Key Threatening Process Nomination Form For adding a threatening process under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (epbc act)


Long-sepalled Daviesia- (Daviesia megacalyx)



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Long-sepalled Daviesia- (Daviesia megacalyx)


“……..Developments in the immediate vicinity of the population or within the defined habitat critical to the survival of Daviesia megacalyx require assessment for the potential for a significant level of impact…….”

Lord Howe Island Biodiversity-


“……….further development in the settlement area continues, significant vegetation communities and habitats may be threatened. For example, the vegetation community Sallywood Swamp Forest, which has always had a restricted distribution, is listed as an Endangered Ecological Community on the TSC Act due to the ongoing impacts of clearing and grazing in the settlement area.…….. It is considered that a possible past reduction in the Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) population may be due to increased residential buildings in the settlement area which has reduced their habitat. Priddel et al. (2006) has calculated that the total extent of nesting habitat for this species has been reduced by 35.6% since 1978. This is associated with increased urbanisation and development, especially around Stevens Point and Middle Beach.………..”
Mahogany glider- (Petaurus gracilis)

“……….Urban residential development pressures in some areas threaten habitat as small blocks or parts of supporting mahogany glider habitat have been …… severely modified. In an area where habitat is already severely fragmented, small incremental losses over time may eventually lead to a landscape matrix not able to support local mahogany glider populations…….”
Masked Owl [Tiwi Islands subspecies]- (Tyto novaehollandiae melvillensis)

“……….There is some risk of at least localised detriment to all four taxa from current and proposed ……..residential expansion……….The eastern subspecies of partridge pigeon occurs in the peri-urban area around Darwin, where there is increasing land development for …… residential estates……..”


Mitchell's Rainforest Snail- (Thersites mitchellae)

“………..The major cause of the decline of Mitchell's Rainforest Snail is habitat destruction (Stanisic 1998; Stanisic 2000). ……. urban development across the species' range has been extensive, and many of the small areas of surviving habitat remain at risk of …….. development……..”


Moresby Range Drummondita- (Drummondita ericoides)

“…………Particular note will be made of the level of threat posed by the increased human presence due to the residential development adjacent to Population 1. Possible threats arising are dumping of rubbish and garden waste, damage through recreational activities and increased risk of fire…….”


Morrisbys gum- (Eucalyptus morrisbyi)

“………Past records indicate a decline of at least 50% in the area occupied by the species in the Cremorne area (Calverts Hill and nearby remnants) since European settlement. This decline has been largely due to ……. urban development. Given that the remaining trees are in a narrow coastal strip adjacent to a housing subdivision, much of the original Lumeah Point stand is likely to have been cleared…….”


Mt Emu she-oak- (Allocasuarina emuina)

“………The creation of a new A. emuina population is planned to replace an anticipated population loss due to development (Envirobusiness Update, 2002)………. Although the fire history of many A. emuina habitats is not recorded, the area’s fire regime is known to have changed significantly as a result of encroaching development………All sites are located in a region that is subject to increasing urban development…….Potential future development of the heathland retained by DNRM is likely to have an adverse impact on the population if measures are not put in place to minimise the impacts…...The remainder of the population occurs on freehold land to the south, where housing development approvals for the Peregian Springs development have been granted and construction commenced……….The development, however, will impact upon a total of 839 plants……..The most significant potential threatening process to A. emuina stems from expanding coastal development and the resultant loss of suitable habitat (McKiernan, 1997)………. The development of the Sunshine Motorway and associated earthworks may have contributed to the decline of populations at Peregian Springs, Finland Road, Coolum Ridges and the Emu Swamp section of Noosa National Park (Kruger, 2002; McKiernan, 1997). Weed introduction and inadequate drainage (incorporating increased nutrients) resulting from the earthworks may have also facilitated this decline……….In addition, stormwater run-off from roads (and developments adjacent to heathland) increases soil moisture and nutrients encouraging growth of exotic plant species……..Urban development is impacting directly upon known populations in some circumstances………”
Narrow-petalled Featherflower- (Verticordia plumosa var. pleiobotrya)

