Independent work

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Independent work 1
hikoya, 186fbdc5335fd45e1410a939476f8f1a, Elektr parmalash mashinasi tuzilishi (1), 5-sinf tayyor, Buyuk Aleksandr, 08.-Сайт-стиллари, kichik biznes korxonalarida innovatsion faoliyatni ragbatlantirishning asosiy yonalishlari, LUGʻAT, yurak blokadalari, O‘RQ-376 25.09.2014

Independent work



Energy and pover industry

The electricity industry consists of the generation of electricity and its transmission to consumers. This sector has a significant impact on the location of industry across the country or economic region. This effect occurs in two directions. The first is the transmission of electricity over long distances. This will allow the development of industry in all regions of the country. The second direction is to locate energy-intensive industries in areas with abundant and cheap electricity generation. The most energy-intensive industries are titanium, aluminum, magnesium, synthetic fiber, synthetic rubber, and synthetic ammonia. One ton of titanium requires 60,000 kWh, magnesium 26,000 kWh, and aluminum 20,000 kWh. This means that if the main part of the cost of production is energy costs, such production is called energy-intensive production. Less energy-intensive industries include ferrous metallurgy (other than electrometallurgy), soda and paper production, machinery, furniture, plywood, and textiles. The following factors are taken into account in the placement of the electricity industry: a) fuel and hydropower resources; b) technical development in production and transmission of electricity; c) location of the consumer. The main feature of this sector is that the production of electricity coincides with its consumption. The low cost of energy produced is important for the country's economy or the economy of an economic region. The cost of electricity depends on the cost of extracting and transporting the fuel used in power plants. Therefore, the cost of transporting fuel and delivering electricity to the consumer is taken into account when selecting a site for the construction of power plants. If the cost of transporting the fuel exceeds the cost of transporting the electricity, the power plant will be built closer to the fuel source, and if the cost of transmission is more expensive, it will be built closer to the consumer. In some cases, where there is a high demand for electricity, power plants are built to run on imported fuel. Currently, the distance over which electricity can be transmitted is increasing year by year. The ability to transmit electricity over long distances makes it superior to other types of fuel. This will allow: - full and comprehensive use of local fuels; - construction of large and powerful power plants; - to use electricity in all sectors of the economy. Electricity is generated at thermal power plants (TPPs), hydroelectric power stations (HPPs), thermal power plants (TPPs), nuclear power plants (NPPs), and non-conventional power plants. More than 70% of the world's electricity is generated by thermal power plants. They are built much faster and cheaper. Their capacity can be increased from 6 million kW. The construction of thermal power plants will include electricity resources, production and transport conditions, construction costs and timing, as well as the operation of the station. Most thermal power plants generate heat as well as electricity. Such power plants are called thermal power plants (TPPs). In them, during the production of electricity, heated water is sent to greenhouses, buildings for heating and production needs. However, heated water can only be transported up to 20 km, so IEMs are mainly built near industrial plants and in large cities. Russia is a world leader in this area. Power generation at hydropower plants (HPPs) is based on the power of a continuous stream of water. Therefore, the cost of electricity produced by them is low. Hydropower plants are a set of structures and equipment that convert water flow energy into electricity. In the plains and foothills, the uninterrupted flow of water is mainly due to dams. The HPP building is located near or inside the dam, in some cases below the dam. In mountain rivers, it is often generated by derivation hydropower plants. The HPP building is located much lower than the dam, in some cases underground. The river's flow is regulated throughout the year by the construction of reservoirs for full use of energy. When large hydropower plants are built, river water is used for both transportation and irrigation purposes, as well as for water supply. Such structures are called hydropower plants. Hydroelectric power stations

Structures-tuzilmalar consumer- iste'molchi

Construction- qurilish demand- talab

stations - stantsiyalar uninterrupted- uzluksiz

purposes - maqsadlar heated- isitiladi

reservoirs - suv omborlari industries include - sanoat tarmoqlari kiradi

Importance of Electricity and Energy for Humanity

We use it every day. It is a part of our daily lives and often the nature of this phenomenon is unknown to us. It’s about electricity Few people know that the term originated 500 years ago. The English physicist William Hilbert studied electrical phenomena and noticed that many things, such as amber, attract smaller particles to themselves after rubbing. Therefore, in honor of fossil resins, he called this phenomenon electricity (Lat. Electricus - amber). By the way, long before Hilbert, the same properties of amber were felt and described by the ancient Greek philosopher Thales. But the right to be called an inventor still passed to William Hilbert, because there is a tradition in science - whoever started reading for the first time is the author.

