© Royal Society of Western Australia, 2001
Jingaring Nature Reserve is a species-rich remnant
(see species list in appendix) of high conservation value
(i.e. “A” class nature reserve). It is located 155 km directly
east-south-east of Perth near Pingelly, Western Australia
(Fig 1). The district has a dry Mediterranean-type climate
with very warm, dry summers and very cool, wet win-
ters. Average annual rainfall for the reserve is about 400
mm, which places the reserve within the wetter western
(inner) margins of the wheatbelt (Fig 1). The landscape
surrounding Jingaring Nature Reserve is undulating hills
with interspersed plains. Overall height relief is low and
there are few large granite outcrops or extensive lateritic
ridges as found in western parts of this district (Beard
1980a). The reserve is a small triangular remnant (34 ha)
situated in the upper reaches of the Avon River, the river
being a few kilometres to the north. Drainage of the im-
mediate area is via Sandplain Creek, that runs through
the extreme south-western corner of the reserve heading
firstly north west, then to the north, before it drains into
the Avon River. Jingaring Nature Reserve is actually a
remnant portion of creek floodplain and gently sloping
valley side. The reserve is surrounded by expanses of
cleared agricultural land that forms an integral feature of
the Western Australian wheatbelt region. Beard (1980b)
classified the dominant vegetation of the district as a mix-
ture of York gum (Eucalyptus loxophleba) and wandoo (E.
wandoo), with scrub-heath on intervening sandplain areas.
This describes the situation in the immediate surrounds
of the reserve. Further east (~25 km) the wandoo gives
way to the more xeric-adapted salmon gum (E.
groves of jam (Acacia acuminata) and sheoak (Allocasuarina
outcropping (Beard 1980b).
Currently, there are few published wheatbelt rem-
nant surveys available, but notable are the pioneering
surveys of 24 reserves compiled in the Records of the
Western Australian Museum (Muir 1977a). There are sev-
eral other significant, and unpublished, flora surveys of
wheatbelt remnants; however, few of these submitted
vouchers to the Western Australian Herbarium (PERTH)
so that the specimens would be available and
taxonomically relevant into the future. Reasons for the
lack of published survey information to date are the costs
of extensively surveying remnants and the vastness of the
region (i.e. 18 million hectares). Larger remnants (i.e. >2000
ha) are generally considered as important areas for con-
serving this wealth of bio-diversity and these areas are
also particularly necessary for fauna conservation. The
aim of this survey was to highlight the contribution that
smaller remnants, (particularly intact remnants) can make
towards the overall flora diversity within the wheatbelt
region. Additionally, it emphasizes that these small intact
remnants should not be overlooked nor precluded from
future acquisitions of conservation estate.
Vegetation, flora and recommendations for conservation
management of Jingaring Nature Reserve: A “botanical gem”
in the Western Australian wheat-belt.
F J Obbens, R W Davis & L W Sage
Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management,
Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre WA 6983
(received February 1999, accepted December 2000)
The significance of larger remnants at retaining local bio-diversity in an essentially cleared and fragmented
agricultural landscape is generally accepted, but small intact remnants also contribute significantly to overall
bio-diversity. This was highlighted by our comprehensive survey of vascular flora of Jingaring Nature Reserve,
which included every season over a two-year period. The exceptionally diverse flora of this relatively undis-
turbed wheatbelt remnant identified six distinct communities encompassing heaths and woodlands. Over 260
vascular species were recorded, including two rare, five priority and a number of species of special interest from
51 families. Weeds accounted for 27 species, but the extent of invasion is relatively low. The known limit of many
species’ distributions occur near or at the reserve and this may be an evolutionary artefact of significant impor-
tance. Higher species diversity per unit area was recorded compared to other unpublished surveys of larger areas
around this district.
Several management issues are of concern for Jingaring Nature Reserve including protection of rare and
priority flora, weed invasion, fire management and damage caused by unauthorised access. Eradication of
rabbits and localised weed control around rabbit warrens in the reserve should result in regeneration of these
Keywords: vegetation, flora, Jingaring Nature Reserve, wheat-belt, remnant vegetation.
