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TABLE 1  SIGNIFICANT FLORA PREVIOUSLY RECORDED IN THE VICINITY



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TABLE 1 

SIGNIFICANT FLORA PREVIOUSLY RECORDED IN THE VICINITY  

OF THE KOOLANOOKA HILLS PROJECT AREA 

 

Species Conservation 

Code 

Distribution 

Acacia acanthoclada subsp. 

glaucescens 

P3 


Mt Gibson Stn, Koolanooka 

Hills, Three Springs, Paynes 

Find 

Acacia formidabilis 

P3 


Perenjori, Wanarra, Paynes 

Find,  


Acacia isoneura subsp. isoneura  

P3 


Perenjori, Three Springs, 

Wubin, Bentine 



Angianthus miropodoides 

P3 Meckering 



Baeckea sp. Perenjori (Green 

P2 Perenjori, 

Bowgada 


ATA Environmental 

_______________________________________________________________________________ 



________________________________________________________________________________ 

MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 

Version 1: 26 March 2004 



Species Conservation 

Code 

Distribution 

1516) 


Epitriche demissus 

P2 Three 

Springs, 

Morawa 


Eremophila rostrata 

R Perenjori, 

Cue 

Fitzwillia axilliflora 

P2 


Lake Magenta, Lake Bryde, 

Moora 


Gnephosis setifera 

P1 Bunjil, 

Morawa 

Grevillea asparagoides 

P3 


Perenjori, Bindi Bindi, Morawa, 

Wongan Hills 



Gunniopsis rubra 

P3 


Perenjori, Paynes Find, Ballidu 

Halosarcia bulbosa 

R Morawa-Koolanooka 

Hills 

Lechenaultia galactities  

P3 


Perenjori, Koorda, Latham, 

Dandaragan 



Leptospermum exsertum  

P1 Perenjori, 

Mullewa, 

Tardun 


Levenhookia octomaculata 

P3 Bolgart, 

Canna 

Persoonia pentasticha 

P2 


Perenjori, Yuna, Mullewa, 

Mingenew 



Podotheca uniseta 

P3 


Koolanooka, Morawa, Lake 

O’Grady 


Urodon capitatus 

P3 


Perenjori, Ballidu, Koorda, 

Miling 


Verticordia venusta 

P3 


Perenjori to Moonijin, Wongan 

Hills, Buntine 

 

In addition, the Western Australian herbarium’s specimen database was accessed to 



obtain a list of plant collections from the Koolanooka area to aid in plant 

identification. 

 

The survey was undertaken by a combination of vehicle access with traverses on foot 



up to the ridges.  The amount of time on site was considered adequate given the low 

diversity of species in the area at the time of the survey.  There were few dead annuals 

on the ground to suggest that the timing of the survey limited the number of 

ephemeral species being recorded.  

 

Aerial photography was used to identify and delineate major vegetation types, which 



were intensively sampled for all floristic plant species by way of traversing parallel, 

non-permanent transect to 50m in length, depending on structure, area and floristic 

complexity, through at least one of each of the provisionally identified vegetation 

types (Figure 2). All plants species were recorded at 1m intervals along each transect. 

Within each sampling location, the structure and floristic composition of the 

vegetation was described and, where appropriate, a brief description of the soil and 

landform characteristics of that particular unit was provided. For areas where 

vegetation had been cleared or the understorey had been completely removed, the 

transect line survey method was not adopted. 

 

The locations of plants positively identified in the field as CALM listed Declared Rare 



or Priority Flora were recorded using a Global Positioning System (GPS) (Magellan 

Meridian Gold) (MGA 94 Zone 50).  

 

 


ATA Environmental 

_______________________________________________________________________________ 



________________________________________________________________________________ 

MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 

Version 1: 26 March 2004 



4. SURVEY 

RESULTS 

 

4.1



 

Vegetation Types 

 

The vegetation types recorded from the study area have been described using the 



vegetation structural classes adapted from Muir (1977). Both the structure and species 

composition of many of the vegetation types recorded from the survey area were 

extremely variable and the descriptions provided in this report refers to the dominant 

vegetation layer and the most dominant species associated with a particular vegetation 

type. 

 

A total of 31 different vegetation types were identified during the October 2003 



vegetation and flora survey of the Koolanooka site (Figure 3). These were: 

 

1.  Closed Tall Scrub dominated by Acacia assimilis subsp.  assimilis, 



Allocasuarina campestris and Melaleuca filifolia over Herbland of mixed 

species and bare ground. 

