Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine.
Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the key ingredient for many Indian, Persian and Thai dishes such as in curry and many more. Ancient Indian medicine, Ayurveda has recommended its use in food for its medicinal value, much of which is now being researched in the modern day. Its use as a coloring agent is not of primary value in South Asian cuisine.
Turmeric paste is traditionally used by Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair and as an antimicrobial. Turmeric paste, as part of both home remedies and Ayurveda, is also said to improve the skin and is touted as an anti-aging agent. Turmeric figures prominently in the bridal beautification ceremonies of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Staining oneself with turmeric is believed to improve the skin tone and tan. Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens.
Tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties, and might be used to treat skin inflammations, making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.
Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye, as it is not very light fast (it fades with exposure to sunlight). However, turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing, such as saris.Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants are unknown, but anecdotal evidence suggests it works
Medicinal uses : It is taken as the blood purifier and is very useful in the common cold,leprosy, intermittent, affections of the liver, dropsy, inflammation and wound healing. The rhizome of the turmeric plant is highly aromatic and antiseptic. It is even used for contraception, swelling, insect stings, wounds, whooping cough, inflammation, internal injuries, pimples, injuries, as a skin tonic. Sweetened milk boiled with the turmeric is the popular remedy for cold and cough. It is given in liver ailments and jaundice.
Other uses : The powered rhizome of this plant is used as an condiment and as an yellow dye. Its is used to colour and flavour the foodstuff. It is used in the preparation of medicinal oils, ointments and poultice. It is even used in the cosmetics.
Cultural Importance : For thousand of years it has been used in the Hindu religious ceremonies. It is the common belief among the the Hindus that Turmeric improves fertility. The dry turmeric root is considered as the symbol of purity and prosperity. It is used in Indian rites and rituals. Turmeric mixed in water is poured on the God and Goddesses. The dried turmeric roots in betel leaves are given to the women during the ceremonies as they are considered as fertile and bring good luck. Turmeric power is applied on the main entrance of the Indian Houses. The priests in the temples put tilak on the forehead with the turmeric power. Married women in India has to put Sindur a vermilion paste (mixture of turmeric with camphor).
Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 5% curcumin, a polyphenol. Curcumin is the active substance of turmeric and curcumin is known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione.
It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Curcumin is a pH indicator. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.
Curcumin keto form
Curcumin enol form
Preliminary medical research
Turmeric is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease, cancer,diabetes, arthritis, and other clinical disorders. As an example of preliminary laboratory research, turmeric ameliorated the severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury in mice.
According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal, research activity into curcumin and turmeric is increasing. The U.S. National Institutes of Health currently has registered 61 clinical trials completed or underway to study use of dietary curcumin for a variety of clinical disorders.
Some research shows compounds in turmeric to have anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties, however, curcumin is not one of them.
The tree occurs in the tropical and sub-tropical climates under a wide range of environmental conditions. Jambolan can thrive on a variety of soils in low, wet areas and on higher, well-drained land (loam, marl, sandy soils, calcareous soils). It grows well in areas receiving heavy rainfall between 1,500-10,000mm per anum. It develops most luxuriantly in regions of heavy rainfall, as much as 400 in. (1,000cm) annually. In India it is usually found in areas receiving 900-5000mm. The mean relative humidity in July varies from 70 to 100% and in January from 40 to 90 %. It can tolerate prolonged flooding. It also grows well on well-drained soils and once established, can tolerate drought. The jambolan tree grows well from sea-level to 6,000 ft (1,800 m) but, above 2,000 ft (600 m) it does not fruit but can be grown for its timber. It prospers on river banks and has been known to withstand prolonged flooding. Yet it is tolerant of drought after it has made some growth. Dry weather is desirable during the flowering and fruiting periods. It is sensitive to frost when young but mature trees have been undamaged by brief below-freezing temperatures in southern Florida. Despite its ability to thrive in low, wet areas, the tree does well on higher, well-drained land whether it be in loam, marl, sand or oolitic limestone.