The vegetation communities of Jingaring Nature Re-
serve were interpreted from a 1996 aerial photograph and
confirmed in the field during 1999. Classification of these
vegetation communities is based on Muir (1977b). This
classification assesses vegetation structure by taking meas-
ures of lifeform/height class and canopy cover/density
class to produce a vegetation type. For example, trees 15-
30 m with a 10-30% canopy cover were designated
woodlands, while the same trees with a canopy cover of 2-
10% would be designated as open woodlands. To a
significant extent this classification also reflects species
compositional differences. Additionally, brief investiga-
tions were made of the soils in each vegetation community.
This included taking soil samples (~3 cm depth) to nomi-
nally assess soil texture and colour.
The flora survey and collections were accomplished
by walking along transects (spaced 150 m apart) which
spanned the full width of the reserve in a north-south
orientation. The first transect began at approximately 50
m in from the reserve’s south-west corner, in the vicinity
of Sandplain Creek. Every vegetation type was traversed
several times using this technique. This transect survey
was undertaken during late spring 1998, but various addi-
tional surveys were also carried out during mid autumn,
early and late winter, early and mid spring, and early
summer over 1998 and 1999. On these occasions a tech-
nique known as ‘randomized stratified walk’ (Hopper et
al. 1997) was employed. As the name suggests, this method
involves specimen collections via random walks in each
habitat type. The purpose of this intensive surveying was
to obtain a good flowering specimen of each species and
to compile a more complete vascular flora list (i.e. as a
The authors identified most specimens with some as-
sistance from specialist staff of the WA Herbarium. All
specimens were submitted for incorporation at the WA
Herbarium. Species names follow WACENSUS (WA Her-
barium census of Western Australian vascular plants),
while conservation status of species is according to De-
partment of Conservation and Land Management’s
Figure 1. Location of Jingaring Nature Reserve, near Pingelly, in
the southwest of Western Australia showing rainfall isohyets.
(CALM) Declared Rare Flora and Priority Flora list (Atkins
from WA Herbarium database records (WAHERB) and
Vegetation and habitat
Interpretation of the aerial photograph and site sur-
vey indicated six major vegetation types (Table 1 & Fig 2),
five quite distinctive, and a sixth being a variant of rea-
sonable species differences and of sufficient area to be
considered as separate (i.e. 5: Heath from Table 1).
The creekline community covers a small area (~ 3 ha)
and has variable soil types, the creek banks being a mix-
ture of gravels bound in fine to coarse sandy clay. Eucalyptus
loxophleba, E. rudis, Acacia saligna and Melaleuca sp are com-
mon, while further out Allocasuarina huegeliana becomes
more dominant on brown sandy loam. Numerous wind-
dispersed agricultural grass weeds, such as Avena barbata,
well established here preferring the extra moisture and
The low forest community occurs on grey/brown
sandy loam in a narrow band east of the creek line (plains
country) and parallel to the road. Allocasuarina huegeliana
and Acacia acuminata predominate, interspersed with Eu-
calyptus wandoo and resulting in a mid-dense canopy cover
(30-70%), the open patches being more woodland like.
There are a few scattered shrubs, but most of the
understorey is quite open and rich in annuals and other
herbaceous species. The wandoo woodland community
slightly intergrades at the boundary with the previous
low forest community and again occurs on sandy loams.
This vegetation type traverses the slope with the
understorey on the lower slopes consisting of scattered
low shrubs (mainly Fabaceae) and sedges (predominantly
mid to upper slope there are more frequent bare patches
containing wandoo leaf litter. Another pocket of open
wandoo woodland also occurs up slope on the reserve’s
mid northern boundary and extends onto adjacent farm-
land (Fig 2).
The low heath community covers most of the exten-
sive low-lying plain of the reserve and has a light grey/
brown sandy loam appearance. The area is reasonably
inundated at times during winter. Low shrubs and sub-
shrubs predominate, but there are also scattered patches
of taller vegetation including Allocasuarina campestris,
species rich with a number of common shrubs such as
a few. Mesomelaena preissii is the most commonly occur-
Farther up the slope the low heath changes subtly to
heath. This community covers a considerable area of the
reserve in two large parts separated by wandoo wood-
land. The soil varies from light grey to light grey/brown
sandy loams often with a thin layer of bleached white
sand on top. Soil depth also increases farther up slope,
which might explain the differences in shrub height for
this community. Most of the species mentioned in the pre-
vious community occur here also, however, others such
as Banksia sphaerocarpa, B. violacea, Isopogon buxifolius, Pimelea
imbricata, Leptospermum erubescens and Grevillea cagiana
appear to be specifically located within this vegetation
The last community is a small patch of thicket domi-
with a mid-dense understorey of Banksia sphaerocarpa, Hakea
light grey/brown loam and appear to have similar depth
to the heath community.
