Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by high blood-glucose levels. This abnormal rise in glucose levels in the blood due to either insulin deficiency or to resistance of the body’s cells to the action of insulin. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines four major types of diabetes.
Classification of Diabetes mellitus
It is classified based on the cause or mode of treatments;
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) - insulin shots are not must normalize the glucose level,
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) - diabetes develops during pregnancy and mostly disappears after delivery,
secondary to other conditions (e.g. pancreatic disease, Hormonal disease, Drug or chemical exposure, Insulin receptor abnormalities, certain genetic syndromes).
Diagnosis of diabetes is by the presence of the classic signs & symptoms and inequitably elevated blood-glucose levels, by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 140 mg/dl, or by venous plasma glucose 200 mg/dl at 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose challenge.
There are two major types of diabetes
Diabetes is broadly classified into two major types.
Type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes, the pancreas is failed to produce hormone insulin. Resulting in high blood-glucose level this may be either due to functional or structural deficiencies of the insulin producing cells and so, the patients need insulin shots.
Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or insulin resistance, the pancreas produces insulin, but insufficient quantity or body become insensitive to insulin and need excess insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is very common, particularly along elderly people.
Subdivisions in Type 2 diabetes
pre-diabetes - blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough to diagnose as diabetes. That is borderline diabetes can be reversed with proper food and physical activities.
gestational diabetes - develops during pregnancy due to hormonal changes that occur naturally during pregnancy.
The International Diabetes Federation estimates that more than 250 million people around the world have diabetes. This total is expected to rise to 380 million within 20 years. Each year a further 7 million people develop diabetes. Presently there is no complete cure for diabetes, but fortunately it can be managed without complications by using proper medication.
Type 1 diabetes | IDDM
If the body’s insulin production insufficient (or is stopped) production is called as type-1 diabetescaused by autoimmune disorder, and it needs to be treated with insulin shots.
Type-1 diabetes is also known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), juvenile diabetes, because it is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, and young adults. Now it proves wrong, that type 1diabetes does occur even during the adult age. It is also spelled as type-i diabetes, diabetes one and diabetes 1.
What is Type-1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes)?
Type-1 diabetes is lacked of or no insulin production. Formerly, it is known as "juvenile diabetes," because it represents a majority of the cases in children, teenagers, or young adults, but it can also affect adults.
Type 1 diabetes develops because the body immune system mistakenly destroys the beta cells in the islet tissue of the pancreas that produce insulin. The rate at which they are destroyed varies from one to another. Mostly, Infants and children develop type 1 quickly, because the beta cells destroy rapidly. On the other hand, in the case of adults the type 1 diabetes develops relatively slowly.
Type-1 diabetes is mostly caused by autoimmune disorder. Other less common (very rare) causes of Type-1 diabetes includes injury to the pancreas from toxins, trauma, or after the surgical removal of the majority (or all) of the pancreas.
Type-1 diabetes needs insulin shots to maintain the blood-glucose level, because of no insulin production by the pancreas. Insulin cannot be taking through the mouth, because insulin is a hormone (protein) that is broken down by the digestive system.
Sometimes after an initial treatment, some peoples have a period from few weeks to few months, when the pancreas is again start-producing insulin known as "honeymoon period." During this time, a person may need to take less or no insulin, depending on how much insulin he/she produces. After this honeymoon period, the person needs to take insulin for the rest of his or her life.
Our body immune system mistakenly attacks pancreas and damages islet of Langerhans (regions were insulin is secreted) and thus no or very low insulin secretion leads to high level of glucose in blood.
Some viruses (mumps, rubella, cytomegalovirus, measles, influenza, encephalitis, polio or Epstein-Barr virus) and the cells in the islets of Langerhans (regions were insulin is secreted) in the pancreas are of similar structure. Thus if anyone infected by the above-said viruses, then their body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the islet of Langerhans considering it as virus and damaged it permanently. As a result, insulin production is stopped leads to type-1 diabetes; it is mostly diagnosing after diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) episode.