EISSN: 2312-7945, © 2017 The Authors, Research paper
Silviculture Research Station, Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, Chittagong 4000
: 00 880 31 681581
For any information: firstname.lastname@example.org, Received: 05.02.17, Revised: 24.05.17;
Available online: 14 June 2017.
Suitable plantation technique is important for establishing plantation of different species from
better germination, growth performance, economic and environmental point of view. Two
plantation techniques, polybag seedlings and thali (direct seeding on ring shaped cleared soil),
were studied from 2005 to 2014 in order to find out the superior one for establishing plantations
of Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum. Results revealed that polybag seedlings of
Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum had little bit higher germination percentage,
germination value and germination energy than thali. None of these values of polybag seedlings
and thali are significantly different except germination value and germination energy of
Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Cumulative germination percentage of both species was higher at the
initial stage for polybag seedlings than thali. Growth performance up to 9.5 years of
Dipterocarpus turbinatus showed that for polybag seedlings the average height, average diameter
at breast height (DBH), mean annual increment (MAI) of height and MAI of DBH are
comparatively higher, with no significant difference than thali. On the other hand, these growth
parameters of Syzygium firmum are higher for polybag seedlings at 5% significant level than
thali. The survival percentage of Dipterocarpus turbinatus was higher (78.67 ± 9.33%) in
plantations raised from thali (direct seeding) than polybag raised seedlings (69.33 ± 9.61%). The
financial analysis was very positive for thali since expenditure incureed for establishing
plantations by thali was much lower (6.70 BDTk./individual) than polybag seedlings (15.60
BDTk./individual). Considering the germination potentiality, growth performances, financial
invovement and environmental point of view, the study suggested that the thali technique or
direct seeding may be suitable for teli-garjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus) and dhaki-jam
(Syzygium firmum) plantation.
Key Words: Planting technique, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Syzygium firmum, degraded hills,
thali germination, germination value, energy and growth.
Haider, M. R., Bhowmick,
N. G., Begum, N., Zashimuddin, M. and Hoque, M. A. (2017).
Article distributed under terms of a Creative Common Attribution 4.0 International License.
Planting technique of Teli-garjan and Dhaki-jam in degraded hills of Chittagong
Dipterocarpus turbinatus belongs to the family Dipterocarpaceae, a commercially important tree
species distributed in Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet areas (
Das and Alam
). It attains a height of 35-50 m or more and a girth of 4 - 4.5 m in favorable conditions
sleeper and for making lorry, boat building and other construction purposes (
Das and Alam, 2001
). On the other hand Syzygium firmum belongs to the family Myrtaceae is another commercially
important tree species distributed in the area of Cox’s Bazar Chittagong Hill Tracts, Chittagong and
Sylhet. It attains a height of 20-35 m and a girth of 1.5-2.0 m (
Das and Alam, 2001
). The wood is moderately hard. It is used as house building, furniture, boat and trawler
pataton and beams, poles and other constructions (
situated in north-eastern part of South Asia lies in between 20
38′ north latitude and 88
41′ east longitude (
). The country possesses 14.7 million ha of land area of which 2.57
million ha forest land that forms 17.5 percent of its total land area (
Altrell et al., 2007
). The forest
resources of the country depleted at an annual rate of 3.3 percent (
biodiversity of the country has been depleted heavily during the last four decades. That is due to ever
increasing population and increased per capita consumption for food, fuel-wood, timber, homestead,
aquaculture and other purposes resulting over exploitation of state managed forests and loss of
Khan et al., 2007
). Rapid loss and degradation of forest resources in the country has
created an alarming rate of forest biodiversity depletion (
Rahman et al., 2000
combat the situation and increase vegetation cover Bangladesh Government took different initiatives
likes massive plantation programme in degraded hill forests, Social forestry programme,
establishment of Protected Areas, National parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves etc. Plantation
programme was carried out through clear felling-cum artificial regeneration in degraded hill forests
with long (20-40 years) and short rotation (12-15 years) working circles. Long rotation working
circles includes the species like Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta, Melina arborea, Artocarpus chama,
Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Syzygium firmum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Hopea odorata etc. Plantation
programme in Bangladesh usually run by using container raised seedlings in the nursery and in some
cases bare rooted seedlings especially in mangrove species also used. Several problems like low
germination rate, root coiling, slow growth, wilting and damping off due to lack of proper management
(watering and shading) and also seed biology encounters and leads the low success rate of plantation.
