Key Threatening Process Nomination Form For adding a threatening process under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (epbc act)


Acacia attenuata (Acacia attenuate)



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Acacia attenuata (Acacia attenuate)


“ Based on current knowledge of the biology, ecology and distribution of A. attenuata, the persistence of this species is mainly threatened by the loss and fragmentation of suitable habitat through urban development along the coastal plains of southeast Queensland...…… Drainage of coastal lowland habitats for urban development may lead to the displacement of native species adapted to wet environments by those adapted to drier conditions. There is also the potential for long distance flood dispersal of seed to be impeded through drainage operations…….However it is likely that the disjunct distribution of A. attenuata has been exacerbated through the reduction of suitable habitat by human activities …...”

Anglesea Grevillea (Grevillea infecunda)


“……..Current distribution is fragmented, reflecting …… residential …..development in the region…..”
Aquatic root mat communities numbers 1-4 of caves of the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge-

“ Activities such as ……. large tourist developments ….. caravan parks and hotels that produce substantial amounts of effluent and require large quantities of water already occur near caves that contain root mats on the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge, and these types of development could be expected to expand in future…….Long

term planning and liaison with landholders and water managers are therefore required to ensure developments do not impact the cave streams …….Developments in the catchments and adjacent to caves have the potential to impact the caves through direct physical impacts such as cave collapse, or by indirect effects such as altering water quality or quantity in the caves…..”
Audas' Spider-orchid- (Caladenia amoena)

“……Habitat of C. amoena, C. audasii and C. rosella has been severely reduced and altered by ……… more recent urban development. For the remaining taxa (C. fragrantissima ssp. orientalis, C. hastata, C. robinsonii and C. thysanochila), habitat destruction has been caused by the urban and industrial development of their near-coastal habitat. These taxa now occupy areas close to and within urban development and the subsequent impacts associated with this and the management constraints placed on these sites are the largest threats to extant populations of these taxa…...”


Bare-rumped sheathtail bat- (Saccolaimus saccolaimus nudicluniatus)-

“……Parts of its range have been subjected to …….. urban development……Tree hollow availability is likely to be reduced in some areas ……..Extensive areas of tropical coastal woodland may be occupied by this species, some of which may be under threat by ……. urban development…..”
Black-throated finch- (Poephila cincta cincta)

“……urban development has potential to further fragment remaining black-throated finch habitat along the urban fringe in the Townsville and Thuringowa Shires and other areas, especially near the coast.”


Blue Babe-In-The-Cradle Orchid- (Epiblema grandiflorum var. cyaneum ms)

“……The proximity of urban development is likely to result in increased fire frequency in the area…..”


Cascade Tree frog- (Litoria pearsoniana)

“……Threats to water quality and altered flow regimes arise from adjacent and upstream land uses (e.g. housing development)…. Upstream ….. urban development (e.g. Mt Tamborine) are all likely to have affected flow regimes and water quality…..Many sites where M. iteratus occurs are the lower reaches of streams that have had major disturbances such as ……. urban development in their headwaters ……. Upstream …… urban development have reduced habitat and are likely to have affected downstream flow regimes and water quality in some localities (for example Kondallila Falls)……”
Chingia australis- (Chingia australis)

“…..The major threats to C. australis are listed below in order of significance from most

threatening to least threatening. Logging/clearing for agriculture, urban development, road building and redirection/damming of creeks…..Chingia australis occurs in specific sites within rainforest habitat and requires surrounding rainforest or gully/creek communities to provide the local microclimate it needs to complete its lifecycle.
Christmas Island Frigatebird- (Fregata andrewsi)

Since early settlement, the nesting distribution of Christmas Island Frigatebirds has been

fragmented by human development resulting in the three colonies that remain today……Most of the nesting habitat currently used by Christmas Island Frigatebirds is close to areas of high human activity……the cemetery colony is adjacent to an area proposed for residential and commercial development in the proposed Town Plan (Rumpff, H. pers. comm.)…..”
Christmas Island Shrew- (Crocidura attenuata trichura)

“….There is a possibility some shrews may be road killed, and such a threat is likely to increase with a substantial growth in vehicular traffic associated with developments….”


Crested Shrike-tit [northern (sub)species]-( Falcunculus (frontatus) whitei)

“……..The eastern subspecies of partridge pigeon occurs in the peri-urban area around Darwin, where there is increasing land development for horticulture and rural residential estates…….There is some risk of at least localised detriment to all four taxa from current and proposed …….. residential expansion…..”