People who consume electricity

However, things did not go beyond description and primitive research. It was only in the 17th and 18th centuries that the issue of electricity began to receive serious coverage in the scientific literature. Among those who studied this phenomenon after U. Hilbert was Benjamin Franklin, who is known not only for his political activities, but also for his research on atmospheric electricity.The unit of measurement of electric charge and the law of the interaction of electric charges is named after the French physicist Charles Coulomb. Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volt, Michael Faraday and Andre Amper also contributed. All of these names have been known since school. Our compatriot

"Volta arc"

We can say that from that time on, electricity remains a trick of the natural forces and gradually begins to enter people’s lives, although there are still mysteries in this phenomenon.One thing is certain: if there were no electrical phenomena in nature, nothing could have been discovered so far. In ancient times, they were afraid of the delicate mind of man, but over time he tried to save electricity. The result of these actions is that it is impossible to imagine life without them.

Mankind has managed to “pull” electricity

How does electricity manifest itself in nature?

Naturally, when it comes to natural electricity, lightning immediately comes to mind. For the first time, the aforementioned American politician embarked on his research. By the way, there is a version in science that lightning has had a significant impact on the development of life on Earth, because biologists have discovered the truth: electricity is needed to synthesize amino acids.

Lightning is a strong discharge of electricity

Everyone knows how to feel when you touch someone or something, when there is a power outage that causes a little discomfort. This is a manifestation of the presence of electric currents in the human body. By the way, the nervous system works because of electrical impulses coming to the brain from the disturbed area.Within brain neurons, signals are transmitted electronically..But only man himself produces electricity. Many inhabitants of the seas and oceans are capable of generating electricity. For example, an electric current can generate a voltage of up to 500 volts, and the charging power of a ramp can reach 0.5 kilowatts. In addition, some species of fish use the electric field they create, with the help of which they can easily swim in muddy water and at depths that are not exposed to sunlight.

Solar Energy Use

Alternatively, any green energy technology is currently considered more expensive and it is difficult to make a profit from it in the short term. It takes extra time and extra expense to implement innovative ideas to develop them. In Uzbekistan, they are just being tested. For example, the solar power plant in Parkent has been around for a long time, but I can't say exactly what changes or tests are being done there now. But the initiative is not gone. We don't have that kind of energy yet in response to the demands of everyday life. Solar collectors are still in use. First of all, solar energy can be obtained in several ways. The first method is to convert solar energy directly into electricity. These are called photo elements. A photo element will be installed on the roof, and this device will generate electricity directly. However, it is less powerful and cannot be used for domestic purposes. Household power needs 220 volts, and photovoltaic cells provide only 12-13 volts. For example, it can charge a laptop or mobile phone, but not for large-scale industrial use. The second method is by heating the water. The hot water vapor is directed to the turbine, which generates 220 volts of standard electricity. It can be used on an industrial scale, but it has not been built in Uzbekistan yet. Tested in Mexico, USA. The third method is to install heat collectors. It is equipped with a simple radiator roof, in which the water circulates, which heats the water to 70-80 degrees, and as a result, the consumer is provided with hot water. It is very useful in the winter, because it can heat the house. In the summer, you can use it for a shower or bath. I know that some farms in Samarkand use it. It is difficult to estimate their volt power because they only heat the water for you.

Giant Power Stations of the World

Until recently, many countries saw nuclear power as the only option for uninterrupted power supply. However, the development of hydropower is now a more efficient method - last year, hydropower provided 63 percent of the world's renewable electricity and 17 percent of all electricity in total. China, Canada and Brazil are leading in this area. It seems that in the next decade, other countries will begin to pay more attention to renewable energy potential. If successful, humanity will have an era of clean and almost free electricity.

Palo-Verde AES

Power: 4,200 MW

America’s largest nuclear power plant provides electricity to several cities and 4 million people. Interestingly, the NPP is located in the desert and the designers had to cool the power units with the help of sewage from nearby municipalities.

Surgut GRES-2

Power: 5,680 MW

GRES runs on petroleum gas and natural gas. It is the world's second largest thermal power plant and the largest in Russia.

Xanbit AESi

Power: 5,875 MW

The station is currently the fifth largest nuclear power plant in the world. In general, AES was formerly called Yongwan. However, in 2011, the fishermen petitioned the government - they did not wanttheirproducts to be combined with "dangerous" nuclear energya

Xanul AESi

Power: 5,900 MW

At present, Hanul's capacity is equal to that of another Korean nuclear power plant, Hanbit. However, Korean engineers plan to make Hanul "stronger" in the next three years, when it will start producing 8,700 MW.