“……….The taxon is thought to be rare due to extensive …… urban development …….. The largest most sustainable population, was, until recently, under significant threat. The owner of this private property had approval for development of this area and had begun subdividing the property to build houses…….”
Natural Temperate Grassland of the Southern Tablelands (NSW and ACT)-

“……..The remaining Natural Temperate Grassland is a small fraction of its estimated original extent. ….. as a result of urban, …. and infrastructure development…….urban development and infrastructure, have greatly reduced the extent and

integrity of Natural Temperate Grassland in the region…….An estimated 99.5% has been destroyed or grossly altered since European settlement (Kirkpatrick et al. 1995). In most areas the grassland has been replaced ….. by urban and infrastructure development…….: This is particularly relevant to the ACT where the most extensive areas of Natural Temperate Grassland have been destroyed during the development of urban Canberra.…….Threats to remaining grassland areas from urban and infrastructure development are of two types: direct loss of sites, and deleterious impacts on the natural integrity of the grassland from adjacent urban areas……….”
Nodding Geebung- (Persoonia nutans)

“………The main threats to the survival of P. nutans are habitat loss and fragmentation (due to ……. residential development)……..”


Oxleyan pygmy perch- (Nannoperca oxleyana)

“………..urban development ….. has significantly reduced and fragmented these habitats. …….Oxleyan pygmy perch – with their limited distribution, rarity and dependence on specific habitats – are particularly vulnerable to a range of threatening processes. The most serious threat is habitat degradation and loss………. residential development ….. and drainage impacts have led to a severe reduction in wallum heaths and remaining areas are highly fragmented. While some important tracts of wallum heaths are protected within coastal national parks, other remaining areas of pygmy perch habitat are found on private or Crown land that could be developed in the future……….There are also several pygmy perch sites known to exist close to residential areas (or areas zoned for development) and the survival of these populations may be threatened by surface run-off and other activities that degrade habitats………Housing development and road construction projects pose major habitat threats …….”
Pinnate-leaved Eremophila- (Eremophila pinnatifida)

“……….The main threats are housing development, road maintenance, erosion, weeds, degraded habitat and inappropriate fire regimes. ……One population of Eremophila pinnatifida ms occurs in an area of Shire land that had been set aside for possible future housing development………This population is in an area subject to a housing development proposal and is extremely degraded and weedy…….clearing of nearby vegetation is likely to further reduce populations of pollinators, and an influx of people is likely to increase the recreational usage of the conservation reserve. In addition, the habitat may be affected by the addition of fertilisers to gardens and the water table affected by water usage……..”


Red handfish- (Brachionichthys politus)

“………Siltation of key estuaries caused by …… coastal developments, particularly those that involve dredging also threaten handfish habitat…….”
Ripple-leaf Muttonwood- (Rapanea species)

“………. urban development in the NSW North Coast Bioregion is probably the major cause of the decline of the Rippleleaf Muttonwood population to a critical level………..Muttonwood is present in an area of proposed development……..”
Slender Andersonia- (Andersonia gracilis)

“……….Populations are restricted to areas of remnant vegetation surrounded by ….. urban development ………..due to urban development, much of the habitat for the species has been destroyed and ‘filled in’ over time for human use……..”

Smooth Davidsonia- (Davidsonia johnsonii)

“……..conversion of land use to ….. development in NSW and south-eastern Queensland may have lead to the destruction of subpopulations of this species. The continuation of this trend poses a threat to remaining sub-populations……”


Somersby Mint Bush- (Prostanthera junonis)

