Hairy-fruited marianthus (Marianthus mollis)



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HAIRY-FRUITED MARIANTHUS 

 

(Marianthus mollis) 

 

RECOVERY PLAN 

 

 

 



Photo: Andrew Brown 

 

 



Department of Environment and Conservation 

Albany Work Centre 

South Coast Region  

120 Albany Hwy, Albany WA 6331 

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

  

 

 

FOREWORD 

 

Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in Department of Conservation and Land 



Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos. 44 and 50. Note: the Department of CALM formally became the 

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) in July 2006. DEC will continue to adhere to these Policy 

Statements until they are revised and reissued.  

 

IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes most affecting the 



ongoing survival of threatened taxa or ecological communities, and begin the recovery process. 

 

DEC is committed to ensuring that Threatened taxa are conserved through the preparation and implementation of 



Recovery Plans (RPs) or IRPs and by ensuring that conservation action commences as soon as possible. 

 

This IRP will operate from July 2008 to June 2013 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. It is intended 



that, if the taxon is still ranked Vulnerable, this IRP will be reviewed after five years and the need further recovery 

actions assessed. 

 

This IRP was given regional approval on 26 October, 2005 and was approved by the Director of Nature Conservation 



on 26 October, 2005. The provision of funds identified in this Interim Recovery Plan is dependent on budgetary and 

other constraints affecting DEC, as well as the need to address other priorities. 

 

This IRP has been updated with information contained herein accurate as at April 2008. 



 

This IRP was prepared with financial support from the Australian Government to be adopted as a National Recovery 

Plan under the provisions of the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 

(EPBC Act)  

 

IRP PREPARATION 

 

This IRP was prepared by Renée Hartley



1

 and Sarah Barrett



2



Technical Officer, DEC Albany Work Centre, 120 Albany Hwy, Albany 6330. 

2

 Flora Conservation Officer, DEC Albany Work Centre, 120 Albany Hwy, Albany 6330 



 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

 

The following people have provided assistance and advice in the preparation of this Interim Recovery Plan: 



 

Anne Cochrane 

Manager, DEC Threatened Flora Seed Centre 

Andrew Brown 

Threatened Flora Coordinator, DEC Species and Communities Branch 

Malcom Grant 

Conservation Officer, DEC Ravensthorpe 

 

Thanks also to staff of the W.A. Herbarium for providing access to Herbarium databases and specimen information, and 



DEC Wildlife Branch for their assistance.  

 

 



2

 

  

 

 

SUMMARY 

 

Scientific Name:  Marianthus mollis 



Common Name: 

Hairy-fruited Marianthus 



Family: 

Pittosporaceae 



Flowering Period: August to September 

DEC Regions: 

South Coast 



DEC Districts: 

Albany and Esperance 



Shires: 

Ravensthorpe 



Recovery Team: 

Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team 

 

Illustrations and/or further information: Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998) Western 

Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia;

 

Western Australian 



Herbarium (1998) FloraBase - Information on the Western Australian Flora. Department of Environment and 

Conservation, Western Australia. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/. 

 

Current status: Marianthus mollis was declared as Rare Flora in 1988 under the Western Australian Wildlife 

Conservation Act 1950.  It is currently ranked as Vulnerable under World Conservation Union Red List criteria D1+2 

(IUCN 1994), due to the small number of populations and small population size. It is listed as Endangered under the 

Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The species is confined 

to an area of approximately twelve hectares over a range of thirty kilometres in which six populations and a total of 

approximately 1,252 plants are known.  

 

Description: Marianthus mollis is a low, spreading shrub to 50 cm tall. Its reddish-brown stems are initially covered 

with fine white hairs, but become grey and hairless with age.  The leaves, 2 cm long by 1.1 cm wide, also lose hairs, 

though they persist along the margins and mid-veins. Leaf margins are flat and the leaf stalk is very short. Deep blue 

flowers are held on slender stalks, 1.5 to 2.5 cm long, in the leaf axils and are usually solitary.  The petals have 3 or 4 

distinct purple lines on the outer surface, and a pale throat. 

