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Tall Shrubland Hakea preissii

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18. Tall Shrubland Hakea preissii on bare ground 


This vegetation association was recorded from an area to the immediate west of 

Koolanooka Springs (Reserve 19005) and the immediate north of Koolanooka Spring 

Rd. The vegetation, which was to 2.5m in height, was relatively homogeneous in 

terms of species composition, with occassional scattered Acacia acuminata and 

Acacia tetragonophylla.  


19.  Tall Open Shrubland dominated by Acacia acuminata 


This  Acacia acuminata dominated vegetation type to 4m in height occurred over a 

relatively flat area to the north of Koolanooka Spring Rd. Other species recorded from 

the lower stratum included Acacia tetragonophylla, Allocasuarina campestris, 

Dodonea inaequifolia, Cratystylis spinescens, Melaleuca fulgens subsp.  steedmanni, 

Grevillea dielsiana, Hakea preissii. Scattered herb species includes Prostanthera 

magnifica and Borya sphaerocephala


20. Shrubland dominated by Acacia exocarpoides on granite outcrop 


This relatively homogeneous vegetation type to 2m in height occurred over several 

small granite outcrops to the north of Koolanooka Spring Rd. Several species were 

recorded from the herb layer including Dianella revoluta, Lobelia winfridae, 

Podolepis lessonii, Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus, Rhodanthe charsleyae, Waitzia 

acuminata  subsp. acuminata and Cephalipterum drummondii. 

ATA Environmental 



MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 


Version 1: 26 March 2004 

21. Tall Open Shrubland of Acacia ramulosa var.  ramulosa  on stony, bare 



This vegetation type, which was to 3m in height, was associated with the northern 

portion of a relatively large, unfenced remnant to the northeast of Koolanooka Springs 

(Reserve 19005). Less common species recorded from this vegetation type included 

Hakea preissii, Acacia tetragonophylla and Cratystylis spinescens.  


22.  Tall Shrubland of Mixed Acacia  spp. with scattered Eucalyptus loxophleba 

subsp. loxophleba on bare ground 


This vegetation type was recorded from a large, unfenced remnant abutting the 

northern boundary of the study area. The dominant species included Acacia 

acuminata, Acacia ramulosa var.  ramulosa,  Acacia tetragonophylla and Acacia 

exocarpoides to 4m in height with scattered Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba 

tree to 5m. Less common species recorded from this vegetation type included 

Dodonaea adenophora and Hakea recurva, while herb species included Solanum 

lasiophyllum, Lobelia winfridae, Schoenia cassiniana and Helichrysum craspedioides.  


23.  Open Shrubland of Acacia acuminata, Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa and 

Acacia tetragonophylla. 


This vegetation type was recorded from several, degraded unfenced remnants 

surrounded by cleared farmland to the immediate north of the existing Koolanooka 

Mine pit. Apart from scattered Ptilotus exaltatus var. exaltatus and Ptilotus obovatus 

subsp.  obovatus,  very  few native understorey species were associated with this 

vegetation type. 


24.  Tall Shrubland of Acacia acuminata, Allocasuarina campestris and Melaleuca 



This vegetation type is associated with a narrow strip of vegetation that adjoins 

cleared pasture to the east of the existing Koolanooka Mine pit.  The surface of the 

ground of this vegetation type was mostly bare and stony with areas of Borya 

sphaerocephala the most prominent component of the herb layer. 


25.  Shrubland to Closed Tall Scrub of Acacia assimilis subsp.  assimilis, Acacia 

ramulosa var. ramulosa, Grevillea intregrifolia 


This vegetation type was widespread over the plain to the west of the Koolanooka 

Hills ranges which surrounds the old Koolanooka Mine administration area and is one 

of largest vegetation types represented in the study area. Other, less common shrub 

species associated with this vegetation type included Melaleuca cordata, Hakea 

preissii and Senna artemisioides subsp. artemisioides


26.  Open Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus eudesmioides   


This vegetation was associated with a small area (<0.1ha) adjacent to a windmill to 

the southwest of the Koolanooka Hills, approximately 1km to the northeast of the 

junction of Fallon and Koolanooka Spring Rd. 