A total of 264 vascular species (237 natives and 27
introduced weeds) from 51 families were listed for
Jingaring Nature Reserve (Appendix). The ten largest fami-
lies were Proteaceae (28), Myrtaceae (27), Asteraceae (22),
Poaceae (18), Papilionaceae (16), Cyperaceae (15),
Mimosaceae (13), Orchidaceae (12) Goodeniaceae (11) and
total ‘Liliaceae’ (13). Half of the Poaceae species are weeds.
The ten genera with the greatest number of species are
Acacia (13), Verticordia (9), Hakea (6), Caladenia (6), Schoenus
(6), Drosera (6), Dryandra (5), Daviesia (5), Goodenia (5) and
Two declared rare species, Verticordia fimbrilepis ssp
Dense Low Forest
Dense canopy of Eucalyptus loxophleba, E. rudis and Allocasuarina huegeliana. Mid canopy of Acacia
saligna, A. acuminata and Melaleuca sp. The understorey is degraded and dominated by weeds.
herbaceous species understorey occurring on flat plain.
Eucalyptus wandoo with scattered Acacia acuminata and sparse, open shrub understorey or sedges.
A very diverse mix of shrubs and sub-shrubs (<1.5 m), abundant sedges, occurring on flat plain.
A mid-dense mix of tall shrubs (most >2 m) occurring on gently sloping ground.
der review) and five priority species, Acacia anarthos,
were recorded for the reserve. There were also several
species of special interest (see discussion).
Vegetation and habitat
Most of the vegetation communities of the reserve
were distinctive, but considered as not particularly unique,
there being several other remnants in the area having
similar habitat types. The low heath community is not as
common locally; however, all habitat types were in rela-
tively good condition.
Jingaring Nature Reserve, with 264 species located
within 34 ha, represents an exceptionally species-rich area.
As a comparison, a ‘random stratified’ flora survey of
Yilliminning Rock reserve, just east of Narrogin and about
55 km directly south of Jingaring Nature Reserve, found
238 vascular species in 80 ha (Pigott & Sage 1997). A
quadrat-based flora survey near Popanyinning (~30 km
south-west of Jingaring Nature Reserve) by Gunness (1998)
found 249 vascular species in 60 ha of bushland remnant.
Additionally, several surveys over a number of years for
the nearby Tutanning Nature Reserve (2310 ha) have so
far recognized 628 species for that reserve. Some of the
differences found in species richness of these areas might
be attributed to the different survey techniques used (i.e.
not comparable), to different habitats surveyed and to the
intensity of surveying (i.e. one season or more). Regard-
less of these factors, Jingaring Nature Reserve has an
unusually high concentration of flora species and thus
plays a big role for its size in conserving wheatbelt bio-
diversity. Any future intensive surveys using a similar
methodology could act as benchmarks. These benchmark
surveys of reserves/remnants spaced equally distant and
appropriately throughout the wheatbelt would help to
increase our knowledge of the flora in this highly frag-
for the reserve, Verticordia fimbrilepis ssp fimbrilepis and a
variant of Dryandra ionthocarpa (currently under review).
The latter record extends that species range by approxi-
mately 240 km (former distribution just south of the
Stirling Range). Both these species have the IUCN rank-
ing of critically endangered.
Priority species. Five priority species have been identi-
fied, and along with the other rare flora this reaffirms the
high conservation value of the reserve.
Acacia anarthros. Priority 3. This species is known from
more than a dozen small remnants and the Jingaring
Nature Reserve find represents one of the larger
populations with secure conservation tenure. This
population, and another slightly north near Lake
Mears, are the only outliers from the known major
populations centred around Calingiri, approximately
160 km away.
populations of this species are found from Meckering
to south of Pingelly, and appear to be associated with
open woodland areas. So far, less than 5 plants have
been discovered in the reserve, all in the typical wood-
tively wide area from Marchagee (north) to Tammin
and Corrigin (east) and to the Brookton area (south).