In its area of distribution, the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 2.5o to 17.5oC. The mean daily maximum temperature in May which is the hottest month of the year, varies from 30o to 43.5oC, and the mean daily minimum temperature in the coldest month i.e. January varies from 5o to 23.9oC
The jambolan is fast-growing, reaching full size in 40 years. It ranges up to 100 feet (30m) in India and Oceania; up to 40 or 50 feet (12-15m) in Florida; and it may attain a spread of 36 feet (11m) with a trunk diameter of 2 or 3 feet (0.6-0.9m). It usually forks into multiple trunks, a short distance from the ground. The bark on the lower part of the tree is rough, cracked, flaking and discoloured; further up the trunk it is smooth and light-grey. The turpentine-scented evergreen leaves are opposite, 2 to 10 inches (5-25cm) long, 1 to 4 inches (2.5-10cm) wide; oblong-oval or elliptic, blunt or tapering to a point at the apex; pinkish when young; when mature, leathery, glossy, dark-green above, lighter beneath, with conspicuous, yellowish midrib. The fragrant flowers, in 1to 4 inches (2.5-10cm) clusters, are 1/2 inch (1.25cm) wide, 1 inch (2.5cm) or more in length; have a funnel-shaped calyx and 4 to 5 united petals, white at first, then rose-pink, which quickly shed leaving only the numerous stamens.
The fruit, in clusters, is round or oblong, often curved; 1/2 to 2 inches. (1.25 - 5cm) long, and usually turns from green to light-magenta, then dark-purple or nearly black as it ripens. A white-fruited form has been reported in Indonesia. The skin is thin, smooth, glossy, and adherent. The pulp is purple or white, very juicy and normally encloses a single, oblong, green or brown seed, up to 1 1/2 inches. (4cm) in length, though some fruits have 2 to 5 seeds tightly compressed within a leathery coat and some are seedless. The fruit is usually astringent, sometimes unpalatably so, and the flavour varies from acid to fairly sweet.
The bark skin, fruits, leaves ad seeds of jambu are used for medicinal purpose. The plant is useful both, internally as wel as externally.Jambolan fruit can be eaten raw and can be made into tarts, sauces and jams. Good quality jambolan juice is excellent for sherbet, sirup and "squash", an Indian drink.. The jambolan tree is of real value in apiculture. The flowers have abundant nectar, and the honey is of fine quality.
The leaves have served as fodder for livestock and as food for tassar silkworms in India.Young jambolan shootsare used for cleaning their teeth. The essential oil distilled from the leaves is used to scent soap and is blended with other materials in making inexpensive perfume
The bark contains 8 to 19% tannin and is much used in tanning leather and preserving fishing nets. When kiln dried, the heartwood is hard, difficult to work but polishes well.
Medicinally, the fruit is stated to be astringent, stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic. Cooked to a thick jam, it is eaten to allay acute diarrhea. The juice of the ripe fruit, or a decoction of the fruit, or jambolan vinegar, may be administered in India in cases of enlargement of the spleen, chronic diarrhea and urine retention. Water-diluted juice is used as a gargle for sore throat and as a lotion for ringworm of the scalp.
Seeds, in liquid or powdered form, are freely given orally, 2 to 3 times a day, to patients with diabetes mellitus or glycosuiria. In many cases, the blood sugar level reportedly is quickly reduced and there are no ill effects. The leaves, steeped in alcohol, are prescribed in diabetes.. Jambu is benevolent in polyuria, as it reduces the urinary output. It combines well with jaggery to get rid of vitiated pitta conditions. Jambu is a popular panacea in diabetes. The leaf juice is effective in the treatment of dysentery, either alone or in combination with the juice of mango or emblic leaves. Jambolan leaves may be helpful as poultices on skin diseases. The leaves, stems, flowerbuds, opened blossoms, and bark have some antibiotic activity. A decoction of the bark is taken internally for dyspepsia, dysentery, and diarrhea and also serves as an enema. The root bark is similarly employed.