ATA Environmental 



MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 


Version 1: 26 March 2004 

27. Tall Shrubland to Open Shrubland dominated by Acacia assimilis subsp. 

assimilis, Acacia burkitii, Acacia resinosa, Grevillea intregrifolia  and Hakea 



This is a variable vegetation type, which ranges from a very open, predominantly 

cleared vegetation adjacent to the old Koolanooka mine administration area to a more 

closed tall shrubland dominated by Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Acacia burkitii, 

Acacia resinosa, Grevillea intregrifolia and  Hakea preissii near the corner of 

Koolanooka Spring and Fallon Roads.  


28.  Low Open Woodland of  Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp.  loxophleba  on bare 



This vegetation is associated with two degraded remnants either side of Morawa Rd 

East, approximately 1km west of Fallon Rd, abutting the western boundary of the 

study area. Although currently fenced, these remnants have been previously grazed 

and are consequently in degraded condition. The vegetation associated with both 

remnants was associated with  a high level of litter as a result of bark shed and limb 

fall. Scattered understorey shrub species included Acacia ramulosa var.  ramulosa

Acacia tetragonophylla and Melaleuca uncinata. Herb species recorded from this 

vegetation type included Ptilotus exaltatus var. exaltatus, Ptilotus obovatus subsp. 

obovatus, Sclerolaena densiflora, S. drummondii, Maireana georgei and Maireana 



29. Tall Shrubland of Acacia aneura,  Acacia tetragonophylla and Grevillea 



This vegetation type to 3m in height, occurs as a large unfenced remnant in the 

northeastern corner of the study area. A minor drainage line that flows in a northerly 

direction, intersects the southwestern corner of the remnant, which is a CALM 

managed reserve. The most common species were Acacia aneura, Acacia 

tetragonophylla and Grevillea intregrifolia while less common shrub species included 

Hakea preissii, Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis and Acacia exocarpoides. Herb and 

grass species recorded from this vegetation type includes Maireana drummondii, 

Sclerolaena densiflora, Ptilotus obovatus var.  obovatus, Austrostipa elegantissima, 

Avena barbata, Solanum lasiophyllum and Cephalipterum drummondii


30.  Tall Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Acacia aneura, Acacia assimilis subsp. 

assimilis, Grevillea intregrifolia, Grevillea paradoxa and  Allocasuarina 

campestris  with scattered Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp.  loxophleba  and 

Eucalyptus leptopoda. 


This is a mostly intact vegetation type recorded from a remnant to the immediate 

north of the existing Koolanooka Mine pit. Dominated by Acacia aneura, Acacia 

assimilis  subsp.  assimilis, Grevillea intregrifolia, Grevillea paradoxa and 

Allocasuarina campestris  to 4m in height this vegetation type occurs over a gently 

sloping plain. Other shrub species recorded from this vegetation type included 

Grevillea obliquistigma subsp.  obliquistigma, Grevillea paniculata, Acacia 

acuminata, Hakea preissii, Olearia pimeleoides and  Senna artemisioides subsp. 

filifolia. Other species recorded from the herb layer included Cephalipterum 

ATA Environmental 



MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 


Version 1: 26 March 2004 

drummondii, Sida fibulifera, Sclerolaena uniflora, Dianella revoluta, Brachyscome 

ciliocarpa, Rhodanthe laevis, Thysanotus patersonii, Calandrinia eremaea and 

Stypandra glauca. 


31.  Tall Shrubland of Acacia aneura and Melaleuca acuminata subsp. websteri 

with scattered Eucalyptus oldfieldii subsp. oldfieldii 


This vegetation type, up to 3m in height, is represented by two small, unfenced 

remnants to the immediate west of Koolanooka Spring Rd. These remnants are highly 

disturbed and virtually devoid of ground cover as a result of over-grazing and have 

high level of litter as a result of bark shed and limb fall.  





