International union for the protection of new varieties of plants



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3.4 Test Design


3.4.1 Each test should be designed to result in a total of at least 10 plants.
3.4.2 The design of the tests should be such that plants or parts of plants may be removed for measurement or counting without prejudice to the observations which must be made up to the end of the growing cycle.

3.5 Number of Plants / Parts of Plants to be Examined


Unless otherwise indicated, all observations should be made on 10 plants or parts taken from each of 10 plants.

3.6 Additional Tests


Additional tests, for examining relevant characteristics, may be established.


4.Assessment of Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability

4.1 Distinctness


4.1.1 General Recommendations
It is of particular importance for users of these Test Guidelines to consult the General Introduction prior to making decisions regarding distinctness. However, the following points are provided for elaboration or emphasis in these Test Guidelines.
4.1.2 Consistent Differences
The differences observed between varieties may be so clear that more than one growing cycle is not necessary. In addition, in some circumstances, the influence of the environment is not such that more than a single growing cycle is required to provide assurance that the differences observed between varieties are sufficiently consistent. One means of ensuring that a difference in a characteristic, observed in a growing trial, is sufficiently consistent is to examine the characteristic in at least two independent growing cycles.
4.1.3 Clear Differences
Determining whether a difference between two varieties is clear depends on many factors, and should consider, in particular, the type of expression of the characteristic being examined, i.e. whether it is expressed in a qualitative, quantitative, or pseudo-qualitative manner. Therefore, it is important that users of these Test Guidelines are familiar with the recommendations contained in the General Introduction prior to making decisions regarding distinctness.

4.2 Uniformity


4.2.1 It is of particular importance for users of these Test Guidelines to consult the General Introduction prior to making decisions regarding uniformity. However, the following points are provided for elaboration or emphasis in these Test Guidelines:
4.2.2 For the assessment of uniformity, a population standard of 1% and an acceptance probability of at least 95% should be applied. In the case of a sample size of 10 plants,
1 off-type is allowed.

4.3 Stability


4.3.1 In practice, it is not usual to perform tests of stability that produce results as certain as those of the testing of distinctness and uniformity. However, experience has demonstrated that, for many types of variety, when a variety has been shown to be uniform, it can also be considered to be stable.
4.3.2 Where appropriate, or in cases of doubt, stability may be tested, either by growing a further generation, or by testing a new plant stock to ensure that it exhibits the same characteristics as those shown by the previous material supplied.

5.Grouping of Varieties and Organization of the Growing Trial


5.1 The selection of varieties of common knowledge to be grown in the trial with the candidate varieties and the way in which these varieties are divided into groups to facilitate the assessment of distinctness is aided by the use of grouping characteristics.
5.2 Grouping characteristics are those in which the documented states of expression, even where produced at different locations, can be used, either individually or in combination with other such characteristics: (a) to select varieties of common knowledge that can be excluded from the growing trial used for examination of distinctness; and (b) to organize the growing trial so that similar varieties are grouped together.
5.3 The following have been agreed as useful grouping characteristics:


  1. Flower: type (characteristic 7)

  2. Flower: diameter (characteristic 8)

  3. Flower: main color of petals on day of opening (characteristic 13)

Gr. 1: white

Gr. 2: pink

Gr. 3: purple




  1. Flower: main color of petals 10-14 days after opening (characteristic 14)

Gr. 1: white

Gr. 2: pink

Gr. 3: purple




  1. Flower: main color of petals 4 weeks after opening (characteristic 15)

Gr. 1: white

Gr. 2: pink

Gr. 3: purple




  1. Sepal: incision of margin (characteristic 21)

5.4 Guidance for the use of grouping characteristics, in the process of examining distinctness, is provided through the General Introduction.




6.Introduction to the Table of Characteristics

6.1 Categories of Characteristics


6.1.1 Standard Test Guidelines Characteristics
Standard Test Guidelines characteristics are those which are approved by UPOV for examination of DUS and from which members of the Union can select those suitable for their particular circumstances.
6.1.2 Asterisked Characteristics
Asterisked characteristics (denoted by *) are those included in the Test Guidelines which are important for the international harmonization of variety descriptions and should always be examined for DUS and included in the variety description by all members of the Union, except when the state of expression of a preceding characteristic or regional environmental conditions render this inappropriate.

6.2 States of Expression and Corresponding Notes


States of expression are given for each characteristic to define the characteristic and to harmonize descriptions. Each state of expression is allocated a corresponding numerical note for ease of recording of data and for the production and exchange of the description.



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