Davidson's Plum- (Davidsonia jerseyana)

“ Habitat alteration and fragmentation through …… urban development has destroyed or isolated many Davidson’s Plum subpopulations. As a result of isolation, the function of pollinators, seed dispersers, seed predators and herbivores may have been interrupted and gene flow between many areas may have ceased. A continuation of current trends in ….. urban expansion in Byron and Tweed Shires may result in further destruction and isolation of some sub-populations…….Davidson’s Plum habitat occurs in coastal and lowland subtropical rainforest. Such vegetation communities are scarce within the range of Davidson’s Plum, having largely been cleared for …… development……”


Downy Wattle- (Acacia pubescens)

“……..Eleven of the sites recorded on the Atlas for NSW Wildlife (NSW NPWS 1998) no longer contain A. pubescens (see Appendix 2). Most of these sites have been lost due to residential development. Many old records indicate that the species occurred in locations that have now been developed……A potential threat at some sites is the planned development of those sites. A large percentage of sites occur on lands zoned for residential and industrial uses. The species may be lost from these sites due to development for these uses, or developments may introduce impacts onto the site which degrade the habitat……..It will not be possible to recover the species to its former distribution, given the degree of development……..In fact, unless actions are taken to reduce threats, it is likely that reductions will continue to occur in the current number of sites and the species will become locally extinct in some areas…….”
Eastern Shrublands and woodlands (nationally listed as Shrubland and Woodlands of the eastern Swan Coastal Plain)-

“…….This system has been extensively ….. urban development……”


Eastern Spider-orchid- (Caladenia fragrantissima ssp orientalis)-

“……Habitat of C. amoena, C. audasii and C. rosella has been severely reduced and altered by ………. recent urban development. For the remaining taxa (C. fragrantissima ssp. orientalis, C. hastata, C. robinsonii and C. thysanochila), habitat destruction has been caused by the urban and industrial development of their near-coastal habitat. These taxa now occupy areas close to and within urban development and the subsequent impacts associated with this and the management constraints placed on these sites are the largest threats to extant populations of these taxa……..”


Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub Endangered Ecological Community- (Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub.)

“…..A major threat to ESBS is the further loss and fragmentation of habitat as a consequence of ……. development. Less than 3% of the original distribution of the community exists and remaining stands are small and fragmented. ……”


East Lynne Midge Orchid- (Genoplesium vernale)

“…….developments may have also removed some habitat……”


Frankston Spider-orchid- (Caladenia robinsonii)

……. urban development has undoubtedly been the major cause of the decline to virtual extinction of the Frankston Spider-orchid. Suburbs close to Melbourne such as Sandringham where the species once grew, have been settled now for many decades. Considerable housing development occurred during the 1970s and 1980s around Frankston, which was responsible for the demise of the Frankston North population. The site at Rosebud was reserved as part of subdivision and residential housing development there during the 1980s. Residential development now stretches in a virtually unbroken band along almost the entire eastern shoreline of Port Phillip Bay, to a distance of almost 100 km from Melbourne……”
Glossy Black-Cockatoo (South Australian subspecies)- (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus)

“….Loss of critical habitat through …….. development / subdivision.”
Granite featherflower- (Verticordia staminosa subsp. cylindracea var. cylindracea)

“……details of current and possible future threats. Developments in the immediate vicinity of populations or within the defined critical habitat of Verticordia staminosa subsp. cylindracea var. cylindracea require assessment…..”
Graptophyllum reticulatum- (Graptophyllum reticulatum)

Urban development, weeds and the potential for fire and other disturbance are all threats to G. reticulatum populations. The urban development surrounding the Buderim population increases the additional risks of land slips, hydrological changes and associated nutrient pollution, as well as potential hybridisation between G. reticulatum and congeners planted in local gardens. In addition, fragmentation and disturbance of native ecosystems may have influenced insect and predator dynamics and caused a decline in the reproductive capacity of the species as there are few reports of seed production for this species……..It is also the plant community considered to be most at risk on the south-east Queensland coast and only occurs as remnant patches in the Sunshine Coast area (SOQ 1998); a situation likely to be exacerbated by ongoing development in the region……..Housing development is a significant threat to the G. reticulatum population at Buderim. Several blocks containing G. reticulatum have recently been subdivided, although the plants are subject to council environmental covenants, and other blocks are proposed for subdivision or development……Fragmentation from increasing urbanisation may have detrimental effects on ecosystem processes. Isolation within urban development may change local climatic and environmental conditions, lead to increased levels of disturbance, and imbalances in them ecosystem i.e. predation of seed may prevent recruitment……”
Grassland Earless Dragon- (Tympanocryptis pinguicolla)

“The main factors involved in the decline of T. pinguicolla are thought to be loss and

fragmentation of habitat due to urban, industrial ……. development…….Urban development appears to be detrimental to lizard populations…..”
Great Desert Skink- (Egernia kintorei)

Populations at Yulara (near Uluru) are currently under threat from increasing tourism development. Tourism infrastructure at Yulara and within Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park has occasionally been inadvertently sited close to active Great Desert Skink burrows, resulting in burrow abandonment, or mortality of lizards on roads…….”
Great White Shark- (Carcharodon carcharias)

“The following actions may hamper the species viability and recovery if carried out along the Australian coastline………Activities that have the potential to alter habitat quality (such as aquaculture, new sewerage/storm water outfalls and other coastal development in areas known to be frequented by White Sharks…….”