 

Habitat requirements: The species inhabits gravely sands over laterite or ironstone and sand over laterite. It grows in 

mallee heath and associated species include Banksia lemanniana, Beaufortia schaueri, Eucalyptus astringens subsp. 



redacta and Taxandria spathulata

 

Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations:

 

Habitat critical to the survival of 



Marianthus mollis is the area of occupancy of important populations, areas of similar habitat surrounding important 

populations i.e. gravely sands over laterite or ironstone and sand over laterite and additional occurrences of similar 

habitat that do not currently contain the species but may have done so in the past and may be suitable for translocations. 

These areas of similar habitat are important where they provide potential habitat for natural range extension and/or for 

allowing pollinators or biota essential to the continued existence of the species to move between populations. 

 

As  Marianthus mollis is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth EPBC Act all populations are considered 



important populations. 

 

Benefits to other species/ecological communities: The Ravensthorpe Range occurs within one of the fifteen National 

Biodiversity Hotspots.  The Ravensthorpe Range is habitat for a number of endemic species and threatened species, and 

some twenty Priority taxa.  Recovery actions put in place for Marianthus mollis will benefit these species and 

reciprocally, recovery actions put in place for these species will benefit M. mollis

 

International obligations: This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on 

Biological Diversity. Marianthus mollis is not specifically listed under any international treaty and therefore this plan 

does not affect Australia’s obligations under any other international agreements. 



 

Indigenous consultation: Involvement of the indigenous community is being sought through the advice of the 

Department of Indigenous Affairs to determine whether there are any issues or interests identified in the plan. A search 

of the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register has identified six registered sites occuring 

in close proximity to the Marianthus mollis populations.  DEC will seek input and involvement from Indigenous groups 

that have an active interest in the areas that are habitat for Marianthus mollis. Where no role is identified for the 

indigenous community associated with this species in the development of the recovery plan opportunities may exist 

through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species. Indigenous involvement in the implementation of recovery 

actions will be encouraged. 

 

Affected Interests: All populations occur on Crown land that currently holds mining tenements or may do in the future.  

Populations 2 and 5, and Subpopulations 3A, 3B and 4D are located on live mining tenements and Subpopulations 4A 

and 4C occur on pending mining tenements. Population 1 and Subpopulation 4B are located within three kilometres of 

mining tenements. 

 

 

3



 

  

 

 

Social and economic impacts: The implementation of this recovery plan has the potential to have some social and 

economic impact as the majority of populations are located on live or pending mining tenements. However, recovery 

actions refer to continued negotiations between stakeholders with regard to these areas. 

 

Evaluation of the plan’s performance: DEC in conjunction with the Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team 

(ADTFRT) will evaluate the performance of this IRP.  

 

Completed recovery actions 

 

1.

 



All land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of the species.  

2.

 



Seed collections have been made by staff of DEC’s Department’s Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC).  

 

Ongoing and future recovery actions 

 

1.

 



Volunteers and staff from the DEC Albany Work Centre monitor populations. 

 

Objectives 

 

The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ populations to 



ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild. 

 

Criteria for success: The number of populations and individuals within populations remains stable or increases over 

the five years of the plan. 

Criteria for failure: The number of populations or the number of individuals within populations decreases over the 

five years of the plan. 

 

Recovery actions 

 

1.

 



Coordinate recovery actions 

7.

 



Liaise with stakeholders  

2.

 



Monitor populations 

8.

 



Map habitat critical to the survival of the species  

3.

 



Continue fire management 

9.

 



Promote awareness 

4.

 



Continue seed collection 

5.

 



Obtain biological and ecological information 

6.

 



Conduct further surveys 

10.


 

Review the IRP and assess the need for further recovery actions 

 

4


 

  

 

 

1.  

BACKGROUND 

 

 



History 

 

This species was for some time known as Billardiera mollis following its description by Eleanor Bennett in 



1983. It was later reduced to a synonym of Marianthus  villosus but in 2006 was again considered a valid 

species and named Marianthus mollis.  

 

Populations 1 to 4 were located by E. M. Bennett in 1982 and at that time contained almost 1000 individuals. 



G. F. Craig found population 5 in 2004. Population 6 was discovered in 2005. Population 2 has not been 

relocated in recent years and the area appears to lack suitable habitat for the species. 