Bark decoctions are taken in cases of asthma and bronchitis and are gargled or used as mouthwash for the astringent effect on mouth ulcerations, spongy gums, and stomatitis. Ashes of the bark, mixed with water, are spread over local inflammations, or, blended with oil, applied to bums. The tree is grown as shade for coffee in India. It is wind-resistant and sometimes is closely planted in rows as a windbreak.
The powder of bark skin, applied externally, effectively controls the bleeding. In high fevers, to alleviate the burning sensation, the fruit pulp mixed with sesame oil is applied. The oil medicated with jambu leaves, is salutary in dermatoses. The paste of seeds mashed in water, is the best medicament for acne as well as prickly heat. Jambu with babbula and bakula is an effective gargle in stomatitis.
Internally, jambu is useful in varied ailments. The tender leaves juice, works well along with honey, to abate vomiting. The fresh juice of the leaves accords styptic action in raktapitta and alleviates bleeding in diarrhea associated with bleeding and menorrhagia, the seed powder is preferred.
Its chemical composition has been reported by Craveiro et al. in Brazil. It consists mainly of mono- or sesqui-terpene hydrocarbons which are "very common in essential oils."
Jambolan bark yields durable brown dyes of various shades depending on the mordant and the strength of the extract. The bark contains 8 to 19% tannin.
From the Eugenia jambolana flowers myricetin 3–L–arabinose, dihydromyricetin and quercetin 3 – D golactoside have been isolated. Betulinic acid, friedelin, friedelinol, kaemferol and its 3-O glucoside, quercetin, sitosterol and its glucoside and sucrose are isolated from stembark.Detection of heptacosane, nonacosane, triacontane, hentriacontane, octacosanol, triacosanol and detriacosanol from leaves. Two new anthocyanins – delphinidin – 3 – gen- tiobioside and malvidin – 3 – gentiobioside and malvidin – 3 gentiobioside have isolated from fruits. Detection of pinene and pinene in essential oil from leaves stems and fruits. Determination of oleic, myristic, linoleic, stearic, palmitic, vernolic, lauric, sterculic and malvalic acids in seed oil.
It is useful in ailments caused by kapha and pitta. It has a cohesive action. Because of cool nature it is helpful in skin related ailments and suppresses burning sensation occurring in the body. It helps in proper digestion in the body. It stimulated liver. It helps in curbing infection in the body. It is anti- diuretic in nature and reduces the sugar levels in blood and urine. It’s spasmolytic, anti-Parkinson's, androgenic, aphrodisiac, hypoglycemic’
The present study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of different parts of Eugenia jambolana seeds such as whole seed, kernel, and seed coat on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the ethanolic extract of kernel at a concentration of 100 mg/kg of body weight significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, blood urea, and cholesterol, increased glucose tolerance and levels of total proteins and liver glycogen, and decreased the activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in experimental diabetic rats. Whole seed showed a moderate hypoglycemic effect, and seed coat did not show any hypoglycemic effect. The hypoglycemic efficacy was compared with that of glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug.
Botanical Name : Emblica officinalis
English names include emblic myrobalan, Malacca tree and Indian gooseberry, though the last term is more frequently applied to the related but dissimilar Otaheite gooseberry, q.v. In Malaya the emblic is called melaka, Asam melaka, or amlaka; in Thailand, it is ma-kham-pom; in Laos, mak-kham-pom; in Cambodia, kam lam or kam lam ko; in southern Vietnam, bong ngot; in North Vietnam, chu me. In the Philippines, it is called nelli.
The emblic tree is native to tropical southeastern Asia, particularly in central and southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Ceylon, Malaya, southern China and the Mascarene Islands. It is commonly cultivated in home gardens throughout India and grown commercially in Uttar Pradesh. Many trees have been planted in southern Malaya, Singapore, and throughout Malaysia. In India, and to a lesser extent in Malaya, the emblic is important and esteemed, raw as well as preserved, and it is prominent in folk medicine.
