Hills, Three Springs, Paynes
MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka
Version 1: 26 March 2004
In addition, the Western Australian herbarium’s specimen database was accessed to
The survey was undertaken by a combination of vehicle access with traverses on foot
diversity of species in the area at the time of the survey. There were few dead annuals
on the ground to suggest that the timing of the survey limited the number of
ephemeral species being recorded.
Aerial photography was used to identify and delineate major vegetation types, which
non-permanent transect to 50m in length, depending on structure, area and floristic
complexity, through at least one of each of the provisionally identified vegetation
types (Figure 2). All plants species were recorded at 1m intervals along each transect.
Within each sampling location, the structure and floristic composition of the
vegetation was described and, where appropriate, a brief description of the soil and
landform characteristics of that particular unit was provided. For areas where
vegetation had been cleared or the understorey had been completely removed, the
transect line survey method was not adopted.
The locations of plants positively identified in the field as CALM listed Declared Rare
Meridian Gold) (MGA 94 Zone 50).
The vegetation types recorded from the study area have been described using the
composition of many of the vegetation types recorded from the survey area were
extremely variable and the descriptions provided in this report refers to the dominant
vegetation layer and the most dominant species associated with a particular vegetation
A total of 31 different vegetation types were identified during the October 2003
1. Closed Tall Scrub dominated by Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis,
This vegetation type occurs over a significant area of the slopes on the western side of
the Koolanooka Hills range. This vegetation type was variable in height and
dependent on the depth of soil, which was skeletal on the upper slopes, but was
generally to 3m. Scattered Eucalyptus oldfieldii subsp. oldfieldii trees to 5m occurred
at the base of the hills. The Allocasuarina campestris component of this vegetation
type was most prominent near to the crest of the hills, becoming less dominant near
2. Closed Heath to Tall Open Scrub dominated by Acacia acuminata, Acacia
aneura, Grevillea intregrifolia and Melaleuca cordata over Herbland of
Cephalipterum drummondii, Xanthosia bungei, Podolepis lessonii
This vegetation type was recorded from an area to the immediate north of Koolanooka
ranges in height between 2m and 3m, with occassional scattered Eucalyptus leptopoda
(to 4m) occurring along the northern edge of the area. Associated, less commonly
occurring species recorded from the middle stratum of this vegetation type include
3. Open Woodland to Very Open Shrub Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus ebbanoensis
Occurring over the crest and east-facing slopes of the Koolanooka Hills, Eucalyptus
component over the plateau and upper slopes of the hill, becoming less common at its
base, where Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba and Eucalyptus oldfieldii subsp.
oldfieldii become the more prominent components. The Tall Shrubland to Tall Open
Scrub stratum of this vegetation type is dominated by Acacia tetragonophylla to 3m in
few lower stratum species. While Eucalyptus ebbanoensis subsp. ebbanoensis was
consistently the dominant overstorey component of this vegetation type, the structure
was quite variable ranging from Very Open Shrub Tree Mallee over the crest of the
hills to a more Open Woodland, often in association with Eucalyptus loxophleba
subsp. loxophleba over the lower slopes. Similarly, the floristic composition of this
vegetation type was more diverse on the lower slopes where the soil tended to be
deeper than on the shallow, skeletal soils that occurred over the crest of the hills.
This vegetation type appears to be closely aligned with CALM’s description of the
in 1999 as Vulnerable.
4. Open Heath of Aluta appressa, Aluta aspersa subsp. hesperia, Acacia
acuminata and Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis over an Open Herbland of
Borya sphaerocephala. Waitzia acuminata subsp. acuminata, Brunonia
australis and Glischrocaryon aureum with large areas of bare open ground
This vegetation type to 2m in height and relatively small in area, was recorded to the
east of the Koolanooka Hills, adjacent to cleared farmland. In addition to the
dominant species recorded from this vegetation type, other associated species
included Acacia resinomarginea, Acacia exocarpoides, Calothamnus gilesii,
Grevillea paradoxa, Grevillea dielsiana, Melaleuca cordata and Dodonaea
5. Closed Tall Scrub of Acacia acuminata and Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis
over large areas of bare ground
Occurring to the east and southeast of the Koolanooka Hills and to the north of
Koolanooka Spring Rd, this is a relatively homogeneous Acacia sp. dominated
vegetation type to 3m in height. Less commonly occurring species recorded from this
vegetation type included Acacia stowardii, Acacia tetragonophylla, Acacia aneura,
Dodonaea inaequifolia, Eremophila clarkei and Aluta appressa.
6. Tall Shrubland dominated by Acacia acuminata and Allocasuarina
This was the dominant vegetation type over the northern portion of the Koolanooka
vegetation types, the lower stratum was comprised of a diverse mixture of heath and
herbaceous species including Melaleuca filifolia, Grevillea paradoxa, Acacia
exocarpoides, Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Eremophila latrobei subsp. latrobei,
Keraudrenia hermanniifolia, Sida atrovirens, Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus,
Cephalipterum drummondii, Waitzia acuminata subsp. acuminata, Brunonia australis
and Lobelia winfridae. Scattered mallee, including Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp.
well as Allocasuarina huegeliana were recorded from this vegetation type.
