Medicinal and Aromatic Plants—Industrial Profiles


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Copyright © 1999 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers imprint,
part of The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group.
BOTANY OF TEA TREE
23
9.
Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L., Mant. pl. 1:105 (1767). Myrtus leucadendra L., Sp.
pl. ed. 2, 676 (1762). Leptospermum kucadendron (L.) J.R. & G.Forst., Char. gen. pl.
72 (1776). Cajuputi leucadendron (L.) Rusby ex A.Lyons, Pl. names Sci. Pop. 479
(1900). Lectotypus (fide Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 1:17 (1968)): Rumphius,
Herb. Amboin. 2:72, t. 16 (1741) (the figure and description).
Melaleuca mimosoides Schauer, in Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 2:927 (1843).
Melaleuca leucadendron var. mimosoides (Schauer) Cheel, in Ewart & Davies, Fl. N.
Territory 295 (1917). Typus: Queensland: Rockingham Bay and Endeavour River,
Cunningham 253/1819 (BM, K, iso, n.v.).
Melaleuca amboinensis Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 65:26 (1918). Typus: Indonesia:
Ceram, Amboina, de Vriese s.n. (LY, holo, n.v.).
10. Melaleuca nervosa (Lindl.) Cheel.
10a. Melaleuca nervosa (Lindl.) Cheel subsp. nervosa, J. Proc. Roy. Soc. New S.Wales
78:65 (1944). Callistemon nervosus Lindl., in Mitchell, J. exped trop. Australia 235
(1848), as nervosum. Melaleuca leucadendron var.? parvifolia Benth., Fl. Austral.
3:143 (1867), pro parte (as to C.nervosus). Melaleuca leucadendron var. nervosa
(Lindl.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89:457 (1928), nom. illeg. Typus: Queensland: Balmy
Creek, Jul. 1846, Mitchell 241 (CGE, holo, n.v.; MEL, NSW, iso, n.v.).
Melaleuca nervosa f. latifolia Byrnes, Austrobaileya 2 (14 Jul. 1984) 74. Typus:
Northern Territory: about SE of Brooks Creek, Jul. 1946, Blake 16344 (BRI, holo,
n.v).
10b. Melaleuca nervosa subsp. crosslandiana (W.Fitzg.) Barlow ex Craven, comb, et stat.
nov. Melaleuca crosslandiana W.Fitzg., Western Mail (Perth) (2 Jun. 1906), basionym.
Melaleuca leucadendron var. coriacea f. crosslandiana (W.Fitzg.) Cheel, in Ewart &
Davies, Fl. Northern Territory 298 (1917). Lectotypus (fide Blake, Contr. Queensland
Herb. 1:43 (1968)): Western Australia: base of Mt Harris, Jun. 1905, Fitzgerald 1116
(BRI n.v., NSW).
11. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 69:76 (1958).
Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav., Icon. 4:19, t. 333 (1797). Typus: New South Wales:
Port Jackson, Apr. 1793, Née s.n. (MA, n.v., specimen now lost but the illustration
forming part of the protologue is available).
Metrosideros coriacea Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 3:685 (1813), nom. illeg., non Salisb.
Melaleuca leucadendron var. coriacea (Poir.) Cheel, in Ewart & Davies, Fl. N.Territory
297 (1917). Typus: New Caledonia: Labillardière s.n. (FI, holo, n.v.; MEL, P, n.v.).
Melaleuca leucadendron ß angustifolia L.f., Suppl. pl. 342 (1781). Melaleuca
viridiflora var. angustifolia (L.f.) Byrnes, Austrobaileya 2:74 (1984), nom. illeg., non
Bl. Typus: New Caledonia: Forster s.n. (LINN, holo, n.v.; K, iso, n.v.).
Melaleuca viridiflora var. ß rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 11:183
(1864). Melaleuca rubriflora Vieill. ex Brongn. & Gris, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 11:183
(1864), nom. inval. Melaleuca leucadendron var. rubriflora (Brongn. & Gris) Guill.,
Ann. Inst. Bot-Geol. Colon. Marseille 19:73 (1911). Typus: New Caledonia: near
Balade, Vieillard 451 (P, holo, n.v.).
Melaleuca maideni R.T.Baker, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 38:598 (1914).
Lectotypus (fide Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 1:28 (1968)): New South Wales:
Port Macquarie, Jul. 1895, Maiden s.n. (NSW, lecto, n.v.).

