History of Diabetes & Diabetics

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Other Types of Diabetes

Other not so common types of diabetes are LADA (Late Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults) and MODY (Maturity onset diabetes of the young).

Other Types of Diabetes

  • Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA)

  • Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)

What is LADA?

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is a slowly developing form of type 1 diabetes also called as type 1.5 that is diagnosed among adulthood. Similar to normal type 1 diabetes, the autoimmune process of LADA destroys cells in the pancreas. Nevertheless, slowly and eventually they need insulin treatment.

LADA is different from diabetes type 2 still people with LADA are frequently misdiagnosed because both diabetes occurs in adulthood with similar symptoms. Over time, this misdiagnosis can lead to uncontrolled blood sugar levels, which can develop serious life-threatening diabetic complications.

What is MODY?

Most commonly MODY (also called as genetic diabetes) behaves like a very mild form of type 1 diabetes, with continued partial insulin secretion with normal insulin sensitivity. It is not diabetes type 2 in a young person, as might incorrectly be inferred from the name.

MODY is a diabetes type with six basic sub classifications depending upon the gene that is responsible for its onset. Only some 1 to 2% of type 1 has this variety of diabetes but mostly goes unrecognized. MODY is an autosomal predominant inherited disease, means born with a single (auto) gene that can be come from either parent. If a parent has MODY, then their children have a50% more chances of developing MODY.

MODY is dominantly inherited; a monogenic defect of insulin secretion that may occur at any age, and it no longer includes any forms of diabetes type 2.

MODY is not exclusively among adolescents, and the research knowledge shows it can also be diagnosed up to an age 55.

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Glucose metabolism is the digestion of carbohydrate food, the first nutrient that extracts out is glucose (or sugar), and it is dumped into the bloodstream.

What are carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are sugars and starches, provides energy to the body needed for its various activities. Energy can also be from the fats we eat. Some common carbohydrate sources are bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, cereals, and sugars.

What is Glucose (Carbohydrate) metabolism?

Digestion - Carbohydrate Metabolism

Digestion of carbohydrates is by both mechanical (chewing in the mouth) as well as chemical (enzyme’s secretion by the body) process of digestion.

Once the food reaches the mouth, saliva secretion contains an enzyme (amylase or ptyalin secretion by parotid glands) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrate. This breakdown process continues, and glucose separates in the stomach. Once the food reaches small intestine, glucose absorption takes place and dumps it into the bloodstream for our energy needs.

Pancreas Glucose Metabolism

After digestion, the small intestine absorbs the available glucose in the food and released into the bloodstream. Thus, the blood-glucose level in the blood rises; the pancreas senses this and responds by releasing proportional amounts of insulin. Human Insulin is a chemical messenger (a hormone).

Glucose consumption by body cells

Insulin in blood comments

  • the liver has to stop releasing glucose into the bloodstream,

  • the body cell has to start consuming glucose from the bloodstream.

Liver in Glucose Metabolism

Once the necessary glucose consumption is over and if there, is any excess glucose still available in the bloodstream then liver start converting it into glycogen and stored for the future needs.

Glycogen to glucose conversion

If we are not taking our food in time and the body cells needs energy, then liver start converting back the stored glycogen into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream.

Glucose metabolism and diabetes - If there is any problem or deficiency in the glucose metabolism - whether it is glucose absorption, insulin secretion, glucose use, glucose storage, or releasing stored glucose. This minor deficiency in glucose metabolism will slowly develop diabetes

All About-Insulin

The failure to make insulin or insufficiency of insulin is termed as Diabetes mellitus. Insulinisa natural hormone which controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin allows cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin. Excess glucose builds up in the bloodstream, increasing the risk of diabetes. Glucose is the body's primary source of fuel. Insulin enables the body cells to take glucose from the bloodstream. The cells might use glucose for production of energy if required, or it is sent to the liver to preserve it, in the form of glycogen.

Functions of Insulin

In addition to its role of regulating glucose metabolism, insulin also

  • Stimulates lipogenesis

  • Diminishes lipolysis

  • Increases amino acid transport into cells

  • Modulates transcription

  • Altering the cell content of numerous mRNAs

  • Stimulates growth

  • DNA synthesis

  • Cell replication

Structure of Insulin

Insulin is composed of 2 peptide chains i.e. A chain and B chain. Both the chains are linked together by two disulfide bonds, and one disulfide is formed within the A chain. In most species, the A chain consists of 21 amino acids and the B chain of 30 amino acids that means it is composed of 51 amino acids in two peptide chains (A and B). The three-dimensional structure of insulin molecule (insulin monomer) exists in two main conformations. These differ in the extent of helix in the B chain due to phenol or its derivatives.

In acid solutions, the insulin monomer assembles as dimmers (diffuses in the blood) neutral pH and in the presence of zinc ions, as hexamers. The intermediate and long acting insulin has high proportion of hexamers, to delay its action. The sequence of amino acid in insulin varies among species, certain segments are conserved, like positions of the three disulfide bonds, both ends of the A chain and the C-terminal residues of the B chain. These similarities in the amino acid sequence of insulin lead to a three dimensional conformation of insulin that is very similar among species, and insulin from one animal is very likely biologically active in other species. Indeed, pig insulin has been widely used for human.

The first of these molecules to be marketed - called insulin lispro - is engineered such that lysine and proline resting on the C-terminal end of the B chain are reversed; this modification does not alter receptor binding, but minimizes the tendency to form dimmers and hexamers.

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