The large Jingaring population is significant com-
pared to the other smaller roadside remnants.
Calytrix sp (Jingaring). Priority 2. Recently, this taxa has
been recognised as distinct from Calytrix asperula whose
populations are all distributed near the south coast.
There are only three populations of Calytrix sp
(Jingaring) now recognized, on the reserve, at
Aldersyde, and over 100 km eastwards near
Narembeen. It is doubtful whether this last popula-
tion still exists as the original collection was made in
1929 prior to significant land clearing there.
Dryandra lindleyana ssp agricola. Priority 1. A number of
scattered populations are known over a relatively
small area from east of Brookton to Kondinin. There
are thousands of individual plants in the reserve,
making this one of the largest populations.
Species of interest. Persoonia inconspicua has a distribution
centred around Southern Cross and the Jingaring record
represents a significant range extension. A presumed hy-
brid between Dryandra pteridifolia ssp pteridifolia (southern
sandplains) and Dryandra pteridifolia ssp vernalis (northern
sandplains) occurs on the reserve (taxonomic status to be
determined). The reserve locality is also the distribution
limit for Lagenophora huegelii, Patersonia occidentalis, Hibbertia
southern margin). This suggests that Jingaring Nature
Reserve was part of a possible refugium where past cli-
matic fluctuations have caused the maximal species
interactions i.e. a central meeting point for potential
speciation (Hopper 1979). In these terms, the reserve is a
significant ‘evolutionary showcase’.
Introduced weeds. There were 27 weed species (10% of the
flora) recorded for Jingaring Nature Reserve compared to
19 weed species (8% of the flora) for Yilliminning Rock
and 37 weed species (15% of the flora) for the Popanyinning
remnant survey. These weed ratios range from low to
moderate with some wheat-belt remnants containing
higher numbers of weed species (unpublished personal
observations). The number of weed species does not nec-
essarily correspond to the extent of weed invasion.
Jingaring Nature Reserve has serious weed infestation
throughout the creekline community. Here, grass weeds
such as Avena barbata, Briza maxima, Bromus diandrus, Ehrharta
nate the understorey. Broadleaf weeds such as Arctotheca
locally common. The reserve boundary abutting farm-
land also has dense weed invasion, but by far the larger
ized weed incursions also occur around disturbed areas
(i.e. rabbit warrens, service track edges and an old gravel
pit/rubbish site). There are low levels of Parentucellia latifolia
and Romulea rosea scattered in the woodland areas, while
Ursinia anthemoides is scattered throughout the reserve.
These latter weeds appear innocuous, but Romulea rosea is
a serious woodland weed in the wetter wheat-belt regions
(Hussey et al. 1997).
Conservation reserves are generally smaller in the
inner (i.e. western) wheat-belt areas compared to more
eastern areas (CALM records). Management of small re-
serves with large perimeter to area ratios in a fragmented
landscape is difficult (Panetta & Hopkins 1991) and has
been exacerbated by a long history of disturbance and
degradation. This includes more frequent fires, weed in-
vasions due to human intervention and habitat
modification, and also rising water-tables leading to in-
creased salinity (Hobbs 1993). In outward appearances,
Jingaring Nature Reserve seems relatively undisturbed
in comparison to other small remnants in the area. Vari-
able levels of weed incursion were found, but most native
vegetation appears relatively healthy. There were no ob-
vious signs of tree or shrub deaths that might indicate
increasing salinity, but the reserve may still be at risk due
to its low position in the landscape and its proximity to
the Avon River. Important management issues include
the protection of rare and priority flora, weed abatement,
fire management and the protection of vegetation from
inappropriate and unauthorised access (i.e. trail bikes,
With two critically endangered and five priority spe-
cies, the reserve needs a high level of protection from
potential threats. The reserve has distinct vegetation com-
munities and its geographical position makes the flora
special (as discussed previously). Weeds are a threat to the
reserve’s integrity because weeds have been shown to dis-
place native species, alter fire regimes, change local
hydrology and reduce faunal resources (Hobbs 1991;
Humphries et al. 1993; Pigott 1994; Adair 1995). Areas of
weeds targeted specifically should provide the best man-
agement results. For instance, any attempt to eradicate
weeds from the degraded creek line or boundary zones is
unlikely to produce adequate regeneration of native spe-
cies. This is because understorey seed-banks are often
depleted in long-degraded areas such as these, and/or
these areas may require specialised techniques to effect a
reasonable germination event (Arnold et al.1998; unpub-
lished personal observations). Additionally, these areas
easily become weedy again due to wind-transported
propagules and this will hinder the growth of any regen-
erated native seedlings. Ongoing weed control followed
by planting out/seeding of local understorey species may
be the only option left to rehabilitate these areas. This
requires considerable management resources and may not
produce equivalent results to the inputs needed. Most rab-
bit warrens are located in the central portion of the reserve
where regular baiting for rabbits and localized weed con-
trol should prove more successful at regenerating these
areas in the medium term (i.e. native seed rain still occur-
ring in the immediate vicinity and weed reinvasion
limited). A regular monitoring program must be imple-
mented to determine the effectiveness of management
measures and whether or not more control work is re-
quired to achieve a better outcome.