For successful plantation establishment, proper plantation technique is inevitable or pre-requisite.
Seeds of Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum are recalcitrant in nature which requires
immediate sowing after collection. Moreover, it is very difficult to transport the container raised
seedlings in the hilly areas due to poor communication facilities and it tolls high transportation cost. In
that situation direct seed sowing may be one of the alternative options for plantation establishment of
teli-garjan and dhaki-jam in the hilly areas and cost effective.
indicated that direct seed sowing may be useful for plantation raising in case of tei-garjan and
dhaki-jam in the degraded hilly areas. However, plantation raising through direct seed sowing for both
the species related to timely commencement of rains. In that context there is a close coincidence
between the commencement of rains and seed fall of teli-garjan and dhaki-jam in Bangladesh.
Considering the fact the study was initiated to evaluate the plantation technique of these species
through containerized seedlings and direct seed sowing (thali) process.
II. Materials and Methods
The study was initiated at Keochia Silviculture Research Station of Bangladesh Forest Research
). The site is
located between 22
E longitudes (
Hossain et al., 1989
). Topography of the
site is undulating hilly to flat, medium to gentle slopes. Deep soils with good drainage capacity,
stoniness, small gravel present occasionally, sandy loam to sandy clay loam, pH ranges from 4.5 - 5.5,
acidic in nature. Mean annual rainfall 2272 mm and mean annual temperature 25.5
Experimental field was prepared through weeding during May 2005. Pits or thali prepared in the ring
form with 30 cm radius at a distance of 2 m × 2 m. Total 75 thali were prepared in three replications
(25 thali in each replication). Necessary cultural operations were also made in thali. Mature seeds
were collected from selected mother trees of Dulahazara Seed Orchard Center of Bangladesh Forest
Research Institute (BFRI), Chakaria, Cox’s Bazzar during 2
week of June 2005. Collected seeds were
replication 75 seeds (no. of thali was 25) were sown and total 225 seeds were sown in three
replication. Similarly collected seeds were sown in poly bag arranged in the nursery. The polybag size
was 12 cm × 18 cm. Medium used in the poly bag was mixture of soil and cow dung at a ratio of 3:1.
One seed was sown in each poly bag, so 25 seeds were sown in each replication and total 75 seeds
were sown in three replications. Germination was explored in both thali and nursery periodically
through counting the germinating seeds. Cumulative germination was recorded every alternate day of
sowing and continued up to end of the germination for Dipterocarpus turbinatus, on the other hand
germination was recorded after 6 days interval for Syzygium firmum. In case of thali only one seedling
kept for the assessment of growth performance after one year. Simultaneously one year old seedlings
raised seedlings were planted at similar distance of thali (2 m × 2 m). In each replication 25 seedlings
were sown, total 75 seedlings planted in three replications. Weeding was done at every six months.
Germination data for calculating germination percentage, germination value and germination energy
were collected. Germination value and germination energy (GE) was calculated following formula of
Djavanshir and Pourbeik (1976)
Germination Value (GV) = (∑DGS / N) × 10 GP
Germination Energy (GE) = X
) / Y
+ ....... + (X
) / Yn
DGS = Daily germination speed computed by dividing the cumulative germination percentage by the
number of days since beginning the test
GP = germination percentage
N = frequency or number DGS that were calculated during the test,
, the number of days from sowing to the n
count, and 10 in the first equation is constant
Initial growth performance of seedlings in the nursery and in the field don’t include here due to some
raised seedlings were assessed in the field at the age of 9 years and 6 months.