 

Description 

 

Marianthus mollis is a low, spreading shrub up to 50 cm tall. Its reddish-brown stems are initially covered 

with fine white hairs, but become grey and hairless with age.  The leaves, 2 cm long by 1.1 cm wide, also 

lose their hairs, although they persist along the margins and mid-veins. Leaf margins are flat and the leaf 

stalk is very short. Deep blue flowers are held on slender stalks (1.5 to 2.5 cm long) in the leaf axils and are 

usually solitary.  The petals have 3 or 4 distinct purple lines on the outer surface, and a pale throat. 

 

Distribution and habitat 

 

The species is found in the Ravensthorpe Range and eastward along the Rabbit Proof Fence, occupying 



approximately twelve hectares over a range of approximately thirty kilometres. It is suggested that the 

outlying population along the Rabbit Proof Fence is due to an extension of the underlying geology of the 

Ravensthorpe Range into this region (Lewis 1982).  The species inhabits gravely sands over laterite or 

ironstone and sand over laterite. It grows in mallee heath, usually in open areas where the soil has been 

disturbed.  The species does not appear to be highly specific to soil and vegetation types (Lewis 1982). 

However, the species was not found during detailed surveys of Bandalup Hill, 18 km southeast of Population 

1 and would therefore appear to be restricted to the Ravensthorpe Range. Associated species include Acacia 

pusilla, Banksia lemanniana, Beaufortia schaueri, Dampiera angulata, Dryandra cirsioides, Eucalyptus 

astringens  subsp. redacta, E. incrassata, E. pleurocarpa, E. phaenophylla, Hakea marginata, Melaleuca 

hamata, M. rigidifolia, Siegfriedia darwinioides and Taxandria spathulata

 

Biology and ecology 

 

Little is known about the biology and ecology of Marianthus mollis.  The species flowers from August to 



September, though records show plants in Population 1 have flowered into January (Lewis 1982). In 

Population 1A, flowering was observed in November 2004, after being burnt in May 2001, indicating the 

species has the ability to regenerate (either from seed or vegetative regeneration) following fire. The 

pollination biology is unknown, however it is likely that the species is insect or self pollinated due to its 

small flowers, rather than bird pollinated (Lewis 1982).  Similarly, Marianthus lineatus (now M. bicolor) is 

thought to be insect pollinated. Sargent (1909) considered that the quantity of fruit produced by M. lineatus 

was related to the frequency of pollinator visits.  He believed pollinators to be attracted in part by sight but 

also by the ‘faint limonaceous odour’ of the flower. M. lineatus fruit dehisces at flowering time and seeds 

can not be released by strong wind; ants or birds may be primarily responsible for seed dispersal. Lewis 

(1982) suggests that seed dispersal of Marianthus mollis is limited, due to the compact nature of the 

populations; however the rate of seed set and seedling establishment are likely to be competitive as there are 

relatively large numbers in some populations. It is probable that Marianthus mollis is a disturbance 

opportunist as it occurs in areas of soil disturbance, such as on tracks and firebreaks.  

 

5



 

  

 

 

Threats 

 

Marianthus mollis was declared as Rare Flora in 1988 under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation 

Act 1950.  It is currently ranked as Vulnerable under World Conservation Union Red List Criteria D1+2 

(IUCN 1994) due to few locations and small population sizes. The species is listed as Endangered under the 

Commonwealth  Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).  Six 

populations comprising some 1,242 plants are currently known. 

 

All areas occupied by Marianthus mollis are affected or potentially affected by one or more threats identified 



in this IRP.  Threats include: 

 



 

Mining: All populations occur on Crown land that are currently subject to mining tenements or may be 

in the future.  Populations 2 and 5, and Subpopulations 3A, 3B and 4D are located on live mining 

tenements and Subpopulations 4A and 4C occur on pending mining tenements. A haul road is proposed 

in the vicinity of Population 3A and the preferred route will dissect the population. Population 1 and 

Subpopulation 4B are located within three kilometres of mining tenements. Possible impacts of mining 

include vegetation clearing, ground compaction, introduction of weeds and pathogens such as 



Phytophthora cinnamomi, increased risk of fires and discharge of waste products and hazardous 

materials. The species susceptibility to P. cinnamomi is unknown. 