In 1901, the United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from the Reasoner Brothers, noted nurserymen and plant importers of Oneco, Florida. Seeds were distributed to early settlers in Florida and to public gardens and experimental stations in Bermuda, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Panama, Hawaii and the Philippines.
The tree is a graceful ornamental, normally reaching a height of 60 ft (18 m) and, in rare instances, 100 ft (30 m). Its fairly smooth bark is a pale grayish-brown and peels off in thin flakes like that of the guava. While actually deciduous, shedding its branchlets as well as its leaves, it is seldom entirely bare and is therefore often cited as an evergreen. The miniature, oblong leaves, only 1/8 in (3 mm) wide and 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) long, distichously disposed on very slender branchlets, give a misleading impression of finely pinnate foliage. Small, inconspicuous, greenish-yellow flowers are borne in compact clusters in the axils of the lower leaves. Usually, male flowers occur at the lower end of a growing branchlet, with the female flowers above them, but occasional trees are dioecious.
The nearly stemless fruit is round or oblate, indented at the base, and smooth, though 6 to 8 pale lines, sometimes faintly evident as ridges, extending from the base to the apex, give it the appearance of being divided into segments or lobes. Light-green at first, the fruit becomes whitish or a dull, greenish-yellow, or, more rarely, brick-red as it matures. It is hard and unyielding to the touch. The skin is thin, translucent and adherent to the very crisp, juicy, concolorous flesh.
Tightly embedded in the center of the flesh is a slightly hexagonal stone containing 6 small seeds. Fruits collected in South Florida vary from 1 to 1 1/4 in (2.5-3.2 cm) in diameter but choice types in India approach 2 in (5 cm) in width. Ripe fruits are astringent, extremely acid, and some are distinctly bitter.
Flowering during February to may and fruits during October to April.
In India there are 3 named cultivars grown commercially:
'Banarsi'–originated in Banarsi district of Uttar Pradesh; medium to large, the 6 segments paired, giving the appearance of only 3; 1 1/2 in (4 cm) long, 1 3/4 in (4.5 cm) wide; skin thin and translucent, light-green, turning whitish as the fruit ripens; flesh slightly fibrous, medium juicy, moderately astringent. Earliest in season. Tree is semi-spreading; not a heavy cropper; tends to alternate bearing unless interplanted.
'Chakaiya'–flattened at base and apex; may have 6, 7, or 8 segments; of medium size, 1 1/4 in (3.2 cm) long, 3 1/4 in (8.25 cm) wide; flesh fibrous. Tree is spreading; prolific. This cultivar is now preferred over the others because of its yield.
'Francis' ('Hathijhool')–rounded-oval, bulged at the apex; has 6 segments; large, 1 5/8 in (4.3 cm) long and 2 in (5 cm) wide. The tree is a regular producer of good crops, but prone to fruit necrosis.
The ordinary small fruits–5/8 to 1 in (1.5-2.5 cm) wide, with reddish skin, rarely grown commercially, are mainly used for medicinal purposes.
A good source of vitamin c; carotene,nicotinic acid,riboflavin,D glucose, D fructose, myoinositol and a pectin with D galacturonic acid, D arabinosyl, D xylosyl, L rhamnosyl, D glucosyl, D mannosyl and D galactosyl residues;embicol,mucic and phyllemblic acids,phyllembin and fatty acids(seed oil); leucodelphinidin, procyanidin, 3 o gallated prodelphinidin and tannin(bark); ellagic acid, lupeol, oleanolic aldehyde and O acetyl oleanolic acid from root.
The dry, powdered fruit contains 6.3% phyllembic acid, 6% fatty matter, 5% gallic acid, ellagic acid, emblicol (a crystalline phenolic product) and other constituents. Phyllemblin (ethyl gallate) isolated from dried fruit, acts as a mild CNS depressant and has spasmolytic activity.