“……….historical populations of P. junonis are likely to have been destroyed as a result of extensive development of the Somersby Plateau…………Degradation has occurred as a result of slashing, development, clearing and soil removal……..Development, and various types of disturbance threaten populations of P. junonis………The known habitat of P. junonis occurs at the rural-urban fringe where active development is occurring……..there have been frequent occurrences of unauthorised vegetation clearance including known and potential habitat sites for P. junonis. Clearing of known and potential habitat of P. junonis will have an impact on the long-term viability of the species……….Five of the nine populations have been either directly or indirectly affected by development (see 7.5 above). A further three populations (populations 1, 2 & 6) are likely to be subject to development within the next 1-5 years………Although development has not yet knowingly resulted in the complete removal of any of the P. junonis populations, the cumulative impacts of development and long term indirect impacts of habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation remain a serious concern for this species……….Adjacent development can significantly alter overland flows and thus impact on adjacent habitat through intensified runoff (leading to erosion canals), increased sediment loads, or in some cases, the diversion of the natural flow of water. Soil erosion and siltation are processes very likely to disrupt the life cycle of P. junonis, particularly in relation to a soil-stored seed bank……….The most significant population (2) was threatened by industrial development…………”
Southern cassowary- (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii)

“………..Dog attacks: urban development brings more domestic dogs……… While Wet Tropics Vegetation Management Codes regulate clearing, housing development still threatens local populations as supporting habitat is cleared. In Mission Beach incremental losses to severely fragmented habitat may eventually destroy the viability of the local population. Even low density housing brings more traffic and dogs…………Roads are

also precursors to future impacts, because they often facilitate land development and the further expansion of the road network itself. Crome and Moore (1993) found that the home ranges of approximately half of the cassowaries in the Daintree lowlands are intersected by roads……….”


Strickland mintbush- (Prostanthera askania)

“………..The major threat to Prostanthera askania is the further loss of plants and populations, and loss and fragmentation of remaining habitat, as a consequence of ….. development for residential, industrial … uses………. continues to occur for residential, industrial …. development. Population growth in this area is likely to place P. askania under increasing pressure from such development. At least one subpopulation in the Gosford suburb of Niagara Park is thought to have become locally extinct following …. residential subdivision (XXXX XXXX, pers. comm.)……….. the fragmentation of P. askania habitat, with populations and subpopulations of the species separated by severely modified …..areas. Fragmentation impacts may include the creation of small isolated populations with limited gene flow between them, leading to inbreeding depression and reduced potential to adapt to environmental change. In addition, small isolated populations may be subject to local extinction from stochastic (random) events. Fragmentation may also lead to the loss or severe modification of the interactions between P. askania and other species, including those interactions – such as with pollinators – that are important for the survival of the species. The hostility of the surrounding ….. modified environment is a major factor in limiting movement of organisms between patches. Furthermore, the physical environment within patches themselves may be altered as a result of creation of edges and associated anthropogenic influences……Altered flow patterns due to urban development may be the cause of riparian zone stream bank erosion which appears to be directly affecting the habitat of P. askania at one site (Pa_05b)…………. Urban development in close proximity to P. askania sites is likely to cause modification of habitat through altered hydrological conditions, soil pH and nutrient levels, weed invasion, potential introduction of plant pathogens and altered fire frequency. Subsequent increases in pedestrian and/or vehicular traffic through sites may result in trampling, soil compaction, erosion and rubbish dumping……”
Summer Leek-orchid- (Prasophyllum morganii)

“……..There is little doubt that the species has suffered a major decline in abundance, with initial declines attributed ……to a lesser extent, urban development and infrastructure…….”
Sunshine Diuris- (Diuris fragrantissima)

“……….Much of the original native grasslands to the west of Melbourne have been destroyed for …..industrial and urban development, and the remaining areas are mostly small, highly fragmented and usually substantially degraded…….. These habitats once covered about 10% of Victoria, but have now been reduced to less than 1% of their original extent (Barlow & Ross 2001; Stuwe 1986). It is highly likely that, with the habitat substantially reduced and so few plants remaining, ecological processes such as natural pollination have also been disrupted. Very low natural rates of pollination have been reported, with a maximum of only 7% of flowers producing seed pods (Cropper 1993), which is possibly a function of the rarity of the orchid and hence few opportunities for pollinators to find flowers and effect pollination………Some plants have also been illegally removed, and two stems with maturing seed capsules were suspected to have been removed in 2005. Future industrial and transport development may also pose a threat……..”
Swift Parrot- (Lathamus discolor)

“………..Woodlands and forests within the parrot’s over-wintering range and its restricted breeding distribution have been fragmented and substantially reduced by ….urban and coastal development.”