 



 



Inappropriate fire regime: Poorly timed, intense and too frequent fire may be detrimental, as plants 

need to reach reproductive maturity to build up a seed bank.  An estimation of the minimum desirable fire 

interval may be determined by doubling the primary juvenile period (time to first flower from 

germination, in 50% of the population) (Gill and Nichols 1989). The primary juvenile period for 



Marianthus mollis is three years, making the minimum desirable fire interval at least six years.

 

 



 

 



Small population size: The small size of the Marianthus mollis populations renders them vulnerable to 

local extinction by either demographic stochasticity (eg. lack of recruitment in one year), or 

environmental stochasticity (random variation in for example rainfall or fire).  

 

Summary of population land vesting, purpose and tenure 



Population Vesting 

Purpose 

Tenure 

1A. Rabbit Proof Fence 

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1B. Rabbit Proof Fence  

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1C. Rabbit Proof Fence 

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1D. Rabbit Proof Fence  

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1E. Rabbit Proof Fence 

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1F. Rabbit Proof Fence  

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1G. Rabbit Proof Fence 

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1H. Rabbit Proof Fence  

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1I. Rabbit Proof Fence 

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

1J. Rabbit Proof Fence  

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

2.  North of Mt Desmond 

Unvested 

Common 


Crown 

3A.  Hecla Mine  

Unvested 

Vacant 


Crown 

3B. NE of Flag Mine 

Unvested 

Other 


Crown 

4A. North of Mt Iron 

Unvested 

Common 


Crown 

4B. North of Mt Iron 

Unvested 

Common 


Crown 

4C. North of Mt Iron 

Unvested 

Common 


Crown 

4D. North of Mt Iron 

Unvested 

Common 


Crown 

5. North of Western Gem Mine 

Unvested 

Vacant 


Crown 

6. Southeast of Mt Gordon 

Unvested 

 

Crown 



 

 

6



 

  

 

 

Summary of population information and threats 

 

Population No.  



and Location 

Year/Number of plants 

mature (juvenile) 



Habitat Condition 

Threats 

1A. Rabbit Proof Fence 

1982 

400 + 


 

Firebreaks 

        

2004 


400 

Healthy 


Inappropriate

 

 2008 



400 

 

fire 



regime 

1B. Rabbit Proof Fence 

1982 

300 + 


 

 

        



2004 

50 +/- 


Healthy 

 

 2008 



300 

 

 



1C. Rabbit Proof Fence 

1982 


 

 



        

2004 


Not Found 

 

 



1D. Rabbit Proof Fence 

1982 


 

 



       

2004 


0 (54) 

Recently Burnt 

 

1E. Rabbit Proof Fence 



1982 

20 + 


 

 

        



2004 

20 


 

 

 2008 



20 

 

 



1F. Rabbit Proof Fence 

1982 


20 + 

 

 



1G. Rabbit Proof Fence 

2004 


Unknown 

Healthy 


 

1H. Rabbit Proof Fence 

2004 

10 


Healthy 

 

1I. Rabbit Proof Fence 



2004 

100s 


Healthy 

 

1J. Rabbit Proof Fence 



2004 

20 +/- 


Healthy 

 

2.  North of Mt Desmond 



1982 

50 + 


 

 

      



2001 

Not Found 

Exact Location 

 

 2004 



Not 

Found 


Unclear 

 

3A.  Hecla Mine 



1982 

150 + 


Healthy 

Mining 


 1988 

150 


 

Inappropriate



 

 

1995 



150 + 

Healthy 


fire regime 

3B. NE of Flag Mine 

1982 

10 + 


Healthy 

 

 1995 



Healthy 


 

 2004 


Healthy 


 

4A. North of Mt Iron 

1995 

4 (13) 


Healthy 

Mining 


 2004 

14 


Healthy 


  

Firebreaks 

 2008 

100 


Healthy 

 

4B. North of Mt Iron 



1995 

5 (15) + 

Healthy 

Inappropriate

 

 

2004 



15 +/- 

Healthy 


fire regime 

 2008 


20 

Healthy 


 

4C. North of Mt Iron 

1995 

15 (35) + 



Healthy 

 

 2004 



50 

Healthy 


 

 2008 


50 

 

 



4D. North of Mt Iron 

1999 


30 +/- 

Healthy 


 

 2008 


30 

 

 



5. North of Western Gem Mine 

2004 


100 

Healthy 


Mining Inappropriate 

fire regime 

 2008 

100 


 

 

6. Southeast of Mt Gordon 



2008 

100 


 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

7



 

  

 

 

Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations 

 

Habitat critical to the survival of Marianthus mollis is the area of occupancy of important populations, areas 

of similar habitat surrounding important populations i.e. gravely sands over laterite or ironstone and sand 

over laterite and additional occurrences of similar habitat that do not currently contain the species but may 

have done so in the past and may be suitable for translocations. These areas of similar habitat are important 

where they provide potential habitat for natural range extension and/or for allowing pollinators or biota 

essential to the continued existence of the species to move between populations. 