The ascorbic acid in the emblic is considered highly stable, apparently protected by tannins (or leucoanthocyanins) which retard oxidation. Biochemical studies at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, show 13 tannins plus 3 or 4 colloidal complexes. In juice extracted from the fresh fruit, the ascorbic acid is stable for at least a week. Fresh juice stored at 35.6º F (2º C) loses only 14% ascorbic acid after 45 days. Only 30% is lost in evaporation over open flame at 149º F (65º C), but the product loses 40% during a week in a refrigerator and 100% in 20 days.
Efforts in India to prepare a stable ascorbic acid concentrate from the dried fruit have been frustrating because sun-drying loses 65% ascorbic acid. Artificial drying at 185º F (85º C) loses 34%; and at 212º F (100º C), 72%. Once dried, there is negligible loss. However, vacuum-drying (27 in. Hg) at 140-176º F (60-80º C) retains the original ascorbic acid levels, the dried product containing 2,000 to 3,500 mg per 100 g, depending on the content of the fresh fruit. Even after 14 months of refrigerated storage, there is a loss of only 15 to 20%.
Separation of tannins from expressed juice by precipitation with neutral lead acetate and ion exchange chromatographic purification has yielded crystalline ascorbic acid amounting to 70-72% of that in the juice.
Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Rural folk in India claim that the highly acid, fresh, raw fruit, followed by water, produces a sweet and refreshing aftertaste. Wood-cutters in Southeast Asia eat the emblic to avoid thirst, as the fruit stimulates the flow of saliva.For the same purpose it is used in treating diabetes as it helps so much to control poly dipsea one of the main symptom of diabetes. The seeds are used in treating diabetes and controls the raising blood sugar levels as they contain proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes, phosphatides and a small amount of essential oil.
The emblic is of great importance in Asiatic medicine, not only as an antiscorbutic, but in the treatment of diverse ailments, especially those associated with the digestive organs. For such use, the fruit juice is prepared in the form of a sherbet or is fermented. In the latter state, it is prescribed in jaundice, dyspepsia and coughs.
The dried chips of flesh are dispensed by apothecaries and often are mixed with grape juice and honey for dosage. The fruit is considered diuretic and laxative. Triphala, a decoction of emblic with Terminalia chebula Retz. and T. bellerica Roxb. is given for chronic dysentery, biliousness, hemorrhoids, enlarged liver, and other disorders. A powder prepared from the dried fruit is an effective expectorant as it stimulates the bronchial glands.
The juice that exudes when the fruit is scored while still on the tree is valued as an eyewash and an application for inflamed eyes. An infusion made by steeping dried fruit overnight in water also serves as an eyewash, as does an infusion of the seeds. A liquor made from the fermented fruits is prescribed as a treatment for indigestion, anemia, jaundice, some cardiac problems, nasal congestion and retention of urine.
Emblic leaves, too, are taken internally for indigestion and diarrhea or dysentery, especially in combination with buttermilk, sour milk or fenugreek. The milky sap of the tree is applied on foul sores. The plant is considered an effective antiseptic in cleaning wounds, and it is also one of the many plant palliatives for snakebite and scorpion stings. A decoction of the leaves is used as a mouthwash and as a lotion for sore eyes.
The flowers, considered refrigerant and aperient, and roots, emetic, are also variously employed. The root bark, mixed with honey, is applied to inflammations of the mouth. The bark is strongly astringent and used in the treatment of diarrhea and as a stomachic for elephants. The juice of the fresh bark is mixed with honey and turmeric and given in cases of gonorrhea. It is clear that the majority of the applications of the fruit and other parts are based on the astringent action of the tannins they contain.An ointment made from the burnt seeds and oil is applied to skin afflictions.
The seeds are used in treating asthma, bronchitis, diabetes and fevers. They contain proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes, phosphatides and a small amount of essential oil. Approximately 16% consists of a brownish-yellow fixed oil.