LYN A.CRAVEN
24
Melaleuca smithii R.T.Baker, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 38:599 (1914).
Lectotypus (fide Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 1:28 (1968)): New South Wales:
Rose Bay, Jul. 1913, Laseron s.n. (NSW, lecto, n.v.).
Melaleuca leucadendron var. albida Cheel, in Ewart & Davies, Fl. Northern
Territory 301 (1917), excl. forma ruscifolia Cheel. Lectotypus (fide Blake, Contr.
Queensland Herb. 1:28 (1968)): New South Wales: SieberFl. Nov. Holl. 319 (MEL,
M, K, isolecto, n.v.).
Melaleuca leucadendron var. vel forma nana Brongn. & Gris ex Guill., Bull. Soc. Bot.
France 81:6 (1934). Typus: New Caledonia: near Nouméa, Balansa 99 (P, holo, n.v.).
Melaleuca leucadendron var. vel forma latifolia Guill., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 81:6 (1934),
nom. illeg., non L.f. Typus: New Caledonia: near Nouméa, Balansa 99 (P, holo, n.v.).
12.
Melaleuca saligna Schauer, in Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 2:927 (1843). Melaleuca
leucadendron var. saligna (Schauer) F.M.Bailey, Syn. Queensl. fl. 170 (1883). Typus:
Queensland: swampy banks of the Endeavour River, Cunningham 256/1819 (BM, iso, n.v.).
Melaleuca stenostachya var. pendula Byrnes, Austrobaileya 2:74 (1984). Typus:
Queensland: Jacky Jacky airstrip, Bamaga district, May 1962, Webb & Tracey 5989
(BRI, holo, n.v.; CANB, QRS n.v.).
13. Melaleuca sericea Byrnes, Austrobaileya 2:74 (1984). Typus: Western Australia: 15km
W of Tableland Station, Apr. 1955, Lazarides 5133 (BRI, holo, n.v.; CANB, iso).
14. Melaleuca stenostachya S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 1:50, figs. 8, 14 H, 15 H
(1968). Typus: Queensland: Croydon, Blake 19566 (BRI, holo, n.v.).
15. Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn., Fruct. sem. plantarum 1 (Dec. 1788) 173, t. 35,
fig. 1. Myrtoleucodendron viridiflorum (Sol. ex Gaertn.) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. 1:241
(1891).  Cajuputi viridiflora (Gaertn.) A.Lyons, Pl. names Sci. Pop. 74 (1900).
Melaleuca leucodendron var. viridiflora (Gaertn.) Cheel, in Ewart & Davies, Fl.
Northern Territory 299 (1917). Typus: Queensland: Endeavour River, Jul.—Aug. 1770,
Banks and Solander s.n. (BM, MEL, NSW, iso, n.v.).
Melaleuca cunninghami Schauer, in Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 2:927 (1843).
Melaleuca leucadendron var. cunninghamii (Schauer) F.M.Bailey, Syn. Queensl. fl.
171 (1883). Typus: Queensland: Endeavour River, Cunningham s.n. (K, iso, n.v.).
Melaleuca leucadendron var. latifolia Rivière, Bull. Soc. Nat. Acclim. France III,
9:537 fig. 1 (1882). Syntypi: Northern Territory: Gulf of Carpentaria, Mueller s.n. (P,
K, n.v.; MEL isosyn, n.v.), nom. illeg., non L.f.
Melaleuca leucadendron var. sanguinea (Sol. ex Cheel) Cheel, in Ewart & Davies,
Fl. N. Territory 296 (1917), nom. illeg. Melaleuca sanguinea Sol. ex Cheel, Fl. N.
Territory 296 (1917), nom. inval. Typus: Queensland: Endeavour River, Jul.—Aug.
1770, Banks & Solander s.n. (NSW, holo, n.v.; BM, MEL, P, W, iso, n.v.).
Melaleuca cunninghamii var. glabra C.T.White, J.Arnold Arbor. 23:87 (1942).
Melaleuca viridiflora var. glabra (C.T.White) Byrnes, Austrobaileya 2:74 (1986).
Typus: Papua New Guinea: Tarara, Brass 8485 (BRI, holo, n.v.; A, K, LAE, n.v.).
Melaleuca viridiflora var. attenuata Byrnes, Austrobaileya 2:74 (1984). Typus:
Queensland: outside Port Douglas, c. 11km ESE of Mossman, Jul. 1967, Moriarty 9
(BRI, holo, n.v.).
Melaleuca viridiflora var. canescens Byrnes, Austrobaileya 2:74 (1984). Typus: Queen-
sland: 48km SSE of Strathleven homestead, Nov. 1965, Pedley 1843 (BRI, holo, n.v.).
Copyright © 1999 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers imprint,
part of The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group.