 

This vegetation type occurs over a significant area of the slopes on the western side of 

the Koolanooka Hills range. This vegetation type was variable in height and 

dependent on the depth of soil, which was skeletal on the upper slopes, but was 

generally to 3m. Scattered Eucalyptus oldfieldii subsp. oldfieldii trees to 5m occurred 

at the base of the hills. The Allocasuarina campestris component of this vegetation 

type was most prominent near to the crest of the hills, becoming less dominant near 

the base. 

 

2.  Closed Heath to Tall Open Scrub dominated by Acacia acuminata, Acacia 

aneura, Grevillea intregrifolia and  Melaleuca cordata over Herbland of 

Cephalipterum drummondii, Xanthosia bungei, Podolepis lessonii 

 

This vegetation type was recorded from an area to the immediate north of Koolanooka 



Spring Road at the base of the western side Koolanooka Hill range. The vegetation 

ranges in height between 2m and 3m, with occassional scattered Eucalyptus leptopoda 

(to 4m) occurring along the northern edge of the area. Associated, less commonly 

occurring species recorded from the middle stratum of this vegetation type include 



Dodonaea pinifolia, Grevillea paradoxa, Aluta appressa, Aluta aspersa subsp. 

hesperia and Pimelea rosea

 

3.  Open Woodland to Very Open Shrub Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus ebbanoensis 



subsp. ebbanoensis over a Tall Open Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Acacia 

acuminata, Acacia exocarpoides, Acacia tetragonophylla, Hakea preissii and 

Melaleuca filifolia with scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana over a Herbland 

dominated by Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus. 

 

Occurring over the crest and east-facing slopes of the Koolanooka Hills, Eucalyptus 



ebbanoensis  subsp.  ebbanoensis  mallee  (to 5m in height) is the most prominent 

component over the plateau and upper slopes of the hill, becoming less common at its 

base, where Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba and Eucalyptus oldfieldii subsp. 

oldfieldii become the more prominent components. The Tall Shrubland to Tall Open 

Scrub stratum of this vegetation type is dominated by Acacia tetragonophylla to 3m in 



ATA Environmental 

_______________________________________________________________________________ 



________________________________________________________________________________ 

MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 

Version 1: 26 March 2004 



height. Apart from lower slopes of the hill, the soil is relatively skeletal supporting 

few lower stratum species. While Eucalyptus ebbanoensis subsp.  ebbanoensis  was 

consistently the dominant overstorey component of this vegetation type, the structure 

was quite variable ranging from Very Open Shrub Tree Mallee over the crest of the 

hills to a more Open Woodland, often in association with Eucalyptus loxophleba 

subsp.  loxophleba over the lower slopes. Similarly, the floristic composition of this 

vegetation type was more diverse on the lower slopes where the soil tended to be 

deeper than on the shallow, skeletal soils that occurred over the crest of the hills.  

 

This vegetation type appears to be closely aligned with CALM’s description of the 



Threatened Ecological Community (TEC) (Plant Assemblages of the Koolanooka 

System) that was assessed by the Department of Conservation and Land Management 

in 1999 as Vulnerable. 

 

4.  Open Heath of Aluta appressa, Aluta aspersa subsp.  hesperia, Acacia 

acuminata  and Acacia assimilis subsp.  assimilis  over an Open Herbland of 

Borya sphaerocephala. Waitzia acuminata subsp.  acuminata, Brunonia 

australis and Glischrocaryon aureum with large areas of bare open ground 

 

This vegetation type to 2m in height and relatively small in area, was recorded to the 

east of the Koolanooka Hills, adjacent to cleared farmland. In addition to the 

dominant species recorded from this vegetation type, other associated species 

included  Acacia resinomarginea, Acacia exocarpoides, Calothamnus gilesii, 

Grevillea paradoxa, Grevillea dielsiana, Melaleuca cordata and Dodonaea 

inaequifolia. 

 

5.  Closed Tall Scrub of Acacia acuminata and  Acacia assimilis subsp.  assimilis 

over large areas of bare ground 

 

Occurring to the east and southeast of the Koolanooka Hills and to the north of 

Koolanooka Spring Rd, this is a relatively homogeneous Acacia  sp. dominated 

vegetation type to 3m in height. Less commonly occurring species recorded from this 

vegetation type included Acacia stowardii, Acacia tetragonophylla, Acacia aneura, 

Dodonaea inaequifoliaEremophila clarkei and Aluta appressa.  