Fire is an essential part of most Australian ecosys-
tems, but too-frequent burning of fragmented landscapes
can be disastrous leading to weed invasion within small
remnants which in turn perpetuates more fire events
(Bridgewater & Kaesehagen 1979; Wycherley 1984; Hussey
& Wallace 1993; B Muir, Muir Environmental Consult-
ants, personal communication). CALM district records
show that the reserve has not had a fire since 1980 and
likely many years prior to that date. It appears that the
localized weed invasions in the reserve are the results of
localized soil disturbance rather than too-frequent fires.
Any future fire plans should consider mosaic burns sup-
plemented with post-fire weed control if required. Grading
fire-breaks prior to mosaic burns is not recommended
due to the increased potential for weed invasion along
these breaks (i.e. increased soil disturbance) and increased
fragmentation of these small reserves. Brush-cutting nar-
row bands of vegetation may provide the necessary
fire-breaks. The potential for fire to adversely impact upon
the reserve’s rare flora must be considered. These areas
should be kept fire-free until recovery plans have been
successfully implemented which would include research
into the fire response of these species.
There has been some evidence of trail bikes and horses
using the area. The open nature of the reserve allows easy
access. A management track cuts through the centre of the
reserve and another overgrown track leads to the reserve’s
north-west corner (not shown on Fig 2). At this stage, the
damage to vegetation from vehicles and horses has been
minor. It would be advisable to erect signs that these ac-
tivities are not appropriate or authorised, and to more
clearly distinguish the area as a nature reserve.
In conclusion, the survey has highlighted aspects that
need management attention despite the reserve’s relatively
pristine appearance. It demonstrates that ‘in depth’ sur-
veys are especially useful at detecting potential issues prior
to these situations becoming real management problems.
Australian Herbarium (CALM) for their assistance and support for this volun-
tary project. We also thank R Cranfield and C Yates for their help and comments
on earlier drafts of this paper.
Adair R J 1995 The threat of environmental weeds to biodiversity
in Australia: a search for solutions. In Conserving
biodiversity: threats and solutions (eds R A Bradstock, T D
Auld, D A Keith, R T Kingsford, D Lunney & D P Sivertson).
Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, 184-201.
Arnold G W, Weeldenberg J W & Leone J 1998 Herbicide control
of exotic annual plant species in Acacia acuminata-Eucalyp-
tus loxophleba woodland in south-western Australia and
effects on native ground flora. Plant Protection Quarterly
Atkins K A 1999 Declared Rare Flora and Priority Flora list.
Wildlife Branch, Department of Conservation and Land
Beard J S 1980a The vegetation survey of the Pinjarra area. Map
and explanatory memoir 1:250000 series. Vegmap Publi-
Beard J S 1980b The vegetation survey of the Corrigin area. Map
and explanatory memoir 1:250000 series. Vegmap Publi-
Bridgewater P & Kaeshagen D 1979 Changes induced by
adventive species in Australian plant communities. In:
Werden und Vergehen von Pflanzengesellschaften (eds O
Wilmanns & R Tuxen). J Kramer, Braunschweig, Germany,
Gunness A G 1998 The vegetation and flora of remnant bushland
on the Lansdell’s property at Popanyinning. Report to Na-
tional Landcare Program (Save the Bush). Wildflower
Society of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia
Hobbs R J 1991 Disturbance as a precursor to weed invasion in
native vegetation. Plant Protection Quarterly 6:99-104.
