It is intended that this Plan be implemented over a ten-year period


Appendix 15: Functional trait-based Weed Management Groups



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Appendix 15: Functional trait-based Weed Management Groups


The trait-based approach to weed management utilises functional traits to categorise weeds into management groups based on their behaviour (Kooyman et al. 2007). Initially, 53 rainforest weeds were identified and then categorised into five broad groups that represent the influence of dispersal (including fruit size, seed size and dispersal mode), shade tolerance, persistence (capacity to resprout or persist on site by seed-based regeneration) and the component of the forest structure they are most likely to affect (ground, mid canopy or canopy). Further refinement of the five groups has identified three management groups and several subgroups provided below. Since the original analysis of Kooyman et al. (2007), further weed taxa have been identified and placed in the category that best reflects their functional traits.

The final weed groupings provide an overall indication of a weed’s ability to exploit undisturbed or disturbed rainforest or edges of rainforest, its method of dispersal and the stratum of the forest it potentially threatens most. Those weeds able to establish in full shade (i.e. exploit intact rainforest) and affect the canopy are possibly the group of greatest threat in the Planning Area, while weeds in shade intolerant groups are most likely to be a threat to riparian edges and fragmented remnants.



A weed’s dispersal mechanism also has the potential to influence management options. For example, the ability to contain an infestation is potentially greater for weeds that are not actively dispersed by vectors such as wind or frugivory. An exception to this, however, is in riparian areas where water can provide an effective dispersal mechanism. In such areas, treatment of weeds immediately adjacent to the water edge is essential before working in areas further back. It is also important to work in the upper catchment first to prevent ongoing reinfestation from upstream areas.

Scientific name

Common name

Height class

Weed Management Group 1: Shade tolerant

1.1 Shade tolerant, frugivore dispersal







Asparagus plumosus

Climbing Asparagus

Canopy

Asparagus aethiopicus

Ground Asparagus Fern

Ground

1.2 Shade tolerant, wind dispersal







Ageratina riparia

Mistflower

Ground

Macfadyena unguis-cati

Cat's Claw Creeper

Canopy

1.3 Shade tolerant, unassisted dispersal (gravity, water, tuber)




Paspalum mandiocanum

Paspalum

Ground

Weed Management Group 2: Semi-shade tolerant

2.1 Semi-shade tolerant, frugivore dispersal







Ardisia crenata

Coral Berry

Ground

Rivina humilis




Ground

Ochna serrulata

Mickey Mouse Plant

Ground

Hedychium gardnerianum

Kahili Ginger

Mid canopy

Ligustrum sinense

Small Leaved Privet

Mid canopy

Schefflera actinophylla

Umbrella Tree

Mid canopy

Coffea arabica

Coffee

Mid canopy

Psidium guajava

Guava

Mid canopy

Senna septemtrionalis

Smooth Senna

Mid canopy

Passiflora suberosa

Corky Passion Flower

Mid canopy

Passiflora subpeltata

White Passion Flower

Mid canopy

Ligustrum lucidum

Large Leaved Privet

Canopy

Solanum seaforthianum

Brazilian Nightshade

Ground to mid canopy

Cinnamomum camphora

Camphor Laurel

Canopy

Gloriosa superba

Glory Lily

Ground

2.2 Semi-shade tolerant, wind dispersal







Ageratina adenophora

Crofton Weed

Ground

Lilium formosanum

Formosa Lily

Ground

Caesalpinia decapetala

Thorny Poinciana / Mysore Thorn

Ground

Delairea odorata

Cape Ivy

Ground

Senecio tamoides




Ground

Aristolochia elegans

Dutchman's Pipe

Mid canopy

Ipomoea indica

Morning Glory

Canopy

2.3 Semi-shade tolerant, unassisted dispersal (gravity, water, tuber)




Tradescantia fluminensis

Wandering Jew

Ground

Gleditsia triacanthos

Honey Locust

Mid canopy

Erythrina crista-galli

Indian Coral Tree

Canopy

Erythrina x sykesii




Canopy

Anredera cordifolia

Madeira Vine

Canopy and ground

Weed Management Group 3: Shade intolerant

3.1 Shade intolerant, frugivore dispersal







Lonicera japonica

Honeysuckle

Ground to mid canopy

Murraya paniculata




Mid canopy

Physalis viscosa

Cape Gooseberry

Ground

Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata

Bitou Bush

Mid canopy

Lantana camara

Lantana

Mid canopy

Pyracantha spp.