 

6.  Tall Shrubland dominated by Acacia acuminata and  Allocasuarina 



campestris  

 

This was the dominant vegetation type over the northern portion of the Koolanooka 



Hills as well as over a smaller, gently sloping area to the east. Although Acacia 

acuminata and Allocasuarina campestris were the dominant overstorey species in the 

vegetation types, the lower stratum was comprised of a diverse mixture of heath and 

herbaceous species including Melaleuca filifolia, Grevillea paradoxa, Acacia 

exocarpoides, Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Eremophila latrobei subsp. latrobei, 

Keraudrenia hermanniifolia, Sida atrovirens, Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus, 

Cephalipterum drummondii, Waitzia acuminata subsp. acuminata, Brunonia australis 

and  Lobelia winfridae. Scattered mallee, including Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. 



loxophleba, Eucalyptus ebbanoensis subsp. ebbanoensis and Eucalyptus leptopoda as 

well as Allocasuarina huegeliana were recorded from this vegetation type. 

 


ATA Environmental 

_______________________________________________________________________________ 



________________________________________________________________________________ 

MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 

Version 1: 26 March 2004 



7.  Very Open Tree Mallee to Low Open Woodland of Eucalyptus oldfieldii 

subsp. oldfieldii and Allocasuarina huegeliana on buckshot iron. 

 

This open vegetation type on buckshot iron occurred over a previously cleared, 

degraded area to the immediate west of Koolanooka Hills. Associated species include 

Acacia exocarpoides, Acacia assimilis subsp.  assimilis, Acacia ramulosa var. 

ramulosa, Hakea francisiana, Cephalipterum drummondii and Ptilotus  obovatus 

subsp. obovatus



 

8.  Tall Open Scrub of Grevillea intregrifolia, Grevillea paradoxa, Acacia 

assimilis subsp. assimilis and Eremophila clarkei with scattered Eucalyptus 

leptopoda over a stony surface. 

 

This vegetation type was recorded from THE base of the west-facing slopes of the 

Koolanooka Hills. While Grevillea intregrifolia, Grevillea paradoxa, Acacia assimilis 

subsp.  assimilis  to 3m in height  were the dominant components of this vegetation 

type, other less commonly occurring shrub species included Acacia aneura, Acacia 

erinaceae and Hibbertia exasperata. The herb layer was dominated by Cephalipterum 

drummondii, Thysanotus patersonii, Ptilotus obovatus subsp.  obovatus and 

Prasophyllum sargentii.  

 

9.  Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus leptopoda over  Acacia erinaceae dominated Low 



Shrubland over Herbland of Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus and annual 

daisies and/or bare ground 

 

This vegetation type was recorded from the flat plains area to the immediate north of 

Koolanooka Spring Rd, almost due north of the Dingle Well Station and to the 

immediate west of the main north-south access track on the Koolanooka exploration 

lease. The Eucalyptus eriopoda tree mallee to 4m in height is the dominant upper 

stratum component of this vegetation type. Other than Acacia erinacea, shrub species 

recorded from this vegetation type included Senna chatelainiana, Daviesia hakeoides 

subsp. subnuda and Acacia aneura. 



 

10.  Tall Shrubland of Allocasuarina campestris on stony, bare ground 

  

This vegetation type (to 3m in height) is represented by two highly degraded, 



unfenced remnants surrounded by cleared farmland adjacent to the Dingle Well 

homestead, south of Koolanooka Spring Rd. Apart from a carpet of Cephalipterum 



drummondii. The herb layer of this vegetation type has been completely removed 

through over-grazing. Scattered shrub species associated with this vegetation type 

included  Acacia assimilis subsp.  assimilis, Acacia exocarpoides, Melaleuca filifolia, 

Melaleuca uncinata and Aluta maisonneuvei. 

 

11.  Closed Tree Mallee to Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus leptopoda and 



Allocasuarina campestris over an Open Shrubland of  Acacia assimilis subsp. 

assimilis, Acacia erinaceae, Grevillea intregrifolia, Santalum acuminatum and 

Eremophila clarkei 

 

This vegetation type, to 4m in height, was recorded from the flats on western side of 



the Koolanooka Hills that lies to the south of Koolanooka Spring Rd and to the east of 

ATA Environmental 

_______________________________________________________________________________ 



________________________________________________________________________________ 

MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 

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Version 1: 26 March 2004 



the Dingle Well homestead.  The overstorey of Eucalyptus leptopoda became less 

prominent as the slopes of the hill became steeper. Other shrub species recorded from 

this vegetation included Olearia pimeleoides, Acacia exocarpoides, Hakea 

francisiana, Melaleuca cordata and Hakea preissii. Herb species recorded included 

Cephalipterum drummondii, Thysanotus patersonii, Glischrocaryon aureum, 

Podolepis lessonii and Waitzia acuminata subsp. acuminata. 