Threatened Ecological Communities 


Ecological Communities are defined as ‘naturally occurring biological assemblages 

that occur in a particular type of habitat (Blyth and English, 1997).  Threatened 

Ecological Communities (TECs) are ecological communities that have been assessed 

and assigned to one of four categories related to the status of the threat to the 

community, ie Presumed Totally Destroyed, Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered 

(EN) and Vulnerable (VU). Some TECs are protected under the Commonwealth 

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999. Although TEC’s 

are not protected under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 or any other Western 

Australian legislation, some TECs trigger the Commonwealth Environment Protection 

and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999. In addition, the EPA’s position on TECs as 

described in its Guidance Statement Number 10 (EPA, 2003), states that proposals 

that result in the direct loss of threatened ecological communities are likely to be 

formally assessed. 


Plant assemblages of the Koolanooka System were assessed by the WA Threatened 

Ecological Communities Scientific Committee in October 1999 as Vulnerable. The 

Koolanooka System TEC is described by the Department of Conservation and Land 

Management as Allocasuarina campestris scrub over red loam on hill slopes; shrubs 

and emergent mallees on shallow red loam over massive ironstone on steep rocky 

slopes; Eucalyptus ebbanoensis subsp. ebbanoensis mallee and Acacia sp. scrub with 

scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana over red loam and ironstone on the upper slopes 

and summits; Eucalyptus loxophleba woodland over scrub on the footslopes; and 

mixed Acacia sp. scrub on granite. 


The description of the Koolanooka System TEC provided by CALM and based on the 

description of Beard’s Koolanooka Vegetation System (Beard, 1976) broadly 

corresponds with the description of several vegetation types mapped for the 

Koolanooka study area during this assessment (Figure 4). These are: 




Closed Tall Scrub dominated by Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Allocasuarina 

campestris and Melaleuca filifolia over Herbland of mixed species and bare 



3.  Open Woodland to Very Open Shrub Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus ebbanoensis 

subsp.  ebbanoensis over a Tall Open Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Acacia 

ATA Environmental 



MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 


Version 1: 26 March 2004 

acuminata, Acacia exocarpoides, Acacia tetragonophylla, Hakea preissii and 

Melaleuca filifolia with scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana over a herbland 

dominated by Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus. 


Open Woodland to Shrub Mallee of Eucalyptus ebbanoensis subsp. ebbanoensis 

over a Tall Open Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Acacia acuminata, Acacia 

exocarpoides, Acacia tetragonophylla, Hakea preissii and  Melaleuca filifolia 

with scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana over a herbland dominated by Ptilotus 

obovatus var. obovatus. 




Very Open Tree Mallee to Low Open Woodland of Eucalyptus oldfieldii subsp. 

oldfieldii and Allocasuarina huegeliana on buckshot iron. 




Tall Shrubland of Allocasuarina campestris on stony, bare ground 




Closed Trees Mallee to Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus leptopoda and Allocasuarina 

campestris over an Open Shrubland of  Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Acacia 

erinacea, Grevillea intregrifolia, Santalum acuminatum and Eremophila clarkei 


12  Open to Very Open Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissiama  over 

Tall Open Scrub Acacia tetragonophylla,  Acacia acuminata, Melaleuca filifolia 

and Senna artemisioides subsp. helmsii with scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana 


13  Open Woodland of Allocasuarina huegeliana over Tall Open Scrub dominated 

by  Acacia acuminata, Melaleuca filifolia and  Melaleuca uncinata over a 

Herbland dominated by Borya sphaerocephala 




Shrubland dominated by Acacia exocarpoides on granite outcrop 




Tall Shrubland of Acacia acuminata, Allocasuarina campestris and Melaleuca 








A total of 220 taxa belonging to 117 genera and 43 families were recorded from the 

Koolanooka Hills study area during the flora and vegetation survey undertaken by 

ATA Environmental during October 2003 (Appendix 1). This included 207 native and 

13 introduced or non-endemic species. The dominant families were Asteraceae (Daisy 

family – 26 taxa), Mimosaceae (Acacia  family – 21 taxa), Myrtaceae (Eucalyptus 

family – 21 taxa) and Poaceae (Grass family – 19 taxa). These four dominant families 

represented approximately 39% of the total number of taxa recorded from the study 






Significant Flora 


ATA Environmental undertook a search of CALM’s Rare Flora Database prior to 

undertaken the field assessment. A total of 19 Declared Rare and Priority species were 

listed as having been previously recorded in the vicinity of the study area (Table 1). 