Data were analyzed by MS Excel and IBM SPSS Ver. 2.1 software to get germination and growth
performance parameters. Significant differences between the treatments were analyzed at p < 0.05 by
The study recorded highest (88 ± 4.0) germination percentage in poly bag and lowest (85.33 ± 3.52)
percent in thali for Dipterocarpus turbinatus. The study found maximum (94.67 ± 2.67) germination
percentage for Syzygium firmum while tried with polybags and minimum (92 ± 2.31) percent when it
was tried in thali (
percentage in polybag and thali treatment for both Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum (at
p <0.05). In other experiments, Pterocarpus santalinus was represented by 79 – 81% germination
when seeds soaked in water for six hours (
Naidu and Mastan, 2001
). Rauwolfia serpenitna showed
86% germination which was much better than control (
Haider et al. (2014)
80 % germination for Acacia catechu under different treatments. So, it seems that the germination
percentage for both polybag and thali was satisfactory. Germination Value (GV) was maximum (34.02
± 2.14) for polybag treatment of Dipterocarpus turbinatus followed by thali treatment (22.34 ± 1.26) of
the same species. The experiment revealed that thali treatment of Syzygium firmum showed minimum
(7.17 ± 0.48) Germination value than polybag treatment
Germination value of polybag
and thali treatments for Dipterocarpus turbinatus were significantly different at p < 0.05, whereas no
significant difference was found between germination value of polybag and thali treatments of
days of seed sowing respectively. On the other hand, seeds of Syzygium firmum took 16 days
germination value for thali than polybag.
Swaminathan and Revathy (2013)
value 16.95 and 10.22 for Sapindus emarginatus species treated by cold water and control
respectively. The study revealed that germination energy (GE) of both Dipterocarpus turbinatus and
value is significantly lower (5.02 ± 0.16) in thali at p < 0.05 than polybag (6.68±0.38). But, no
significant difference was found between germination energy recorded for polybag and thali
treatments of Dhaki-jam (Syzygium firmum). Germination energy represents the speed of germination.
As germination rate at the initial stage in polybag was higher than thali hence germination energy was
found higher in polybag treatment.
Swaminathan and Revathy (2013)
in an experiment showed that
than the germination energy of Dipterocarpus turbinatus in polybag and thali.
Table 01. Germination percentage, value and energy of Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium
firmum in polybags and thali
Garjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus)
Dhaki-jam (Syzygium firmum)
Similar letter indicates not significantly different column wise at p<0.05 significance level according to ANOVA,
and ± indicates standard error of mean.
Experiments reveals that germination of Dipterocarpus turbinatus was started 5 days after sowing
(DAS) and continued up to 21 days in both polybag and thali. After 21 days cumulative germination
remained constant up to the end of the germination test. Maximum germination was found 88% in
poly bag, while it was 85.33% in thali (
). During the germination process, the initial rate of
increment in cumulative germination percentage in the polybags was higher than thali.
Greater time was required for germination initiation of Syzygium firmum. It was as long as 16 days
from 16 to 76 days after sowing in both poly bag and thali and remained constant up to end of the
germination test (88 days) (
). Maximum germination percentage (94.67%) was recorded for
Syzygium firmum in polybag, whereas thali represented 92% germination. However, there was no
significant difference between the germination percentage of thali and polybag at 5% level. Initial
cumulative germination % was higher in polybag trial in comparison to thali trial. But, ultimately the
germination percentage in both trials became almost equal.
Hossain et al. (2011)
germination pattern for Flacourtia jangomus and found that germination was initiated 44-56 days for
different pre-sowing treatments. In that experiment, the cumulative germination rose sharply from 48
to 66 days after sowing the seeds and remained constant up to end of the test. The germination
process in thali may have been affected by the soil moisture and temperature at different points.