Greater Bilby- (Macrotis lagotis)

Known and potential threatening processes include…….habitat degradation and destruction resulting from feral and domestic herbivores, unsuitable fire regimes, …… other development; drought; and road mortality……The impacts of predation may be increased by …….. development…….Other developments, including the recently completed Alice Springs to Darwin railway, major roads (e.g. Stuart Highway), and inland gas pipelines (Jackson to Mt Isa) occur within bilby habitat. Construction of these structures has destroyed bilby habitat and introduced a number of negative indirect consequences……...”
Green turtle- (Chelonia mydas)

Alteration or development of the beach foreshores may prevent females from nesting, alter the sex ratio that the beach produces or result in light pollution that attracts hatchlings inland……..Development, vehicular activity and recreational activities have been identified as threats to the natal habitat……… urban and industrial development and their associated management Australia-wide are identified as an overall issue for concern. …….. residential or industrial development has the potential to affect turtle populations at various times of the life cycle. It may directly deny nesting habitat or create light pollution that can disorient nesting adults and hatchlings (McFarlane 1963, Philibosian 1976, Witherington 1992). It may also alter the characteristics of the beach in terms of available nesting habitat and alter the pivotal temperature that will in turn alter the sex ratio of any hatchlings (Morreale et.al. 1982, Mrosovsky and Yntema 1995)……..”
Grevillea caleyi- (Grevillea caleyi)

“…….Recent urban infrastructure developments in Terrey Hills, and road widening works in Terrey Hills and Belrose, have had detrimental impacts in recent years…….Recently, a newly discovered site was lost to urban development in Belrose (site 22). If the rate of habitat destruction continues, which appears a possibility, a number of sites of G. caleyi may disappear from the wild state in only a few years……..Given the locations of G. caleyi populations, that is near roadsides and adjacent to urban development, there is a great potential for weed species to impact on G. caleyi and its habitat. ……”
Illawarra Greenhood Orchid- (Pterostylis gibbosa)

“…….Population numbers have probably decreased since the arrival of Europeans due to ……. urban development and other activities…..In 1981 the Yallah Bush site was sold and foreshadowed for future urban development. ………The main potential threats to P. gibbosa plants, both for the plant and its pollinator(s), are habitat loss and degradation from development…..Habitat loss from urban development …… has reduced the area of available habitat on the Cumberland Plain and Illawarra to isolated remnants. The capacity of the species to extend beyond its known range in the Illawarra, Hunter and Shoalhaven regions is limited by the availability of suitable habitat. In areas, such as the Hunter Valley and Nowra, there may be suitable habitat and these areas may be subject to future development pressures……..Habitat loss from urban development ……. has greatly reduced the area of available habitat for the species. Further habitat loss will threaten the long-term viability of the species by further reducing population sizes and rendering extant sub-populations more vulnerable to stochastic events (NPWS 2000)…….”
Illawarra Socketwood- (Daphnandra sp. C 'Illawarra')

“………Extant D. sp. C ‘Illawarra’ sites are threatened by …… residential development and road construction…….The main threat to the survival of the species is …… residential development and road construction……Population growth in the Illawarra area is likely to place D. sp. C ‘Illawarra’ sites under increasing pressure from residential development. Such development, in addition to directly impacting upon the species through habitat loss and fragmentation, can indirectly affect sites in proximate or downslope locations by modifying environmental conditions and contributing to habitat degradation……..Urban development in close proximity to D. sp. C ‘Illawarra’ sites is likely to cause modification of habitat through altered hydrological conditions and soil pH, soil nutrification, weed invasion, potential introduction of plant pathogens and altered fire frequency. Subsequent increases in pedestrian and/or vehicular traffic to sites may result in trampling, soil compaction, soil erosion and the rubbish dumping…….D. sp. C ‘Illawarra’ habitat has been fragmented by ….. urban development ………”


Illawarra Zieria- (Zieria granulata)

“…….The main threat to the species is the further loss of habitat as a consequence of …… residential development and road construction …….Population growth in the Illawarra is likely to place Z. granulata under increasing pressure from residential development. Such development, in addition to directly impacting upon the species through habitat loss and fragmentation, can indirectly affect sites in proximate or downslope locations by modifying environmental conditions, and contributing to habitat degradation……..Recent residential developments at Shellcove (Zg22) and Blackbutt (Zg1) have resulted in the loss of Z. granulata plants and habitat……..High risk sites are those sites that are considered to be at greatest risk from Class I threats. This category contains all sites that are presently zoned for …… residential development………...”




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