Firethorn

Mid canopy

Solanum chrysotrichum

Giant Devil’s Fig

Mid canopy

Solanum mauritianum

Tobacco Bush

Mid canopy

Citrus trifoliata

Bush Lemon

Mid canopy

Passiflora edulis

Passionfruit

Mid canopy

Celtis sinensis

Chinese Celtis / Chinese Elm

Canopy

Schinus terebinthifolius

Broadleaf Pepper

Canopy

Ficus spp.

Non-native figs

Canopy

Syagrus romanzoffiana

Cocos Palm

Canopy

3.2 Shade intolerant, wind dispersal







Buddleja davidii

Buddleia

Mid canopy

Araujia sericifera

Moth Vine

Mid canopy

Cardiospermum grandiflorum

Balloon Vine

Canopy

Corymbia torelliana

Cadaghi

Canopy

3.3 Shade intolerant, unassisted dispersal (gravity, water, tuber)




Paspalum spp.

Paspalum

Ground

Pennisetum clandestinum

Kikuyu

Ground

Pueraria lobata

Kudzu

Mid canopy

Desmodium uncinatum




Mid canopy

Neonotonia wightii

Glycine

Mid canopy

Identification of rainforest weeds of the Planning Area is an ongoing process. For each new weed taxon, expert knowledge can be used to add the taxon to the relevant weed management group. Taxa are still being identified as being either present in the rainforest of the Planning Area or potential invaders (Big Scrub Rainforest Landcare Group 2000; H. Bower pers. comm.; B. McDonald pers. comm.). These are yet to be placed in appropriate groups and include:

  • Cestrum elegans at Mt Glorious and Tamborine Springs

  • African Boxthorn Licium ferocissimum in western Main Range

  • Pepper Tree Schinus areira in western Main Range

  • Guinea Grass Megathyrsus maximus var. maximus and Green Panic M. m. var. pubiglumus in drier rainforest areas

  • Cherry Guava Psidium cattleianum at Broken Head and Wilsons Creek in NSW

  • Asparagus Fern Asparagus africanus

  • Bridal Creeper Asparagus asparagoides

  • Sicklethorn Asparagus falcatus

  • India Plum Flacourtia jangomas

  • Aerial Yam Dioscorea bulbifera

  • White Trumpet Vine Pithecocteniun cyanchoides

  • Japanese Climbing Fern Lygodium japonicum

  • Barbados Gooseberry Pereskia aculeata

  • Loquat Eriobotrya japonica

  • African Olive Olea europa subsp. cuspidata

  • Creeping Bamboo Arundinaria spp.

  • Five-leaved Morning Glory Ipomoea cairica

  • Common Morning Glory Ipomoea purpurea

  • Brazil Cherry Eugenia uniflora

  • Groundsel Bush Baccharis halimifolia

  • Winter Senna Senna pendula var. glabrata

  • Castor Oil Plant Ricinus communis

  • Mother-of-Millions Bryophyllum delagoense

  • Resurrection Plant Bryophyllum pinnatum

  • Butterfly Bush Buddleja madagascariensis

  • Canna Lily Canna indica

  • Hairy Commelina Commelina benghalensis

  • Striped Wandering Jew Tradescantia zebrina.

The weed species grouping that resulted from the cluster analysis of Kooyman et al. (2007) and informed the Weed Management Groups above, are shown below.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Group

Dispersal Mode

Seed (mm)

Fruit (mm)

Persistence (clonality)

Shade tolerance

Height

Paspalum spp.

Paspalum

1

unassisted

1-6

1-6

partial

no

ground

Pennisetum clandestinum

Kikuyu

1

unassisted

1-6

6-15

partial

no

ground

Inga edulis

Icecream Bean

1

unassisted

6-15

>30

partial

no

mid

Desmodium uncinatum

Silver-leaved Desmodium

1

unassisted

1-6

6-15

yes

no

mid

Neonotonia wightii

Glycine

1

unassisted

1-6

6-15

partial

no

mid

Pueraria lobata

Kudzu

1

unassisted

1-6

>30

yes

no

mid

Gloriosa superba

Glory Lily

1

unassisted

1-6

6-15

yes

partial

ground

Tradescantia fluminensis

Wandering Jew

1

unassisted

1-6

1-6

partial

partial

ground

Gleditsia triacanthos

Honey Locust

1

unassisted

6-15

>30

yes

partial

mid

Erythrina crista-galli

Indian Coral Tree

1

unassisted

6-15

>30

yes

partial

canopy

Anredera cordifolia

Madeira Vine

1

unassisted

1-6

1-6

yes

partial

canopy

Lonicera japonica

Honeysuckle

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

no

ground

Physalis viscosa

Cape Gooseberry

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

partial

no

ground

Buddleja davidii

Buddleia

2

wind

<1

6-15

yes

no

mid

Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotunda

Bitou Bush

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

no

mid

Duranta erecta

Duranta

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

no

mid

Lantana camara

Lantana

2

frugivore

1-6

1-6

partial

no

mid

Pyracantha spp.

