on banks of Niger R (like Senecio perrottetii)

notes: perennial roots, stems to 10-20 cm, ramified from bottom; leaves at base of plant, rarely higher, with stems much higher; leaf most often irregularly 5-lobed, 5-10 cm x 1-1.5 cm, attenuated at base; yellow flowers in capitula that are isolated or by 2-3 at top of stem

Pseudoconyza viscosa 50110 (in Berhaut/Boudet as Blumea aurita, syn also Blumea viscosa)

records: Bamako, Sikasso, Dogo (Boudet); Hombori, Beni (JH)

habitat: ruderal

notes: usually biennial, to 30 cm or 1 m; sessile leaves (roughly thistle-like) 10-15 cm x 3-7 cm with significant lobes, base auriculate (one or two “oreillettes” on each side); much smaller upper leaves when flowering; dense pubescence on both sides of leaf; flowers in small capitula, opening little or not at all, top pinkish white

taxonomy:; “accepted” in African Flowering Plant Database with syns B. aurita, B. viscosa


Pulicaria crispa (see P. undulata subsp. undulata)

Pulicaria incisa (syn in part Pulicaria undulata, thus in Berhaut) (similar to Asteriscus graveolens)

records: Labbezanga, Dire to Bandiagara (Boudet as P. incisa)

habitat: wet sand, sandy-clayey soil

notes: annual or biennial to 20-60 cm; sessile oval-lanceolate leaf 3-5 cm x 1-1.5 cm, widest at base, leaves get smaller toward top of plant, greenish but pubescent on both sides of leaf, base auriculate; flowers in isolated terminal capitula, 4-5 mm wide, small yellow flowers, almost globular

taxonomy: taxon P. undulata rejected for this sp. (reflects an early mixup: see Taxon 29:694-5, 1980); P. incisa is “accepted” acc. to African Flowering Plant Database

Pulicaria undulata subsp. undulata (syns P. crispa [thus Berhaut], Francoeuria undulata)

records: Bamako, Timbuktu, Tin Tegrin, Kita (Boudet)

habitat: wet sands

notes: herb to 20-60 cm or more; obovate leaf 4-8 cm x 0.8-2 cm, usually widest near tip, but with secondary widening at base and auriculate (going around most of stem); stem white, covered with woolly pubescence; flower yellow, capitulum hemispheric

taxonomy: this binomial has also been applied in part to the current P. crispa due to an original mixup; African Flowering Plant Database “accepts” P. undulata subsp. undulata as replacement for P. crispa

Senecio perrottetii

records: Niafunke, Bourem, Gao, Segou (Boudet); Niger R. from Bamba to Ayorou (JH)

habitat: sandy banks and foreshores of Niger River

notes: bushy annual herb to 15-60 cm; lanceolate leaves with dentations and irregular lobes 5-12 cm x 1-6 cm, base auriculate; flowers in more or less corymbiform panicles; inner and ligulate flowers yellow, capitulum 4-5 mm wide at base, 10-20 ligulate flowers may spread out in daisy fashion

Sonchus chevalieri (see Launaea brunneri)

Sonchus oleraceus (introduced, resembles dandelion)

records: Timbuktu (Boudet)

habitat: cosmopolitan weed, gardens, wet areas

notes: annual or biennial herb to 60 cm or more; leaves bunched on ground in young plant; leaf usually long with dentations and deep lobes that may reach central nerve, auriculate at base (thistle-like); plant glabrous; hollow stem exudes white latex; yellow flowers grouped at top of middle stem or of axillary branches

Sphaeranthus angustifolius 50111

records: Tin Zazi, Segou-Niono (Boudet); Fombori near Douentza, also in extended colonies in otherwise baren, lightly inundatable zones near Sambere and near Kol (JH)

habitat: depressions

notes: herb (probably perennial), either sprawling or up to 10-20 cm [locally usually a bushy herb in the shape of an inverted bowl/JH]; leaf oblanceolate or elliptical-lanceolate 3-7 cm x 0.3-1 cm, mostly glabrous, larger leaves with fine dentations, base of leafs attenuated and prolonged as “wings” on both sides of stem; flowers in nearly spherical capitula, isolated or 2-3 at end of stem, 1 cm x 1 cm; flowers violet; peduncles 1-5 cm long, pubescent right under capitulum

Sphaeranthus senegalensis

records: Bamako, San, Sanga (Boudet)

habitat: inundatable plains

notes: perennial herb, erect (young) then sprawling; at base, leaves may attain 7-15 cm x 2-3.5 cm; higher up, leaves 2-4 cm x 7-12 mm, dentate, surfaces covered with woolly white hars; base of leaves attenuated, prolonged as “wings” down stem; flowers mauve-violet; in perfectly spherical capitula; plant is aromatic


Synedrella nodiflora (“node weed”)

records: Kita (Boudet)

habitat: shady humid areas

notes: leaves opposite (by 2), including pair at top of each stem; broad leaf 5-10 cm x 3-5 cm, finely dentate, rough white hairs on both sides; petiole 0.5-1.2 cm; at base of leaves, a ring around stem, in which two sessile capitula are nestled; yellow flowers


Tridax procumbens (introduced)

records: Bamako (Boudet)

habitat: sandy soil near houses

notes: perennial-looking herb, sprawling or rising; leaves opposite with ring on stem at base and smaller offshoot stems coming out at ring; leaf oval-angular 2-5 cm x 1-3 cm, base wedge-shaped, some dentation often with one dentation larger than the others; petiole 4-15 mm; petiole and stem pubescent; isolated terminal flowers on axillary peduncles; central flowers yellow, ligulate flowers yellowish or cream

reference: Adventrop


Vernonia adoensis 50112

records: Tongo Tongo on central Dogon plateau (JH)

Vernonia elegantissima 50113 (in Berhaut as V. poskeana var. elegantissima)

records: Madina Diassa (Boudet); Hombori and Kikara areas (JH)

habitat: sciaphyte (in shade)

notes: annual to 15-40 c m, often but not always ramified; small leaf linear or oblanceolate 2-3 cm x 3-8 mm, attenuated at base (no clear petiole), barely noticeable dentations, a few fairly rigid hairs, underside of leaf with scattered dark green points; a few short but hard hairs on stem; terminal inflorescence, capitula at tips of filiform peduncles that are 1-2 cm long; flowers red, fewer than 10 per capitulum; lanceolate bracts with sharp point

taxonomy: V. elegantissima “accepted” African Flowering Plant Database

Vernonia galamensis 50114 (in Berhaut as V. pauciflora)

records: Gao, Goundam, Bore, Sanga, Gossi, Bamako, Sikasso (Boudet); Hombori (JH)

habitat: riverbanks, edges of drying ponds, rocky debris

notes: annual to 30-60 cm, more or less ramified; leaf elliptical 10-15 cm x 2-6 cm (widest in middle), with attenuated base; flowers pale blue in terminal capitula with top spreading out

Vernonia pauciflora (see V. galamensis)

Vernonia perrottetii 50115

records: Kita, Bamako, Sanga, Segou, Sikasso (Boudet)

habitat: sandy fields, savanna with Parkia biglobosa (néré)

notes: annual herb to 50-80 cm, often ramified from base; numerous sessile linear leaves 2-5 cm x 1-4 mm, all around stem; single capitulum at end of each stem; flowers violet

reference: Adventrop

Vernonia poskeana var. elegantissima (see V. elegantissima)
Vicoa (see Pentanema indicum)

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