Medicinal and Aromatic Plants—Industrial Profiles



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Document Outline

  • TF3186fm.pdf
  • TF3186int.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • INTRODUCTION
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186series.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • TF3186ch1.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 1. BEHIND THE NAMES: THE BOTANY OF TEA TREE, CAJUPUT AND NIAOULI
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE GENUS MELALEUCA
      • TEA TREE
      • CAJUPUT AND NIAOULI
      • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch2.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 2. TEA TREE CONSTITUENTS
      • INTRODUCTION
      • OIL CONSTITUENTS
        • Chronological Perspective
        • Molecular Perspective
      • EXTRACT CONSTITUENTS
        • Volatile Constituents
        • Leaf Waxes and Proline Analogues
      • CHEMICAL VARIATION
      • QUALITY ASSURANCE AND STANDARDS
        • Oil Quality
        • Tree Quality
        • Seedling Quality
      • BIOGENESIS
      • MELALEUCA OIL STABILITY
      • PROCESS MODIFIED OILS
      • METABOLISM OF TEA TREE OIL
      • OTHER USES OF TEA TREE
        • General Uses
        • Proline Analogues
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch3.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 3. CULTIVATION OF TEA TREE
      • INTRODUCTION
      • SITE REQUIREMENTS
      • CLIMATE
      • NATURAL HAZARDS
      • SOILS
      • CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR GROWING AREAS
      • PLANT PROPAGATION AND ESTABLISHMENT
        • Nursery Seedling Production
        • Vegetative Propagation
        • Plant Population and Row Spacing
        • Planting
        • Field Preparation
      • IRRIGATION
      • NUTRITION
        • Leaf Tissue Nutrient Levels
        • Mycorrhizal Associations
        • Effluent Nutrient Removal
      • YIELD CHARACTERISTICS
        • Plant Composition at Harvest
        • Oil Yield
      • HARVESTING
        • When to Harvest
        • Harvesting Equipment
        • Coppicing
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch4.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 4. WEED MANAGEMENT IN TEA TREE PLANTATIONS
      • INTRODUCTION
      • WEEDS IN TEA TREE PLANTATIONS
      • THE EFFECTS OF WEEDS IN TEA TREE PLANTATIONS
        • Weed Interference and Tea Tree Oil Yield
        • Indirect Effects
        • Benefits of Weeds
      • MECHANISMS OF WEED INTERFERENCE
        • Planting to First Harvest
          • Shading
          • Moisture Competition
          • Nutrient Competition
          • Interactions
          • Allelopathy
        • Annual Regrowth Cycles
          • Shading
          • Moisture Competition
          • Nutrient Competition
      • WEED MANAGEMENT IN TEA TREE PLANTATIONS
        • Preventative Techniques
          • Quarantine
          • Patch Management
          • Unsuitable Conditions for Weed Establishment
        • Direct Control Techniques
          • Herbicides
          • Soil Cultivation
          • Mowing
          • Grazing
          • Mulches
          • Legume Crops
          • Summary
        • Improving Tea Tree’s Competitiveness
          • Harvest Time
          • Pre-harvest Tree Size
          • Plantation Configuration and Density
          • Nitrogen Nutrition
          • High Water Table
          • Insect Management
      • CONCLUSION
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch5.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 5. INSECT PESTS OF TEA TREE: CAN PLANTATION PESTS BE MANAGED?
      • INTRODUCTION
      • INSECT FAUNA OF PLANTATIONS AND NATURAL STANDS
      • INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVES ON PESTS
      • INSECTS DAMAGING NEW SEEDLINGS
        • African Black Beetles, Mole Crickets and Cut Worms
        • Mole Crickets
        • Cutworms
      • INSECTS DAMAGING FOLIAGE OF ESTABLISHED PLANTS
        • Chrysomelids
        • Scarabaeids (Pasture Scarabs)
        • Nectar Scarabs (Phyllotocus spp.)
        • Psyllids
        • Eriophyid Mites
        • Leaf Galls
        • Aphids
        • Scale Insects
        • Leaf Hopper
        • Sawflies
        • Moth Larvae
      • INSECTS FEEDING ON WOOD AND BARK
        • Cerambycidae (Longicorn Beetles)
        • Weevils
        • Termites
        • Stem-boring Lepidoptera
      • VALUE OF PARASITES AND PREDATORS
      • PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CHEMICAL USAGE FOR PEST CONTROL
      • CONCLUSIONS
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch6.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 6. BIOMASS AND OIL PRODUCTION OF TEA TREE
      • INTRODUCTION
        • Terminology and Plant Parts
      • OIL CONCENTRATION
        • Analytical Methods
        • Variation in Oil Concentration
          • Seasonal Variation
          • Daily Variation
          • Diurnal Variation
          • Post-harvest Oil Concentration
        • Factors Related to Oil Concentration
          • Environmental Effects and Water Content
          • Oil Gland Density
          • Plant Vigour and Juvenile Effect
        • Controlling Processes
          • Loss Pathways
        • Double Pool Conceptual Model
      • BIOMASS YIELD
        • Environmental Effects
        • Other Effects
      • OIL YIELD
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch7.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 7. TEA TREE BREEDING
      • INTRODUCTION
      • GENETIC RESOURCES
        • Natural Stands
        • Plantations
      • GENETIC VARIATION
      • BREEDING PROGRAMMES
        • The Need
        • Breeding Strategy
        • Populations in a Breeding Strategy
        • Selection and Mating
        • Breeding Plan
      • BREEDING STRATEGY FOR MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA
        • Objectives
        • Selection Criteria
        • Species Information
        • Resources to Implement the Strategy
        • Monitoring Progress
        • Determinants of a Breeding Strategy
      • CASE STUDY: IMPROVEMENT OF MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA
        • Breeding Strategy
        • Breeding Plan