BOTANY OF TEA TREE
25
Key to the species of the M. leucadendra group
Note: Young growth may be needed to observe the leaf hairs as these are soon deciduous in
some species.
1. Calyx lobes absent..................................................................M. cornucopiae
1. Calyx lobes present
 2. Staminal 
filaments hairy.........................................................M. lasiandra
 2. Staminal 
filaments 
glabrous
  3. Hypanthium distinctly hairy
  4. Leaf blade indumentum with at least some of the hairs lanuginulose or
sericeous-lanuginulose (whether or not also with pubescent to sericeous or
sericeous-pubescent hairs)
  5. Stamens 5–8mm long
6. Calyx lobes 0.5–0.8mm long; triads clustered (less than 1 hypanthium
diameterapart).........................................................M. saligna
 
6. Calyx lobes 0.9–1.5mm long; triads scattered (more than 1 hypanthium
diameter apart) or sometimes partly clustered.........M. dealbata
 
5. Stamens 10–23mm long
  7. Leaves 1.6–10.2 times as long as wide, the blade 5–40mm wide;
hypanthium 1.8–3.5mm long; stamens 3–7 per bundle
 
8. Leaf blade tardily glabrescent; leaves 9–40 mm wide, 1.6–8.8 times
as long as wide...................................M. nervosa subsp. nervosa
 
8. Leaf blade soon glabrescent; leaves 5–30 mm wide, 2.8–10.2 times
as long as wide.............................M. nervosa subsp. crosslandiana
 
7. Leaves 5–20 times as long as wide, the blade 5–19mm wide; hypanthium
1.3–2mm long; stamens 3–9 per bundle....... M. fluviatilis
 
4. Leaf blade indumentum without lanuginulose or sericeous-lanuginulose hairs
(the hairs sericeous, sericeous-pubescent or pubescent)
 
9. Inflorescence up to 30mm wide
 
10. Inflorescence up to 20mm wide
 
11. Triads distant (at least 1 hypanthium diameter apart, sometimes
within an inflorescence some of the triads are closer)......
.................................................................M. stenostachya
 
11. Triads clustered (less than 1 hypanthium diameter apart)
  12. Leaf blade apex acuminate, narrowly acute or acute
..................................................................M. sericea
 
12. Leaf blade apex usually obtuse, sometimes acute, rounded,
obtusely shortly acuminate or refuse....................M. arcana
 
10.
Inflorescence more than 20mm wide
 
13. Calyx lobes herbaceous in the proximal-central zone and scarious
in a narrow marginal band; leaves 4.8–14 times as long as
wide............................................................M. argentea
  13. Calyx lobes herbaceous in the proximal-central zone and scarious
in a broad marginal band; leaves 1.3–9.7 times as long as wide
Copyright © 1999 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers imprint,
part of The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group.

LYN A.CRAVEN
26
 
14. Older leaves with the secondary venation distinct and about as
prominent as the major veins
 15. Leaves (17–)25–50(–60) mm wide (leaves 1.3–6.5
times as long as wide; stamens (8–)9–12(–15) per bundle)
....................................M. cajuputi subsp. platyphylla
 15. Leaves (6–)10–28(–39)mm wide
  16. Leaves (6–)10–16(–26)mm wide, 2.8–9.7 times as long
as wide; stamens (6–)8–11(–14) per bundle
.................................M. cajuputi subsp. cajuputi
 
16. Leaves (15–)19–28(–39)mm wide, 2.2–2.9 times as long
as wide; stamens (4–)6–8(–10) per bundle
..............................M. cajuputi subsp. cumingiana
 
14. Older leaves with the secondary venation more or less
obscure..............................................M. quinquenervia
 
9. Inflorescence more than 30mm wide
 
17. Young shoots with the hairs completely appressed; hypanthium (1.8–)3–
3.5mm long; petals (2.7–)4–5.3mm long; inflorescence axis sericeous or
pubescent (occasionally glabrous)..............M. viridiflora
 
17. Young shoots with at least some spreading-ascending to spreading hairs;
hypanthium 1.5–2.5 mm long; petals 2.5–3.5 mm long; inflorescence axis
pubescent.........................................M. quinquenervia
3. Hypanthium glabrous or effectively so
 
18. Calyx lobes puberulous on the abaxial surface...........M. dealbata
 
18. Calyx lobes glabrous on the abaxial surface
 
19. Calyx lobes herbaceous in the proximal-central zone and
scarious in a narrow marginal band or the lobes herbaceous
almost throughout
 
20. Stamens 6–7mm long; leaves 30–110mm long, 3.3–9 times
as long as wide; bark hard................M. clarksonii
 
20. Stamens 7–16mm long; leaves 75–270mm long, 3.5–16.1
times as long as wide; bark papery............M. leucadendra
  19. Calyx lobes herbaceous in the proximal-central zone and
scarious in a broad marginal band
 