This open vegetation type on buckshot iron occurred over a previously cleared,
degraded area to the immediate west of Koolanooka Hills. Associated species include
Acacia exocarpoides, Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Acacia ramulosa var.
ramulosa, Hakea francisiana, Cephalipterum drummondii and Ptilotus obovatus
This vegetation type was recorded from THE base of the west-facing slopes of the
Koolanooka Hills. While Grevillea intregrifolia, Grevillea paradoxa, Acacia assimilis
subsp. assimilis to 3m in height were the dominant components of this vegetation
type, other less commonly occurring shrub species included Acacia aneura, Acacia
erinaceae and Hibbertia exasperata. The herb layer was dominated by Cephalipterum
drummondii, Thysanotus patersonii, Ptilotus obovatus subsp. obovatus and
9. Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus leptopoda over Acacia erinaceae dominated Low
This vegetation type was recorded from the flat plains area to the immediate north of
Koolanooka Spring Rd, almost due north of the Dingle Well Station and to the
immediate west of the main north-south access track on the Koolanooka exploration
lease. The Eucalyptus eriopoda tree mallee to 4m in height is the dominant upper
stratum component of this vegetation type. Other than Acacia erinacea, shrub species
recorded from this vegetation type included Senna chatelainiana, Daviesia hakeoides
subsp. subnuda and Acacia aneura.
This vegetation type (to 3m in height) is represented by two highly degraded,
homestead, south of Koolanooka Spring Rd. Apart from a carpet of Cephalipterum
through over-grazing. Scattered shrub species associated with this vegetation type
included Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Acacia exocarpoides, Melaleuca filifolia,
Melaleuca uncinata and Aluta maisonneuvei.
11. Closed Tree Mallee to Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus leptopoda and
This vegetation type, to 4m in height, was recorded from the flats on western side of
prominent as the slopes of the hill became steeper. Other shrub species recorded from
this vegetation included Olearia pimeleoides, Acacia exocarpoides, Hakea
francisiana, Melaleuca cordata and Hakea preissii. Herb species recorded included
Cephalipterum drummondii, Thysanotus patersonii, Glischrocaryon aureum,
Podolepis lessonii and Waitzia acuminata subsp. acuminata.
12. Open to Very Open Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissiama over
This vegetation type was recorded from the crest of the Banded Iron Formation (BIF)
was to 2m in height. Other less commonly occurring shrub species recorded from this
vegetation type included Acacia aneura, Acacia campestris and Grevillea paradoxa.
13. Open Woodland of Allocasuarina huegeliana over Tall Open Scrub
This vegetation type (to 10m in height) predominantly occurs between the BIF ranges
and over the north and east-facing lower slopes and rises that extend from
immediately south of Koolanooka Spring Rd to the southern boundary of the study
area. Less commonly recorded shrub species from this vegetation type include Acacia
tetragonophylla, Acacia erinaceae and Dodonaea inaequifolia. Herb species other
than Borya sphaerocephala included Lobelia winfridae, Ptilotus obovatus var.
14. Closed Heath dominated by Aluta maisonneuvei, Aluta appressa and Acacia
This vegetation type was recorded from a small area that includes and immediately
surrounds the Morawa Rifle Range (Reserve 46614), which is located to the
immediate south of Koolanooka Spring Rd. Other shrub species associated with this
vegetation type includes Calothamnus gilesii, Grevillea paradoxa, Philotheca brucei
and Melaleuca cordata. The Priority 3 listed taxon, Frankenia glomerata, was
recorded from this vegetation type.
15. Tall to Tall Open Shrubland dominated by Acacia acuminata and Acacia
This vegetation unit, to 3m in height, occurs over the plain to the immediate east and
scattered Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba, as a narrow strip of vegetation to
the southwest of the Koolanooka Hills and as a more degraded and open vegetation to
the immediate northwest and west of the old Koolanooka Mine pit. The southern
example of this vegetation type is associated with a high level of litter as a result of
bark shed and leaf and limb fall. This vegetation type is also associated with a larger
Pit. Less common species associated with this vegetation type included Grevillea
from this vegetation type.
16. Tall Shrubland of Acacia tetragonophylla, Acacia acuminata, Acacia
exocarpoides and Hakea preissii on bare ground
This vegetation type to 3m in height is associated with a relatively small area of
species as a result of over-grazing. Other species less commonly recorded from this
vegetation type included Rhagodia baccata, Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa,
Melaleuca uncinata, and Dodonaea inaequifolia.
17. Tall Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Allocasuarina acutivalvis subsp.
This vegetation type, to 3m in height, was recorded immediately to the south of
Koolanooka Springs Rd adjacent to eastern boundary of the study area. The
understorey was degraded as a result of overgrazing with relatively few native herb
species recorded. Associated shrub species included Grevillea paradoxa, Hakea
preissii, Acacia tetragonophylla, Santalum acuminatum and Calothamnus gilesii, with
an occasional scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana tree.