      • SUMMARY
      • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch8.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 8. TEA TREE OIL DISTILLATION
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE DISTILLATION PROCESS
        • Pressure
        • Solubility in Water
        • Cohobation
        • Plant Material
        • Fuel
      • DISTILLATION EQUIPMENT
        • Fire Box
        • The Still
        • The Condenser
        • Receiver or Separator
        • Constant Level Tank
      • EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLY
      • DISTILLATION RATES AND TIMES
      • SPENT LEAF
      • THE MOBILE STILL
      • HARVESTING AND LOADING
      • UNLOADING
      • CONCLUSION
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch9.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 9. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF TEA TREE OIL
      • INTRODUCTION
      • IN VITRO TESTING OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
        • Test Methods
        • Diffusion Tests (Disc or Well)
        • Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
          • Broth Dilution Methods
          • Agar Dilution Methods
        • Measurement of Microbiocidal Activity
        • Use of Solubilising and Emulsifying Agents
        • Antimicrobial Activity of Tea Tree Oil
        • Relationship Between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity
          • Significance of 1,8-cineole
          • Effect of Aging
      • TESTING OF EFFICACY IN CLINICAL TRIALS
        • Bacterial Infections of the Skin
        • Tea Tree Oil in the Treatment of Fungal Infections of the Skin and Nails
        • Infections of the Genitourinary System
      • AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS OF TEA TREE OIL
      • OTHER APPLICATIONS OF TEA TREE OIL
      • CONCLUSION
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch10.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 10. TOXICOLOGY OF TEA TREE OIL
      • INTRODUCTION
      • TEA TREE OIL—MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA
        • Acute Oral Toxicity
          • Poisoning
        • Acute Dermal Toxicity
        • Dermal Irritation
        • Skin Sensitization and Contact Dermatitis
        • Cytotoxicity using Human Cell Lines
      • CINEOLE AND OTHER MELALEUCA SPECIES’ OILS
      • CONCLUSION
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch11.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 11. TEA TREE OIL IN COSMECEUTICALS: FROM HEAD TO TOE
      • INTRODUCTION
      • HAIR CARE
      • FACE AND MOUTH
      • BODY PRODUCTS
      • HANDS
      • FEET AND LEGS
      • NATURAL PRESERVATIVE
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch12.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 12. FORMULATING FOR EFFECT
      • INTRODUCTION
      • FEATURES OF TEA TREE OIL
      • FORMULATION CONSIDERATIONS
        • Selection of the Oil
        • Solubilisation of Tea Tree Oil
        • Effect of Solubiliser on Antimicrobial Activity
        • Effect of Oil Concentration on Antimicrobial Activity
        • Effect of Other Additives on Antimicrobial Activity
        • Partitioning Effect in Formulated Products
      • PACKAGING
      • STABILITY
      • PRODUCT FAILURE
      • CONCLUSION
  • TF3186ch13.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 13. TEA TREE OIL MARKETING TRENDS
      • INTRODUCTION
      • STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
      • MARKETING ADVANTAGES
      • SOURCE SPECIES
      • QUALITY OILS
      • MARKET OUTLETS
      • STANDARDS
      • VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS
      • GRADES OF OIL
      • COMPETITION
      • PRODUCT RESEARCH
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch14.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 14. CAJUPUT OIL
      • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPERTIES AND USES
        • Composition
        • Colour and Odour
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • Uses
      • SUPPLY SOURCES, QUALITY AND PRICE
        • Supply Sources
        • Quality and Prices
      • SOURCE PLANTS
        • Botanical and Common Names
        • Description and Distribution of M. cajuputi
        • Ecology of M. cajuputi
        • Silvicultural Features and Utilisation
        • Genetic Resources
      • OIL PRODUCTION
        • Oil Production from Natural Stands in Indonesia
          • Leaf Harvesting and Distillation Methods
        • Oil Production from Plantations in Indonesia
          • Propagation, Planting and Husbandry
          • Yields and Distillation Methods
      • NEW DEVELOPMENTS
      • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch15.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 15. MELALEUCAQUINQUENERVIA (CAVANILLES) S.T.BLAKE, NIAOULI
      • BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
      • USE
      • THE CHEMISTRY OF MELALEUCA QUINQUENERVIA ESSENTIAL OILS
        • Identification of Components
        • Detailed Chemical Composition
          • 1,8-Cineole, Chemotype I
          • Four Other Chemotypes
      • HYDRODISTILLATION AND HARVESTING
      • USES—BIOACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF NIAOULI
        • Use of Essential Oils
          • Use in Traditional Medicine
          • French Pharmacopoeia
        • Bioactivity of Essential Oils
      • REFERENCES
  • TF3186ch16.pdf
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • CHAPTER 16. POTENTIALLY COMMERCIAL MELALEUCAS
      • INTRODUCTION
      • SPECIES DIGESTS
        • Melaleuca acacioides
        • Melaleuca alsophila
        • Melaleuca bracteata
        • Melaleuca citrolens
        • Melaleuca dissitiflora
        • Melaleuca ericifolia
        • Melaleuca leucadendra
        • Melaleuca linophylla
        • Melaleuca quinquenervia
        • Melaleuca squamophloia
        • Melaleuca stenostachya
        • Melaleuca stipitata
        • Melaleuca trichostachya
        • Melaleuca uncinata
        • Melaleuca viridiflora
        • Asteromyrtus symphyocarpa
      • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      • REFERENCES

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