 

 As  Marianthus mollis is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth EPBC Act all populations are 



considered important populations. 

 

Benefits to other species/ecological communities 



 

The Ravensthorpe Range is an area of high conservation value and occurs within one of the fifteen National 

Biodiversity Hotspots, which are areas of species richness and endemism, and areas under major threat 

(CALM 2004).  The Ravensthorpe Range is habitat for a number of endemic species and threatened species, 

including  Daviesia megacalyx (En), Acacia rhamphophylla (En) and some twenty Priority taxa, such as 

Melaleuca stramentosa (P1), Pultenea  sp. Kundip (P1), Melaleuca sp. Kundip (P1), Acacia  laricina var. 

crassifolia (P2), Spyridium glaucum

 

(P3) and Siegfriedia darwinioides (P4).  Recovery actions put in place 



for  Marianthus mollis will benefit these species and reciprocally, recovery actions put in place for these 

species will benefit M. mollis



 

International obligations 

 

This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 



ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that 

Convention. However, as Marianthus mollis is not listed under any international agreement, the 

implementation of other international environmental responsibilities is not affected by this plan. 

 

Indigenous consultation 

 

Involvement of the indigenous community is being sought through the advice of the Department of 



Indigenous Affairs to determine whether there are any issues or interests identified in the plan. A search of 

the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register has identified six registered sites 

occuring in close proximity to the Marianthus mollis populations.  the registered sites are Claytup Surface 

Scatter, Kundip, Coujinup Surface Scatter, Gnamma Hole and North Jerdacuttup River 1 & 2. DEC has 

sought active involvement from Indigenous groups that have an interest in the areas that are habitat for 

Marianthus mollis. Where no role is identified for the indigenous community associated with this species in 

the development of the recovery plan opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness 

of the species. Indigenous involvement in the implementation of recovery actions will be encouraged and is 

discussed in the recovery actions. 

 

Affected interests 

 

All populations occur on Crown land which are subject to mining tenements or may be subject to them in the 



future.  Populations 2, 3A, 3B, 4D and 5 are located on live mining tenements and Populations 4A and 4C 

occur on pending mining tenements. Populations 1 and 4B are located within three kilometres of mining 

tenements. 

 

Social and economic impacts 

 

The implementation of this recovery plan has the potential to have some social and economic impact as the 



majority of populations are located on live or pending mining tenements. However, recovery actions refer to 

continued negotiations between stakeholders with regard to these areas. 

 

 

8



 

  

 

 

                                                     



Guide for decision-makers 

 

Section 1 provides details of current and possible future threats. Developments in the immediate vicinity of 



the population or within the defined habitat critical of Marianthus mollis require assessment for the potential 

for a significant level of impact. No developments should be approved (WA) unless the proponents can 

demonstrate that they will not have a detrimental impact on the species, or its habitat or potential habitat, or 

the local surface and ground water hydrology. 

 

Evaluation of the Plan’s Performance 

 

DEC, in conjunction with the Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team will evaluate the 



performance of this recovery plan. In addition to annual reporting on progress against the criteria for success 

and failure, the plan is to be reviewed within five years of its implementation. Any changes to management 

and/or recovery actions made in response to monitoring results will be documented accordingly. 

 

2. 



RECOVERY OBJECTIVE AND CRITERIA 

 

Objectives 

 

The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ 



populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild. 

 

Criteria for success: The number of populations and individuals within populations remains stable or 

increases over the five years of the plan. 

Criteria for failure: The number of populations or the number of individuals within populations decreases 

over the five years of the plan. 

 

3. RECOVERY 

ACTIONS 

 

Completed recovery actions 

 

All land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of Marianthus mollis. The 



notification details the Declared Rare status of the species and the legal responsibility to protect it. 