21. Leaf blade narrowly ovate, very narrowly ovate, rarely
narrowly elliptic or very narrowly elliptic (often falcate to
subfalcate); leaves 3.5–16 times as long as wide; petals
with elliptic oil glands (occasionally long elliptic glands
form an apparently linear gland)...............M. leucadendra
 
21. Leaf blade elliptic to very narrowly elliptic, obovate to
very narrowly obovate (rarely broadly elliptic or ovate or
very narrowly ovate or approaching falcate); leaves usually
1.3–8.5 times as long as wide (in some forms of M.
viridiflora 4.8–15.7 times as long as wide with the blade
very narrowly elliptic or narrowly elliptic or narrowly
Copyright © 1999 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers imprint,
part of The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group.

BOTANY OF TEA TREE
27
obovate or very narrowly obovate); petals with oil glands
linear, elliptic, circular to subcircular, or oblong
22. Stamens 9.2–10mm long, the bundle claw 0.2–0.4
times as long as the stamens...............................
................................M. cajuputi subsp. platyphylla
22. Stamens (9.5–)10.5–23mm long, the bundle claw
0.06–0.2(–0.5) times as long as the stamens
23. Hypanthium 1.5–2.5mm long; petals 2.5–
3.5mm long; leaves 10–30mm wide;
inflorescence axis pubescent.............................
M. quinquenervia
 
23. Hypanthium (1.8–)3–3.5mm long; petals (2.7–
)4–5.3mm long; leaves (8–)19–76mm wide;
inflorescence axis sericeous or pubescent
(occasionally glabrous).........................M.
viridiflora
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The assistance of Brendan Lepschi in collecting data and references, and of Julie Matarczyk
in producing the distribution maps, is much appreciated. Bryan Barlow’s specimen
annotations and notes concerning type specimens were valuable in treating the M.
leucadendra group.
REFERENCES
Barlow, B.A. (1987) Contributions to a revision of Melaleuca (Myrtaceae): 1–3. Brunonia, 1, 163–
177.
Barlow, B.A. (1988) Patterns of differentiation in tropical species of Melaleuca L. (Myrtaceae). Proc.
Ecol. Soc. Australia, 15, 239–247.
Barlow, B.A. and Cowley, K.J. (1988) Contributions to a revision of Melaleuca (Myrtaceae): 4–6.
Austral. Syst. Bot., 1, 95–126.
Bentham, G. (1867, ‘1866’) Myrtaceae. In, Flora Australiensis, Vol. 3, Lovell Reeve & Co., London,
pp. 1–289.
Blake, S.T. (1958) New and critical genera and species of Myrtaceae subfamily Leptospermoideae
from eastern Australia. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, 69, 75–88.
Blake, S.T. (1968) A revision of Melaleuca leucadendron and its allies (Myrtaceae) Contr. Queensland
Herb., 1, 1–114.
Briggs, B.G. and Johnson, L.A.S. (1979) Evolution in the Myrtaceae—evidence from inflorescence
structure. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 102, 157–256.
Butcher, P.A., Doran, J.C. and Slee, M.U. (1994) Intraspecific variation in leaf oils of Melaleuca
alternifolia (Myrtaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 22, 419–430.
Butcher, P.A., Byrne, M. and Moran, G.F. (1995) Variation within and among the chloroplast genomes
of Melaleuca alternifolia and M. linariifolia (Myrtaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol., 194, 69–81.
Byrnes, N.B. (1984) A revision of Melaleuca L. (Myrtaceae) in northern and eastern Australia, 1.
Austrobaileya, 2, 65–76.
Byrnes, N.B. (1985) A revision of Melaleuca L. (Myrtaceae) in northern and eastern Australia, 2.
Austrobaileya, 2, 131–146.
Copyright © 1999 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers imprint,
part of The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group.