Other uses of the fruit and parts of the tree are numerous:
Fruit: The dried fruit yields ink and hair-dye and, having detergent properties, is sometimes used as a shampoo. A fixed oil derived from the fruit allegedly acts as a hair-restorer and is used in shampoos in India
A most curious custom is the making of simulated pottery jars from a paste of the boiled fruit, the surface being decorated with impressed colored seeds. Dyes from the fruit and leaves impart an appealing light-brown or yellow-brown hue to silk and wool. When sulfate of iron is added as a mordant, the color becomes black.
Bark: The tannin-rich bark, as well as the fruit and leaves, is highly valued and widely employed in conjunction with other so-called myrobalans, especially fruits of various species of Terminalia. The twig bark is particularly esteemed for tanning leather and is often used with leaves of Carissa spinarum A. DC. and Anogeissus latifolia Wall.
Leaves: The foliage furnishes fodder for cattle and branches are lopped for green manure. They are said to correct excessively alkaline soils.
Wood: Durable when submerged and believed to clarify water, it is utilized for crude aqueducts and inner braces for wells, and branches and chips of the wood are thrown into muddy streams for clarification and to impart a pleasant flavor. The wood serves also as fuel and a source of charcoal.
Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (amla): the Siddha wonder.
Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to promote a disease free healthy life. Many medicinal plants are present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health care system(siddha) named Kaya karpam proposed for their interesting antioxidant activities.The plant is used both as a medicine and as a tonic to build up lost vitality and vigor. Phyllanthus emblica is highly nutritious and could be an important dietary source of vitamin C, amino acids, and minerals. The plant also contains phenolic compounds, tannins, phyllembelic acid, phyllembelin, rutin, curcum-inoids, and emblicol. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, jaundice, and inflammation.
Various plant parts show antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, and chemopreventive properties.The above said abstract is proved scientifically after animal study.
Capsule Bepsonil :~Mode Of Action
Since now we saw the details and scientifically proved datas of each and every ingredients of the capsule Bepsonil,now we can see it’s pharmacological effects in controlling diabetes mellitus.
The active principals present in the following ingredients namely:
Momordica charantia by their bitter principal,astringent taste and anti diuretic action reduces the raised blood sugar levels in diabetesand thus controls frequent micurition(Poly urea). All these ingredients by their proved anti oxidant property and being general tonics increases the strength of all the 7 body elements which are spoiled by the diabetes and thus rejuvenates the body cells and also prevents the loss of weight and promotes good health to the patient.
The other remaining ingredients acts upon the body to reduce the symptoms of diabetes as follows :
Abroma augusta by its demulcent action quenches the over thirst(Poly dipsea) and reduces the dryness and itching (Pruritis) of the skin in diabetes patients.
Aegle marmelosby it’s coolent action reduces the burning sensation present in the foot (Pheripheral neuritis) of the diabetes patients.
Curcuma longabeing best anti septic and antimicrobial actions prevents or controls the candid infection to which the diabetes patients are easily prone and therby controls vulvitis and avoids the occurance of genital ulcers.
Curcuma longa & Emblica officinalis being hepatic tonic acts on the liver and maintains it’s strength and controls it’s hyper secreation and thus reduces over appetite(Poly phagia).
Aegle marmelos & Emblica officinalisbeing a rich source of vitamin c(ascorbic acid) it acts as a surplus producer of immunoglobulins and thus avoids the diabetes patients from being easily infected by other disease causing microorganisms.
We noticed from this project how safely Capsule Bepsonil is acting efficiently in controlling Diabetes. The ingredients of the capsule being scientifically proved drugs against diabetes this capsule proved to be a best controller and general health promoter in diabetes patients. With this capsule a large number of diabetes patients were benefited.
The clinical trial of this capsule with some 100 diabetes patients showed a good control over the raised blood sugar levels in some 80% of the patients and maximum of the symptoms of the disease got reduced and are with good general health.
There by we can come to a conclusion that in the fore coming eras our siddha system of medicine is going to do miracles in the medical world by proving it’s scientifical actions against almost maximum of the diseases that are saking the humanity in profitably best and safe manner.