 

Seed was collected from Population 4 in December 1995. Initial germination and retest germination of the 



seed yielded 46% and 36% germination, respectively. The seed was germinated on agar containing 25mg/l 

Gibberellic acid. Marianthus mollis (and another Marianthus species tested) have not been tested on plain 

agar and it therefore unclear whether the Gibberellic acid is aiding in the germination. Smoke treatment and 

seed coat nicking were also tested but do not appear to have had any beneficial effect on germination. 

However, results are inconclusive due to the small sample sizes (

3

A. Crawford, personal communication). 



 

Ongoing and future recovery actions 

 

Populations are monitored as regularly as practicable. 



 

Where populations occur on lands other than those managed by DEC, permission has been or will be sought 

from appropriate land managers prior to recovery actions being undertaken. The following recovery actions 

are roughly in order of descending priority; however this should not constrain addressing any of the priorities 

if funding is available and other opportunities arise. 

 

1. 



Coordinate recovery actions 

 

The Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (ADTFRT) is coordinating recovery actions for 



Marianthus mollis and will include information on progress in their annual report to DEC’s Corporate 

Executive and funding bodies. 

 

3

 Andrew Crawford  Senior Technical Officer, CALM Threatened Flora Seed Centre 



 

9


 

  

 

 

Action: 

Coordinate recovery actions 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Albany Work Centre) through the ADTFRT  



Cost:  

$3,000 per year 

 

2. Monitor 

populations 

 

Continue regular monitoring of Marianthus mollis



 

Action: 

Monitor populations 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Albany Work Centre)  



Cost:  

$1,750 per year 

 

3. 

Continue fire management 

 

Continue current fire management practices, including maintenance of firebreaks around populations, and 



develop a fire management strategy. 

 

Action: 

Continue fire management 

Responsibility: 

DEC (Albany Work Centre)  



Cost:  

$2,800 in the first year 

 

4. 

Continue seed collection 

 

Preservation of germplasm is essential to guard against the possible extinction of wild populations. Seed can 



also be used to propagate plants for future translocations. Seed is required from all populations to maximise 

the genetic diversity of ex situ material. Seed collection will be ongoing to obtain seed from as wide a range 

of individuals as possible. 

 

Action: 

Continue seed collection 

Responsibility: 

DEC (Threatened Flora Seed Centre and Albany Work Centre)  



Cost:  

$5,930 per year 

 

5. 

Obtain biological and ecological information 

 

Knowledge of the biology and ecology of Marianthus mollis will provide a better scientific basis for 



management of the wild populations. An understanding of the following is particularly necessary for 

effective management: 

 

1.

 



Soil seed bank dynamics and the role of disturbance, competition and rainfall in germination and 

recruitment. 

2.

 

The phenology, seasonal growth and pollination biology. 



3.

 

Disease susceptibility. 



 

Action: 

Obtain biological and ecological information 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Science Division and Albany Work Centre)  



Cost:  

$24,000 per year for three years 

 

6.   

Conduct further surveys 

 

Surveys supervised by DEC staff, with assistance from local naturalists and wildflower society members, are 



to be conducted during the species flowering period (August to September).  Similar habitat has not been 

extensively surveyed.  Information on soil and vegetation types will be used to identify similar habitat to 

target for further survey. 

 

Action:   

Conduct futher surveys 

Responsibility: 

DEC (Science Division and Albany Work Centre)  



Cost:  

 

$5,320 per year  



 

10


 

  

 

 

 

7.   

Liaise with land managers 

 

Staff from DEC Albany District will continue to liaise with current and future mining leasees to ensure 



populations on mining tenements are not accidentally damaged or destroyed and that the impacts of 

identified threats are minimised. Input and involvement will also be sought from Indigenous groups that have 

an active interest in areas that are habitat for Marianthus mollis

 

Action:   

Liaise with land managers 

Responsibility: 

DEC (Albany Work Centre)  



Cost:  

 

$1,200 per year  



 

8. 

Map habitat critical to the survival of the species 

 

Although habitat critical to the survival of the species is mentioned in Section 1, all the areas described have 



not yet been accurately mapped and will be addressed under this action. If additional populations are located, 

habitat critical to their survival will also be determined and mapped. 



