Melaleuca deanei F. Muell. ( National Recovery Plan Deane’s Paperbark)

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

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1.3Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

The EPBC Act provides a legislative framework for the protection of threatened species across Australia. In preparing a Commonwealth Recovery Plan, consideration must be given to the role and interests of Aboriginal people in the conservation of Australia’s biodiversity. The Act also seeks to impose the obligation (arising from the listing) for responsible agencies (particularly Commonwealth) to adopt protective measures.
As M. deanei is listed nationally under the EPBC Act, any person proposing to undertake actions likely to have a significant impact on this species should refer the action to the Commonwealth Minister for Environment Protection, Heritage and the Arts for consideration. The Minister will then decide whether the action requires EPBC Act approval. This is in addition to any State or Local Government approval required.
Administrative guidelines are available from the Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts to assist proponents in determining whether their action is likely to have a significant impact.

1.4Other legislation

Other legislation relevant for the conservation and recovery of M. deanei is listed in Appendix 2.

2Description and Taxonomy


Melaleuca deanei is a shrub up to 5 metres high with fibrous-flaky bark. Leaves are alternate, narrow-elliptic to lance-shaped in outline and 12-25 mm long and 3-6 mm wide. The leaves are moderately dark green in colour and twisted so the edges turn towards the stem, while the leaf tip ends in a sharp point. The mature plant is hairless, however new shoots are covered in white hairs. Flowers are creamy-yellow and arranged in a typical bottle-brush spike, up to 6 cm long. Within each flower, groups of stamen (17-28) are fused together at the base. Fruit is barrel-shaped, 3-5 mm in diameter, and the opening to the fruit is 3 mm in diameter.


The type specimen for M. deanei was collected by Henry Deane at Lane Cove in December 1886. Compared to other Melaleuca species, M. deanei has the following distinct features:

  • relatively flat and thick leaves with three rather indistinct nerves (von Mueller 1886, cited in Felton 1993); and

3Distribution and Habitat

In this recovery plan, M. deanei records within 500 metres of each other have been defined as belonging to the same population, as dispersal of the species is unlikely to exceed this distance (Felton 1993). Populations may consist of a number of sites, as sites have been determined on the basis of tenure.

3.1Current distribution

Melaleuca deanei is endemic to the Sydney Basin Bioregion (Figure 1). The distribution of the species extends from St. Albans (Hawkesbury LGA) in the north, Nowra (Shoalhaven LGA) in the south, and west to Faulconbridge (Blue Mountains LGA).

Table 1 Distribution of 94 Melaleuca deanei populations in different LGAs in their northern and southern range, and percentage of these populations found within formal conservation reserves.

Local Government Area (LGA)

Number of populations (% of all populations)

Number in formal conservation reserves (% of populations within LGA)



1 (1.1 %)

1 (100 %)


4 (4.3 %)

4 (100 %)

Blue Mountains

4 (4.3 %)

1 (25 %)

Baulkham Hills

2 (2.1 %)



26 (27.7 %)

23 (88.5 %)


5 (5.3 %)

3 (60 %)


4 (4.3 %)

3 (75 %)


2 (2.1 %)

1 (50 %)

Total northern

48 (51.1 %)

36 (75 %)



3 (3.2 %)



22 (23.4 %)

12 (54.5%)


15 (16 %)

1 (6.7 %)


3 (3.2 %)

1 (33.3 %)


1 (1.1 %)



2 (2.1 %)

2 (100 %)

Total southern

46 (48.9 %)

16 (35 %)


94 (100 %)

52 (55.4 %)

Table 1 shows that the main distribution of the species can be divided into a northern and a southern range. The northern range extends north from Ryde LGA, including the Blue Mountains (48 populations), whereas the southern range extends south from Sutherland LGA (46 populations). The two ranges are separated by a distance of approximately 28 km. This is partly a consequence of unsuitable habitat for the species occurring on the Cumberland Plain in Western Sydney, but is also the result of the loss of habitat in northern, southern, and inner western Sydney to urban development.

Two other disjunct sites have been recorded in Morton NP and Colymea SCA, west of Nowra (Shoalhaven LGA). This is over 60 km south of the main distribution of the species.

It is likely that our understanding of the distribution of M. deanei is incomplete.

  1. Known distribution of Melaleuca deanei in NSW

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