 

12.  Open to Very Open Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissiama over 



Tall Open Scrub Acacia tetragonophylla, Acacia acuminata, Melaleuca 

filifolia    and  Senna artemisioides subsp.  helmsii with scattered Allocasuarina 

huegeliana 

 

This vegetation type was recorded from the crest of the Banded Iron Formation (BIF) 



hills occurring to the south of Koolanooka Spring Rd. The Eucalyptus kochii subsp. 

plenissiama tree mallee component was to 3m in height, while the Tall Open Scrub 

was to 2m in height. Other less commonly occurring shrub species recorded from this 

vegetation type included Acacia aneura, Acacia campestris and Grevillea paradoxa. 

 

13. Open Woodland of Allocasuarina huegeliana over Tall Open Scrub 



dominated by Acacia acuminata, Melaleuca filifolia and  Melaleuca uncinata 

over a Herbland dominated by Borya sphaerocephala 

 

This vegetation type (to 10m in height) predominantly occurs between the BIF ranges 

and over the north and east-facing lower slopes and rises that extend from 

immediately south of Koolanooka Spring Rd to the southern boundary of the study 

area. Less commonly recorded shrub species from this vegetation type include Acacia 

tetragonophylla, Acacia erinaceae and Dodonaea inaequifolia. Herb species other 

than  Borya sphaerocephala included Lobelia winfridae, Ptilotus obovatus var. 



obovatus, Goodenia pinnatifida and Brunonia australis

 

14.  Closed Heath dominated by Aluta maisonneuvei, Aluta appressa and Acacia 



assimilis subsp. assimilis 

 

This vegetation type was recorded from a small area that includes and immediately 

surrounds the Morawa Rifle Range (Reserve 46614), which is located to the 

immediate south of Koolanooka Spring Rd. Other shrub species associated with this 

vegetation type includes Calothamnus gilesii, Grevillea paradoxa, Philotheca brucei 

and Melaleuca cordata. The Priority 3 listed taxon, Frankenia glomerata, was 

recorded from this vegetation type. 

 

15. Tall to Tall Open Shrubland dominated by Acacia acuminata and  Acacia 



aneura with scattered Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba 

 

This vegetation unit, to 3m in height, occurs over the plain to the immediate east and 



southeast of the Morawa Rifle Range (Reserve 46614) where it is associated with 

scattered Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba, as a narrow strip of vegetation to 

the southwest of the Koolanooka Hills and as a more degraded and open vegetation to 

the immediate northwest and west of the old Koolanooka Mine pit. The southern 

example of this vegetation type is associated with a high level of litter as a result of 

bark shed and leaf and limb fall. This vegetation type is also associated with a larger 



ATA Environmental 

_______________________________________________________________________________ 



________________________________________________________________________________ 

MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 

11 

Version 1: 26 March 2004 



unfenced remnant on a granite outcrop to the northeast of the old Koolanooka Mine 

Pit. Less common species associated with this vegetation type included Grevillea 



paradoxa,  Dodonaea inaequifolia, Eremophila clarkei, Acacia tetragonophylla, 

Hakea preissii and Cratystylis spinescens. Apart from scattered Ptilotus obovatus var. 

obovatus and Cephalipterum drummondii there were few herbaceous species recorded 

from this vegetation type. 

 

16. Tall Shrubland of Acacia tetragonophylla, Acacia acuminata, Acacia 

exocarpoides  and Hakea preissii on bare ground 

 

This vegetation type to 3m in height is associated with a relatively small area of 



remnant vegetation with a degraded understorey and a paucity of native herb or grass 

species as a result of over-grazing. Other species less commonly recorded from this 

vegetation type included Rhagodia baccata, Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa, 

Melaleuca uncinata, and Dodonaea inaequifolia

 

17. Tall Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Allocasuarina acutivalvis subsp. 



prinsepiana and Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis  

 

This vegetation type, to 3m in height, was recorded immediately to the south of 

Koolanooka Springs Rd adjacent to eastern boundary of the study area. The 

understorey was degraded as a result of overgrazing with relatively few native herb 

species recorded. Associated shrub species included Grevillea paradoxa, Hakea 

preissii, Acacia tetragonophylla, Santalum acuminatum and Calothamnus gilesii, with 

an occasional scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana tree. 

 



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