 

Action: 

Map habitat critical to the survival of the species 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Albany Work Centre)  



Cost:  

$400 in first year 

 

9. Promote 

awareness 

 

The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of wild populations of 



this species will be promoted to the community through poster displays and the local print and electronic 

media. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will also be encouraged.  

 

Action: Promote 

awareness 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Albany Work Centre) through the ADTFRT 



Cost:  

$900 per year 

 

10. 

Review the recovery plan and assess the need for further recovery actions 

 

If Marianthus mollis is still ranked as Vulnerable (World Conservation Union Red List criteria D1 & 2) at 



the end of the fourth year of the five-year term of this recovery plan, the plan will be reviewed and the need 

for further recovery actions assessed. 

 

Action: 

Review the recovery plan and assess the need for further recovery actions 



Responsibility: 

 

DEC (Species and Communities Branch and Albany Work Centre) through the 



ADTFRT  

Cost:  

$4,000 in the fifth year (if required). 

 

4. 

TERM OF PLAN 

 

Western Australia 

 

This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from July 2005 to June 2010 but will remain in force until 



withdrawn or replaced. If the taxon is still ranked as Vulnerable (World Conservation Union Red List 

criteria) after five years this IRP will be reviewed and if necessary, further recovery actions put in place. 

 

Commonwealth 

 

In accordance with the provisions of the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity 



Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) this adopted recovery plan will remain in force until revoked.   

 

The recovery plan must be reviewed at intervals of not longer than 5 years. 



 

11


 

  

 

 

 

12



 

5. REFERENCES 

 

 

Bennett, E. M. (1983) A new species of Billardiera  (Pittosporaceae) from south-west Western Australia. 



Nuytsia 4(3):275-277. 

Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds) (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. 

Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia. 

CALM (1994) Policy Statement No. 50 Setting Priorities for the Conservation of Western Australia’s 



Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western 

Australia. 

CALM (1998) Western Australian Herbarium FloraBase – Information on the Western Australian Flora. 

Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.  

CALM (2004) Towards a biodiversity conservation strategy for Western Australia : discussion paper. 

Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia. 

Gill, A.M. and Nichols, A.O. (1989) Monitoring fire prone flora in reserves for nature conservation. In: "Fire 

Management on Nature Conservation Lands". Occasional Paper 1/89. Department of Conservation and 

Land Management, Perth, Western Australia. 

Lewis, J. (1982) Leucopogon sp. aff. bossiaea, Billardiera 'mollis' E.M.Bennett ms., Boronia ternata var. 

elongata P.G.Wilson, Acacia provisional species no. 32 (Acacia p. 32) B.R.Maslin. Confidential 

Unpublished Report, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Western Australia 

Peters, R.L. and Darling, J.D.S.  (1985) The greenhouse effect and nature reserves.  Bioscience 35(11): 707-

717. 


Sargent, O. H. (1909) The flower biology of Marianthus lineatus. Journal of the Natural History and Science 

Society of Western Australia. Natural History & Science Society of W.A. 3: 58-65 

World Conservation Union (1994) IUCN red list categories prepared by the IUCN Species Survival 



Commissionas approved by the 51

st

 meeting of the IUCN Council. Gland, Switzerland. 

 

6. TAXONOMIC 

DESCRIPTION 

 

 

Low, spreading shrub to 50 cm tall; young stems reddish-brown, white hirsute, becoming grey-brown with 



age and hairs rubbing off.  Leaves alternate, ovate to lanceolate-ovate, mucronate, 10-20 x 7-11 mm, both 

surfaces of young leaves long white hirsute, becoming glabrous with age, hairs semi-persistent along margin 

and midvein, margins flat, petiole 0.75-1 mm long. Flowers solitary (rarely 2), axillary; flowering 

penduncles slender, 15-25 mm long, deep blue with scattered long and short white hairs; fruiting penduncles 

15-25 mm long, green or greenish-brown, hirsute. Bracts at base of penduncle lanceolate-linear, 0.75-1.25 

mm, dark-blue covered in long and short white hairs. Sepals free, narrow-lanceolate, dark blue, hirsute. 

