The precise Etiology of most cases of diabetes is uncertain, although certain contributing factors are as follows:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes is autoimmune disease that affects 0.3% on average. It is result of destruction of beta cells due to aggressive nature of cells present in the body. Researchers believe that some of the Etiology and Risk factors which may trigger type 1 diabetes may be genetic, poor diet (malnutrition) and environment (virus affecting pancreas). Secondly, in most of the cases, diabetes occurs because there is abnormal secretion of some hormones in blood which act as antagonists to insulin. Example Adrenocortical hormone, Adrenaline hormone and Thyroid hormone.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. It occurs when the body produces enough insulin but cannot utilize it effectively. This type of diabetes usually develops in middle age. A general observation says that about 90-95 % of people suffering with diabetes are type 2; about 80 percent are overweight. It is more common among people who are older; obese; have a family history of diabetes; have had gestational diabetes. There are number of risk factors found to be responsible for type 2 diabetes like, the more the Etiology and Risk factors carried by an individual, the higher the risk for developing diabetes.
Following are the Causes of Diabetes
Hereditary or Inherited Traits : It is strongly believed that due to some genes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inherit diabetes. It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother is diabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than the previous case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has much greater risk for diabetes.
Age : Increased age is a factor which gives more possibility than in younger age. This disease may occur at any age, but 80% of cases occur after 50 year, incidences increase with the age factor.
Poor Diet (Malnutrition Related Diabetes) : Improper nutrition, low protein and fiber intake, high intake of refined products are the expected reasons for developing diabetes.
Obesity and Fat Distribution: Being overweight means increased insulin resistance, that is if body fat is more than 30%, BMI 25+, waist grith 35 inches in women or 40 inches in males.
Sedentary Lifestyle : People with sedentary lifestyle are more prone to diabetes, when compared to those who exercise thrice a week, are at low risk of falling prey to diabetes.
Stress : Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is frequently blamed as the initial cause of the disease. Any disturbance in Cortiosteroid or ACTH therapy may lead to clinical signs of the disease.
Drug Induced: Clozapine (Clozaril), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel) and ziprasidone (Geodon) are known to induce this lethal disease.
Infection: Some of the strephylococci is suppose to be responsible factor for infection in pancreas.
Sex : Diabetes is commonly seen in elderly especially males but, strongly in women and those females with multiple pregnancy or suffering from (PCOS) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Hypertension : It had been reported in many studies that there is direct relation between high systolic pressure and diabetes.
Serum lipids and lipoproteins : High triglyceride and cholesterol level in the blood is related to high blood sugars, in some cases it has been studied that risk is involved even with low HDL levels in circulating blood.
Almost all women have some degree of impaired glucose intolerance during pregnancy due to hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. That means that their blood glucose is higher than normal, but not high enough to have diabetes. During the later part of pregnancy, these hormonal changes place a pregnant woman at risk for gestational diabetes.
During pregnancy, increased levels of certain hormones made in the placenta help take nutrients from the mother to the developing fetus. Hormones from the placenta help the baby develop. However, these hormones also block the action of the mother's insulin in her body, called insulin resistance. Insulin resistance makes it hard for the mother's body to use insulin. She may need up to three times as much insulin.
Gestational diabetes starts when your body is not able to make and use all the insulin it needs for pregnancy. Without enough insulin, glucose cannot leave the blood and be changed to energy. Glucose builds up in the blood to high levels, called hyperglycemic.
Diabetic symptoms mostly go undiagnosed, because many of the symptoms seem harmless.