Firethorn

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

no

mid

Solanum chrysotrichum

Giant Devil’s Fig

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

partial

no

mid

Solanum mauritianum

Tobacco Bush

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

partial

no

mid

Celtis sinensis

Chinese Celtis / Chinese Elm

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

partial

no

canopy

Jacaranda mimosifolia

Jacaranda

2

wind

<1

6-15

yes

no

canopy

Schinus terebinthifolius

Broadleaf Pepper

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

no

canopy

Cinnamomum camphora

Camphor Laurel

2

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

partial

canopy

Ageratina adenophora

Crofton Weed

3

wind

1-6

1-6

yes

partial

ground

Ageratina riparia

Mistflower

3

wind

1-6

1-6

yes

partial

ground

Ardisia crenata

Coralberry

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

partial

partial

ground

Lilium formosanum

Formosa Lily

3

wind

<1

6-15

partial

partial

ground

Rivina humilis

Coral Berry

3

frugivore

1-6

1-6

partial

partial

ground

Ochna serrulata

Mickey Mouse Plant

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

partial

partial

ground

Asparagus asparagoides

Bridal Creeper

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

partial

mid

Coffea arabica

Coffee

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

partial

mid

Ligustrum sinense

Small Leaved Privet

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

partial

mid

Schefflera actinophylla

Umbrella Tree

3

frugivore

1-6

1-6

partial

partial

mid

Aristolochia elegans

Dutchman's Pipe

3

wind

1-6

6-15

partial

partial

mid

Ligustrum lucidum

Large Leaved Privet

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

partial

canopy

Ipomoea indica

Morning Glory

3

wind

1-6

6-15

yes

partial

canopy

Solanum seaforthianum

Brazilian Nightshade

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

partial

partial

canopy

Asparagus aethiopicus

Ground Asparagus

3

frugivore

1-6

6-15

yes

yes

ground

Asparagus plumosus

Climbing Asparagus

3

frugivore

1-6

1-6

yes

yes

canopy

Citrus trifoliata

Bush Lemon

4

frugivore

1-6

>30

yes

no

mid

Araujia sericifera

Moth Vine

4

wind

1-6

>30

yes

no

mid

Passiflora edulis

Passionfruit

4

frugivore

1-6

>30

partial

no

mid

Ficus spp.

Feral (non native) Figs

4

frugivore

1-6

>30

yes

no

canopy

Cardiospermum grandiflorum

Balloon Vine

4

wind

6-15

>15-30

yes

no

canopy

Macfadyena unguis-cati

Cat's Claw Creeper

4

wind

6-15

>30

yes

no

canopy

Caesalpinia decapetala

Thorny Poinciana / Mysore Thorn

4

wind

6-15

>30

yes

partial

ground

Psidium guajava

Guava

4

frugivore

1-6

>30

yes

partial

mid

Senna septemtrionalis

Smooth Senna

4

frugivore

1-6

>30

partial

partial

mid

Passiflora suberosa

Corky Passion Flower

4

frugivore

1-6

>30

partial

partial

mid

Passiflora subpeltata

White Passion Flower

4

frugivore

1-6

>30

partial

partial

mid

Syagrus romanzoffiana

Cocos Palm

5

frugivore

>15-30

>15-30

partial

no

canopy

Corymbia torelliana

Cadaghi

5

wind

<1

6-15

no

no

canopy

References


Big Scrub Rainforest Landcare Group 2000, Common Weeds of Northern NSW Rainforests. A Practical Manual on their Identification and Control, 2nd Edition, Big Scrub Rainforest Landcare Group, Bangalow.

Kooyman, K., Rossetto, M. and Jamieson, I. 2007, Border Ranges Biodiversity Management Plan: Defining ‘weed species’ groups based on life-history traits to inform and determine threat groups, Unpub. report prepared for DECC, National Herbarium of NSW and Far North Coast Weeds, Lismore.



1 Loss of genetic integrity is also referred to as ‘genetic stochasticity’ (Lindenmayer & Fisher 2006; Ouborg et al. 2006) or ‘genetic deterioration’ (Hobbs & Yates 2003).

Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan




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