Polybag avg. G%
Thali avg. G%
Survival percentage in the trial plantations of both Garjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus) and Dhakijam
(Syzygium firmum) was found between 60-80% which was satisfactory for plantations established
from both polybad seedlings and direct sown seedlings (thali). For Dipterocarpus turbinatus, survival
percentage was higher (78.67 ± 9.33%) in plantations raised from directly sown seeds than planation
established from polybag raised seedlings (69.33 ± 9.61%). The values did not revealed any significant
differenence at p<0.05 level between the survival percentage of the plantations raised from poly bag
based seedlings and direct seeding (
). As a whole, survival percentage of the Dhaki-jam
(Syzygium firmum) seedlings in the plantations at 9 years and 6 months age was found comparatively
lower than the survival percentage of Garjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus). Plantations established from
polybag raised seedling showed higher survival percentage (69.33 ± 3.52%) than plantations
established from directly sown seeds (58.67 ± 2.67%). There was no significant difference between
the survival percentage of the plantations established from polybag seedlings and direct seeding
Name of species
Seed originated seedling
height and DBH of Dipterocarpus turbinatus at 9 years and 6 months old seemed to be comparable
between plantations of poly bag raised seedlings and thali. Average height (6.32± 0.26) and average
DBH (20.24 ± 1.54) of Dipterocarpus turbinatus in plantations raised from polybag raised seedlings
were found little bit higher than that’s of plantations raised from thali (avg. height 6.21 ± 0.93 m and
avg. DBH 16.17 ± 2.90
cm). But, there were no significant difference (at p > 0.05) between the average
height (1.01 ± 0.06 m) and MAI of diameter (3.15 ± 0.12 cm) of Syzygium firmum plantations raised
using poly bag raised seedlings were significantly higher (at 5% level) than plantations raised from
thali (avg. height 5.75 ± 0.33 m, avg. DBH 17.82 ± 0.63, MAI of height 0.64 ± 0.04 m, MAI of DBH 1.98 ±
0.07 cm) (
Table 02. Growth performance of Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum plantations
Average expenses for raising and establishing individual
Seedlings raised in
Direct seed sowing (Thali)
Single seed (Propagule)
Container, sowing, weeding, watering
in the nursery
preparation, sowing or transplanting,
staking, thali preparation or digging
hole, seedling transportation,
Plantation establishment involves substantial amount of money expenditure. Some people say it’s a
cost activity. However, money expenditure under different cost categories for seed collection, seedling
raising, and plantation establishment of both Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum was
recorded. The expenditure incurred for plantations raised from polybag seedlings and direct sowing
(thali) were then compared to find out the cost effective method of plantation establishment (
). The table revealed average cost required for both Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum
under different cost activities. The results showed that, raising individual seedling in the polybags
involved expenditure of BDT. 2.45. It includes cost for buying container, seed sowing, weeding and
watering at the nursery stage. Whereas, direct seed sowing involved no such costs since seeds are
directly sowed in the plantation site and container as well as nursery based activities are not needed
for that. Plantations establishment involves different activities i.e. site preparation, sowing or
maintenance. A total of BDT. 12.60 was incurred for each polybag seedling to establish it in the
plantation whereas establishing each seedling raised by direct seed sowing needed much lower
amount (BDT. 6.70). It is mainly because of the staking, labor needed for seedling transportation and
digging hole needed to plant the polybag raised seedlings. An important environmental consideration
is that in polybag based seedling raising process the polythene used during the test were left to the
environment where thali process did not cause such environmental pollution.
Polybag raised seedlings of Dipterocarpus turbinatus and Syzygium firmum had little bit higher
germination percentage, germination value and germination energy than thali with no significantly
difference except germination value and germination energy of Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Survival
percentage of Dipterocarpus turbinatus was higher in plantations raised from thali (direct seeding)
than polybag raised seedlings. Growth performance at 9.5 years of Dipterocarpus turbinatus for
polybag seedlings is comparatively higher than thali with no significant difference. On the other hand;
growth performance of of Syzygium firmum is higher for polybag seedlings at 5% significant level than
thali. The financial analysis was very positive in favour of thali planting. The money incureed for
establishing plantations by thali was less than half in compasrison to polybag seedlings. Seemingly
polybag seedlings are little bit superior considering germination parameters and growth performance
but financially thali technique is more feasible. Another important aspect is that polybag used for
seedling raising are left to the environment which caused serious pollution like land degradation,
whereas thali process is absolutely free of it. Considering the above mentions aspect the study favor’s
Authors thank to the staffs of Keochia Silvicultural research station for their sincere support during
the study. Thanks are due to Mr. Akhter Hossain, Assistant Professor, Institute of Forestry and
Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong for statistical analysis.