Petals dark blue or blue with 3 or 4 fine distinct purple lines on outer surface, pale blue or nearly white in 

throat, 12-15 x 3-6 mm, recurved 3-5 mm from tip. Anthers 0.75-1 mm long, white, filaments 6-8 (10) mm 

long, whitish green, dilated at base, tip curved forwards. Ovary hirsute, 2.5-3.5 mm long; style 1.5-2 mm 

long, glabrous. Capsules covered with long white hairs, 7-14 x 5-7 mm long; seeds 1.5-2 mm, dark brown, 



smooth, shiny. 

 

Document Outline

  • Habitat requirements: The species inhabits gravely sands over laterite or ironstone and sand over laterite. It grows in mallee heath and associated species include Banksia lemanniana, Beaufortia schaueri, Eucalyptus astringens subsp. redacta and Taxandria spathulata.
  • Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations: Habitat critical to the survival of Marianthus mollis is the area of occupancy of important populations, areas of similar habitat surrounding important populations i.e. gravely sands over laterite or ironstone and sand over laterite and additional occurrences of similar habitat that do not currently contain the species but may have done so in the past and may be suitable for translocations. These areas of similar habitat are important where they provide potential habitat for natural range extension and/or for allowing pollinators or biota essential to the continued existence of the species to move between populations.
  • Indigenous consultation: Involvement of the indigenous community is being sought through the advice of the Department of Indigenous Affairs to determine whether there are any issues or interests identified in the plan. A search of the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register has identified six registered sites occuring in close proximity to the Marianthus mollis populations.  DEC will seek input and involvement from Indigenous groups that have an active interest in the areas that are habitat for Marianthus mollis. Where no role is identified for the indigenous community associated with this species in the development of the recovery plan opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species. Indigenous involvement in the implementation of recovery actions will be encouraged.
    • Affected Interests: All populations occur on Crown land that currently holds mining tenements or may do in the future.  Populations 2 and 5, and Subpopulations 3A, 3B and 4D are located on live mining tenements and Subpopulations 4A and 4C occur on pending mining tenements. Population 1 and Subpopulation 4B are located within three kilometres of mining tenements.
  • Social and economic impacts: The implementation of this recovery plan has the potential to have some social and economic impact as the majority of populations are located on live or pending mining tenements. However, recovery actions refer to continued negotiations between stakeholders with regard to these areas.
    • Objectives
      • History
      • Description
        • Distribution and habitat
          • The species is found in the Ravensthorpe Range and eastward along the Rabbit Proof Fence, occupying approximately twelve hectares over a range of approximately thirty kilometres. It is suggested that the outlying population along the Rabbit Proof Fence is due to an extension of the underlying geology of the Ravensthorpe Range into this region (Lewis 1982).  The species inhabits gravely sands over laterite or ironstone and sand over laterite. It grows in mallee heath, usually in open areas where the soil has been disturbed.  The species does not appear to be highly specific to soil and vegetation types (Lewis 1982). However, the species was not found during detailed surveys of Bandalup Hill, 18 km southeast of Population 1 and would therefore appear to be restricted to the Ravensthorpe Range. Associated species include Acacia pusilla, Banksia lemanniana, Beaufortia schaueri, Dampiera angulata, Dryandra cirsioides, Eucalyptus astringens subsp. redacta, E. incrassata, E. pleurocarpa, E. phaenophylla, Hakea marginata, Melaleuca hamata, M. rigidifolia, Siegfriedia darwinioides and Taxandria spathulata.
          • Biology and ecology
            • Summary of population information and threats
        • Population No. 
        • and Location
    • Habitat Condition
  • International obligations
  • Indigenous consultation
    • Affected interests
  • Social and economic impacts
  • The implementation of this recovery plan has the potential to have some social and economic impact as the majority of populations are located on live or pending mining tenements. However, recovery actions refer to continued negotiations between stakeholders with regard to these areas.
    • Guide for decision-makers
  • Evaluation of the Plan’s Performance
    • Objectives
    • 3. RECOVERY ACTIONS
    • Completed recovery actions
    • Ongoing and future recovery actions
      • 1. Coordinate recovery actions
      • 2. Monitor populations
      • 3. Continue fire management
      • 4. Continue seed collection
      • 5. Obtain biological and ecological information
        • 6.   Conduct further surveys
        • 7.   Liaise with land managers
      • 9. Promote awareness
      • 10. Review the recovery plan and assess the need for further recovery actions


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