LYN A.CRAVEN
28
Byrnes, N.B. (1986) A revision of Melaleuca L. (Myrtaceae) in northern and eastern Australia, 3.
Austrobaileya, 2, 254–273.
Carrick, J. and Chorney, K. (1979) A review of Melaleuca L. (Myrtaceae) in South Australia. J. Adelaide
Bot. Gard., 1, 281–319.
Cheel, E. (1917) Myrtaceae of Northern Territory (except Eucalyptus). In, A.J.Ewart and O.B.Davies
(eds.), Fl. N. Territory, McCarron, Bird & Co., Melbourne, pp. 290–304.
Cheel, E. (1924) Notes on Melaleuca, with descriptions of two new species and a new variety. J. Proc.
Roy. Soc. New South Wales, 58, 189–197.
Cowley, K.J., Quinn, F.C., Barlow, B.A. and Craven, L.A. (1990) Contributions to a revision of
Melaleuca (Myrtaceae): 7–10. Austral. Syst. Bot., 3, 165–202.
Craven, L.A. (1989) Reinstatement and revision of Asteromyrtus (Myrtaceae). Austral. Syst. Bot., 1,
373–385.
Craven, L.A. (1997) Australian National Herbarium, Canberra. Personal communication.
Dawson, J.W. (1992) Melaleuca Linné. In, Ph. Morat and H.S.Mackee (eds.), Flore de la Nouvelle-
Calédonie et dependances, Vol. 18, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, pp. 216–229.
Lanjouw, J., Mamay, S.H., McVaugh, R., Robyns, W., Rollins. R.C., Ross, R., Rousseau, J., Schulze,
G.M., Vilmorin, R. de and Stafleu, F.A. (1966) International code of botanical nomenclature,
International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, Utrecht.
Lum, S.K.Y. (1994) Dispersal of Australian plants across Wallace’s Line: a case study of Melaleuca
cajuputi (Myrtaceae), Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
Quinn, F.C., Cowley, K.J., Barlow, B.A. and Thiele, K.R. (1989) Contributions to a revision of Melaleuca
(Myrtaceae): 11–15. Unpublished manuscript.
Ramanoelina, P.A.R., Bianchini, J.P., Andriantsiferana, M., Viano, J. and Gaydou, E.M. (1992) Chemical
composition of niaouli essential oils from Madagascar. J. Essent. Oil Res., 4, 657–658.
Ramanoelina, P.A.R., Viano, J., Bianchini, J.P. and Gaydou, E.M. (1994) Occurrence of variance
chemotypes in niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) essential oils from Madagascar using multivariate
statistical analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 42, 1177–1182.
Rumphius, G.E. (1741) Arbor alba, Arbor alba minor. In, Herbarium Amboinese, pp. 72, 76, t. 16, t.
17, figs. 1–2.
Wrigley, J.W. and Fagg, M. (1993) Bottlebrushes, Paperbarks and Tea Trees, Angus & Robertson,
Pymble.
Copyright © 1999 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers imprint,
part of The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group.

29
2. TEA TREE CONSTITUENTS
IAN SOUTHWELL
Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, Wollongbar, NSW, Australia
INTRODUCTION
As with most genera, Melaleuca contains a variety of primary and secondary metabolites.
The volatile oil constituents of M. alternifolia and closely related species are the compounds
responsible for the commercial development of Melaleuca as a medicinal and aromatic
plant. Consequently the most frequently investigated aspects of the chemistry of tea tree
concern the identification of these volatile oil constituents. As considerably less is known
about the genus’s primary metabolite tannins, polyphenols, waxes, amino acids and betaine
constituents these will only receive brief mention. The constituents of the other Melaleuca
species will be outlined in later chapters in this volume.
OIL CONSTITUENTS
Chronological Perspective
At the same time that Melaleuca linariifolia var. alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) was
being raised to species status as M. alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel (Cheel 1924),
the first chemical investigations of the taxon were being undertaken (Penfold 1925). Earlier,
Baker and Smith (1906, 1907, 1910, 1911, 1913) had investigated the oils of M. thymifolia,
M. uncinata, M. nodosa, M. genistifolia (M. bracteata), M. gibbosa, M. pauciflora and M.
leucadendron in what must be considered, by todays standards, a most superficial way.
Penfold (1925), investigated M. linariifolia and M. alternifolia concurrently and concluded
that their essential oils were “practically identical”. This investigation included measurement
of oil yields (1.5–2.0%), specific gravity, optical rotation, refractive index, solubility in
alcohol, fractional distillation and identification of chemical constituents by the preparation
of derivatives and comparison of melting points and mixed melting points with authentic
materials. In this manner pinene (2), 
α-terpinene (7), γ-terpinene (12), p-cymene (10),
sabinene (?) (3), cineole (11), terpinen-4-ol (14) and sesquiterpenes including cadinene
(18) were identified from M. linariifolia and all of these except sabinene identified from M.
alternifolia. The methods involved were qualitative rather than quantitative for all constituents
except 1,8-cineole (11) which was estimated to be present at 16–20% and 6–8% in M.
linariifolia and M. alternifolia respectively.
In subsequent decades, Jones investigated M. linariifolia more thoroughly, discovered
both high cineole (61%) (Jones 1936) and low cineole (Davenport et al. 1949) chemical
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