Altrell, D., Saket, M., Lyckeback, L., Piazza, M., Ahmad, I.U., Banik, H., Hossain, M. A. A. and
Chowdhury, R. M. (2007). National forest and tree resources assessment 2005-2007.
Bangladesh Forest Department, Ministry of Environment and Forest: Bangladesh Space
Research and Remote Sensing Organization, Ministry of Defense and Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations. p. 192
Banik, R. L. (1980). Studies on sowing position of Garjan seeds on their germination and
BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics) (2010). Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh. Ministry of
Planning, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. p. 536
Das, D. K. (1970). The Anatomy of Gurjan (Dipterocarpus Spp.) Timbers of East Pakistan. Forest
Botany Division. Bulletin 2. Wood Anatomy Series. Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. p. 13.
Das, D. K. and Alam, M. K. (2001). Trees of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Forest Research Institute,
Chittagong. pp. 266-267.
Das, S. (1980). Dipterocarp forests of Bangladesh and their management. Bano Biggyan
Patrika, 9 (1 and 2), 71-86.
Dijavanshir, K. and Pourbeik, H. (1976). Germination value: A new formula. Silvae genetica, 25,
Gupta, V. (2003). Seed germination and dormancy breaking technique for indigenous
medicinal and aromatic plants. J. Medicinal and Aromatic Pl. Sci. 23(2), 402-407.
Haider, M. R., Alam, M. S. and Hossain. M. A. (2014). Effect of pre-sowing treatment on seed
germination and seedlings growth attributes of Acacia catechu Willd. in nursery and field
conditions. International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology, 4 (3), 214-219.
Hossain, M. A., Sen, M., Uddin, M. I. and Kabir, M. A. (2011). Propagation of Flacourtia jangomus:
Hossain, M. K. (2001). A review of Forest Biodiversity Conservation in Bangladesh. Journal of
Hossain, M. K. (2015). Silviculture of Plantation Trees of Bangladesh. Arannayk Foundation,
Dhaka, Bangladesh. p. 361.
Hossain, M. K., Islam, Q. N., Islam, S. A., Tarafder, M. A., Zashimuddin, M. and Ahmed, M. (1989).
Status report on the activities of Silviculture Research Division, Bangladesh Forest Research
Institute, Chittagong. FO: DP/BGD/83/010, Working Paper No. 6:20.
Khan, M. A. S. A., Uddin, M. B., Uddin, M. S., Chowdhury, M. S. H. and Mukul, S. A. (2007).
Acad. Sci. 44, 145-153.
Maguire, J. D. (1962). Speed of germination-aid in selection and evaluation for seedling
emergence and vigor. Crop Science, 2, 176 -177.
Naidu, C. V. and Mastan, M. (2001). Seed pre-treatment methods to improve germination in
Rahman, M. L., Hossain, M. K. and Karim, Q. M. N. (2000). Diversity and composition of tree
species in Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary of Chittagong (North) Forest Division, Bangladesh. The
Chittagong Univ.J. Sci. 24(1), 89- 97.
Sen Gupta, J. N. (1936). Regeneration of Gurjan, Dipterocarpus spp. (Natural and Artificial).
Swaminathan, C. and Revathy, R. (2013). Improving seed germination in Sapindus emarginatus
Vahl. Pinnacle Agricultral Research and Management, 2013 (101): 3.
Troup, R. S. (1921). The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Volume 1, pp. 35-37.
Zabala, N. Q. (1990). Silviculture of species: Development of professional education in the
Zashimuddin, M., Bhowmick, N. G., Begum, N. and Islam, Q. N. (2001). Selection of suitable
Journal of Forest Science, 30 (1), 68-72.