ATA Environmental 



MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 


Version 1: 26 March 2004 

Populations of two of the taxa listed as having been previously recorded from the 

vicinity of the study area (i.e. Acacia acanthoclada subsp.  glaucescens (P3), and 

Persoonia pentasticha (P3)) as well populations of Frankenia glomerata (P3) and 

Baeckea sp. Three Springs (P2), which were not listed on CALM database search as 

occurring in the area, were recorded during the survey of the study area.  


The majority (i.e ~20 plants) of the Priority 3 listed taxa Acacia acanthoclada subsp. 

glaucescens were recorded from an area to the west of Koolanooka Hills and north of 

Koolanooka Spring Rd in association with Tall Open Scrub of Grevillea intregrifolia, 

Grevillea paradoxa, Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis and Eremophila clarkei with 

scattered  Eucalyptus leptopoda over a stony surface  and Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus 

leptopoda over Acacia erinacea dominated Low Shrubland over Herbland of Ptilotus 

obovatus  var. obovatus and annual daisies and/or bare ground. A smaller number of 

plants (~10) were recorded from the small area of Tall Shrubland Acacia 

tetragonophylla, Acacia acuminata, Acacia exocarpoides and Hakea preissii on bare 

ground to the immediate north of Koolanooka Spring Rd, approximately 1km west of 

Koolanooka Springs (Reserve 19006). As this taxa could not be positively identified 

in the field, the precise location and population size of the taxa could only be 

estimated (Figure 3). An estimated 40 plants in total were recorded from four 

populations associated with two vegetation types. 


A single individual plant of the Priority 2 listed Persoonia pentasticha was recorded 

from the study area, over an open portion of the Closed Tall Scrub dominated by 

Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Allocasuarina campestris and Melaleuca filifolia on 

Band Iron Formation on the western slope of the Koolanooka Hills range (Figure 3). 


 A single plant of the Priority 3 listed Frankenia glomerata was recorded from an area 

Tall to Tall Open Shrubland dominated by Acacia acuminata and  Acacia aneura 

adjacent to the Morawa Rifle Range (Reserve 46614) (Figure 3). 


A population of approximately seven plants of the Priority 2 listed Baeckea sp. Three 

Springs was recorded from the small area of Tall Shrubland Acacia tetragonophylla, 

Acacia acuminata, Acacia exocarpoides and  Hakea preissii on bare ground to the 

immediate north of Koolanooka Spring Rd, approximately 1km west of Koolanooka 

Springs (Reserve 19006) (Figure 3). 


No Declared Rare Flora (DRF) were recorded from the study area during the October 

2003 survey. The DRF taxon Halosarcia bulbosa, which has been previously 

recorded from the vicinity of the study area, is associated with saline sandy clays or 

red/brown loams. These types of soils are not found within the survey area and as a 

consequence it can be stated with a high level of certainty that this species does not 

occur within the study area. Another DRF taxon previously recorded from the vicinity 

of the study area, Eremophila rostrata, an erect shrub, 1.2–3 m high with red to pink 

flowers, on sandy loam, stony saline clay, granite and quartzite hills, is quite 

distinguishable and would have been identified from the study area had it occurred 





ATA Environmental 



MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka 


Version 1: 26 March 2004 





Very few weeds or introduced species were recorded during the survey of the study 

area. The majority of these species were recorded from unfenced remnants on 

farmland that exhibited signs of having been extensively grazed by sheep. It is likely 

that so few weed species were recorded from the vegetation associated with the 

Koolanooka Hills because stock were unlikely to have ever grazed on the hills, 

preferring the pasture on the surrounding flats.  


 A total of 13 weed species were recorded from the study (see Appendix 1). 

Paterson’s Curse (Echium plantagineum), which was most prevalent on the edges of 

access tracks surrounding the old Koolanooka Mine pit, is considered by the 

Department of Agriculture to be a Declared Weed.   No other Declared Weeds were 

recorded from the study area. 


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