Bruce AESi

Power: 6,232 MW

Construction of the largest nuclear power plant in North America was completed in 1987. The Bruce nuclear power plant is located on the shores of Lake Huron, and locals do not object to such a

neighbor hood.

Syantszyaba GESi

Power: 6,448 MW

This large dam is located on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. The hydropower plant is part of a stepped waterfall under construction at the dam - China will eventually have a chain of very powerful stations that can generate all the power the country needs.

Guri GESi

Power: 10,235 MW

About 65% of Venezuela's electricity comes from this hydropower plant. The danger is that a failure at the station could leave almost the entire country without power - in 2013, this is exactly what happened. The blaze damaged all three high-voltage lines

Natural Resources of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is justifiably proud of its mineral wealth, which contains all the elements of the famous Mendeleev periodic table. So far, more than 2,700 different mineral deposits and promising areas have been identified. They contain about 100 types of minerals. More than 60 of them are involved in production. More than 900 mines have been discovered, with proven reserves of $ 970 billion. At the same time, it should be noted that the total mineral resource potential is estimated at more than $ 3.3 trillion.The most important strategic sources - oil and gas condensate, 155 promising deposits of natural gas, more than 40 for precious metals, 40 for non-ferrous, rare radioactive metals, mining - for chemical raw materials 15 deposits have been discovered.Uzbekistan has a large fuel and energy industry with a wide range of natural resources and vast reserves. The share of oil in the fuel balance of the republic is slightly less than 10%, the share of natural gas - more than 85%, the share of coal - almost 5%. The share of the fuel and energy complex in the gross industrial output of the republic in 1999 was 28.9% and increased by 9.7% compared to 1995.In 1999, Uzbekistan produced 8.1 million tons of oil (with gas condensate), 51.0 billion cubic meters of natural gas and 2.8 million tons of coal (mainly lignite). Uzbekistan has huge oil and natural gas reserves, some of which have been discovered. "There are five main regions where oil and gas are available: Ustyurt, Bukhara-Khiva, south-western Gissar, Surkhandarya and Fergana. Oil and gas reserves are estimated at more than $ 1 trillion.The Bukhara-Khiva and Fergana regions are also rich in oil and gas. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Ustyurt and South Gissar regions. The oil and gas fields in Uzbekistan are located within large geostructural units, including the Amudarya, Ustyurt, Western Fergana and South-West Gissar platforms and orogenic zones.Uzbekistan has large coal reserves, but the bulk of them is lignite, which is an energy fuel. The largest brown coal deposit in the country is located near the city of Angren, and the fuel is located in the Jurassic strata. Coal is mined by open pit mining. Its reserves are about 2 billion tons. The other two coal deposits are located in Shargun and Boysun in the Surkhandarya region. The coal seams in these deposits are not thick. After the 1990s, coal production fell sharply, to 2.8 million tons in 1999. However, the country's demand for coal is 8-9 million tons per year. This indicates a lack of focus on network development. In order to solve such problems, in 1994 the Coal Joint Stock Company was established.Our country is rich in metal minerals, especially non-ferrous metal ores. It should be noted that the reserves of gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper and rare earth metals are very large. Precious non-ferrous and radioactive metals contain large reserves of rare and rare earth elements as useful components, which significantly increases their value. Our country is one of the leaders not only among the CIS countries, but also in the world in terms of proven reserves of gold, uranium, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc and other most important minerals belonging to these groups and the prospects for their reproduction. occupies one. For example, Uzbekistan ranks 4th in the world in terms of proven gold reserves and 7th in terms of gold production. Uzbekistan is one of the countries in the world with huge gold resources, 41 gold deposits have been discovered, including 33 gold deposits. The Muruntau deposit, the largest in Eurasia, is one of the largest in the world. Zarmiton and other gold deposits were discovered in Samarkand region. The winner of the tender to accelerate the development of these fields was an Australian company, which has a great reputation in the world. The Kyzylolmasay and Kochbulak deposits with highly developed infrastructure were discovered near the city of Angren in the Tashkent region. At present, a limited amount of mining is carried out in these fields. Well-known Japanese companies have won an international tender for the development of these fields. In recent years, the world's largest gold-bearing region in the Kyzylkum Desert has developed new deposits such as Ajibugut, Bulutkon, Balpantov, Aristantov, Turboy.


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