Tasmanian Grasstrees- (Xanthorrhoea arenaria Xanthorrhoea bracteata)

“……….Over half the known threatened grasstree sites occur on private land and plants may be threatened by continuing land conversion, housing/development, habitat degradation, …. trampling ………healthy forest communities that are threatened with further reduction in size and diversity through impactssuch as land …….(development and conversion) and Phytophthora cinnamomi……….”
Tasmanian Wedge-tailed Eagle- (Aquila audax fleayi)

“………Prime nesting habitat is found along major estuaries where residential and industrial development is concentrated, thus placing the species under pressure from habitat loss and disturbance……….There has been a progressive increase in the number of nests found prior to land development with a subsequent decrease in the number of nests located during disturbance……..White-bellied Sea-eagles are concentrated in estuarine areas around Tasmania many of which are the sites of significant residential, tourist and industrial developments and recreational pursuits. These activities, acting alone or in combination, pose a potentially significant threat to the survival of this species through nest disturbance or depletion of available habitat. The absence of forest regeneration on productive coastal land depletes the potential nesting habitat necessary for future nest establishment………”
Thymelaeaceae- (Pimelea spicata)

“………..urban and rural development has destroyed much of the natural habitat of the species and the remaining habitat is restricted, degraded and highly fragmented. The main threats to the survival of the species are further habitat loss as a result of residential development and habitat degradation, particularly from weed invasion……Pimelea spicata currently meets the requirements for endangered due to ….. residential …… development……..Cumberland Plain Woodland, which provides habitat for P. spicata across western Sydney, has been reduced to only 8.5% of its pre-European settlement extent, with a further 13 percent remaining as scattered trees across the landscape (NSW NPWS 2002)……… The two populations and one of the subpopulations (CD1e) were lost to residential development and the second sub-population (HO1b) was lost to industrial development……….The main factor that influences the species’ current status as endangered is habitat loss as a result of residential …. development……..”



Tunbridge Buttercup- (Ranunculus prasinus)

“……..All known populations of Ranunculus prasinus are on private land and are at future risk of destruction by …… draining or roading………”


Wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species- (Litoria olongburensis)

“…………The species in this plan have suffered significant habitat loss due to urban and resort development …... Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urban development remains one of the main threats to wallum frog species, particularly in coastal south-east Queensland and northeast New South Wales……….Since European arrival, however, the area of occupancy2 of these species has been significantly reduced due to ….. resort and residential development …… (Ingram and McDonald, 1993)……… The habitat utilised by these frogs, particularly that on the mainland, has been extensively …… drained for ….. resort and residential development ……. (Ingram and McDonald, 1993; Ehmann, 1997; Lewis and Goldingay, 2005)………. With population growth in coastal areas on the increase, much of the remaining habitat on freehold land may be lost to residential development and associated infrastructure (i.e. roads and sewerage lines). In terms of habitat degradation, it is those areas adjacent or adjoining residential and resort developments (including golf courses) that are most under threat……….Increased connectivity between water bodies or increased water permanence, caused by changes to hydrology, may increase the chance of introduction of the mosquito fish and therefore should be avoided. Changes in hydrology, which may affect this introduction, can be caused by urban development……..”

Western Swamp Tortoise- (Pseudemydura umbrina)

“………..Ellen Brook and Twin Swamps Nature Reserves protect wetland ecological communities that are now threatened because of ….. urban development……..”


Whicher Range Dryandra- (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. Argillacea)

“……….Adjacent land developments ……. have the potential to alter hydrological processes, and therefore to threaten the populations……..”


Yellow Chat (Dawson)- (Epthianura crocea macgregori)

“……….Industrial development ….. has the greatest potential to impact existing areas of known Capricorn yellow chat occurrence………”



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