Hobbs R J 1993 Effects of landscape fragmentation on ecosys-
tem processes in the Western Australian wheatbelt.
Biological Conservation 64:193-201.
Hopper S D 1979 Biogeographical aspects of speciation in the
southwest Australian flora. Annual Review of Ecology and
Hopper S D, Brown A & Marchant N G 1997 Plants of Western
Australian granite outcrops. Journal of the Royal Society
of Western Australia 80:141-158.
Humphries S E, Groves R H & Mitchell D S 1993 Plant inva-
sions: homogenizing Australian ecosystems. In:
Conservation Biology in Australia and Oceania (eds C
Moritz & J Kikkawa). Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping
Norton, NSW, 149-170.
Hussey B M J & Wallace K J 1993 Managing your Bushland.
Department of Conservation & Land Management, Perth.
Hussey B M J, Keighery G J, Cousens R D, Dodd J & Lloyd S G
1997 Western Weeds: a Guide to the Weeds of Western
Australia. The Plant Protection Society of Western Aus-
Muir B G 1977a Biological survey of the Western Australian
wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum.
Supplements 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 & 13.
Muir B G 1977b Vegetation and habitats of the Bendering Re-
serve. Biological survey of the Western Australian wheatbelt.
Part 2. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Sup-
Panetta F D & Hopkins A J M 1991 Weeds in corridors: invasion
and management. In Nature Conservation 2: The Role of
Corridors (eds D A Saunders & R J Hobbs). Surrey Beatty
& Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, 341-351.
Pigott J P 1994 Studies into anthropogenic disturbance and fire
regimes on the Star Swamp bushland. MSc Thesis, Univer-
sity of Western Australia, Perth.
Pigott J P & Sage L W 1997 Remnant vegetation, priority flora
and weed invasions at Yilliminning Rock, Narrogin, West-
ern Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western
Wycherley P 1984 People, fire and weeds: can the vicious spiral
be broken? In: The Management of Small Bushland Areas
in the Perth Metropolitan Region (ed S A Moore). WA De-
partment of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth, 11-17.
The vascular plant species recorded for Jingaring Nature
Reserve listed by family. The family sequence is based on
Engler’s phylogenetic classification of plant families. The
collector’s number for each specimen is included in pa-
rentheses after the species authority name. * symbol
represents species which are naturalized weeds.
* Alopecurus pratensis L (LWS1308)
* Avena barbata Link (LWS1345)
* Briza maxima L (RD6557)
* Bromus diandrus Roth (LWS1356)
* Ehrharta longiflora Sm (LWS1357)
* Hordeum geniculatum All (LWS1314)
* Lolium rigidum Gaudin (LWS1306)
Neurachne alopecuroidea R Br (RD6553)
* Pentaschistis airoides (Nees) Stapf (LWS1334)
* Vulpia muralis (Kunth) Nees (RD6550)
Baumea sp (RD6397)
Caustis dioica R Br (LWS1259)
Chorizandra enodis Nees (LWS1321)
* Cyperus tenellus L f (LWS1287)
* Romulea rosea var australis (Ewart) MP de Vos (RD6447)
Grevillea cagiana McGill (LWS1339)
* Spergularia rubra (L) J Presl & C Presl (FO312/99)
* Spergularia salina J Presl & C Presl (LWS1288)
Cassytha glabella R Br (FO2/99)
Cassytha pomiformis Nees (LWS1316)
* Fumaria muralis WDJ Koch (RD6446)
* Brassica tournefortii Gouan (FO240/99)
* Raphanus raphanistrum L (LWS1370)
Drosera bulbosa Hook subsp bulbosa (FO30/99)
Drosera erythrorhiza subsp squamosa (Benth) Marchant &
* Trifolium arvense L (LWS1318)
* Erodium botrys (Cav) Bertol (LWS1336)
* Oxalis corniculata L (FO313/99)
Cryptandra pungens Steud (RD6320)
* Anagallis arvensis L (LWS1330)
* Parentucellia latifolia (L) Caruel (RD6555)
* Arctotheca calendula (L) Levyns (RD6542)
* Hypochaeris glabra L (LWS1377)
* Osteospermum clandestinum (Less) Norl (FO237/99)
* Sonchus oleraceus L (LWS1290)