This vegetation association was recorded from an area to the immediate west of
Koolanooka Springs (Reserve 19005) and the immediate north of Koolanooka Spring
Rd. The vegetation, which was to 2.5m in height, was relatively homogeneous in
terms of species composition, with occassional scattered Acacia acuminata and
19. Tall Open Shrubland dominated by Acacia acuminata
This Acacia acuminata dominated vegetation type to 4m in height occurred over a
the lower stratum included Acacia tetragonophylla, Allocasuarina campestris,
This relatively homogeneous vegetation type to 2m in height occurred over several
small granite outcrops to the north of Koolanooka Spring Rd. Several species were
recorded from the herb layer including Dianella revoluta, Lobelia winfridae,
MIS-2003-001-KOOL_VEA_001_sg_V1: Vegetation &Flora Assessment, Koolanooka
Version 1: 26 March 2004
This vegetation type, which was to 3m in height, was associated with the northern
portion of a relatively large, unfenced remnant to the northeast of Koolanooka Springs
(Reserve 19005). Less common species recorded from this vegetation type included
This vegetation type was recorded from a large, unfenced remnant abutting the
northern boundary of the study area. The dominant species included Acacia
acuminata, Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa, Acacia tetragonophylla and Acacia
exocarpoides to 4m in height with scattered Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba
tree to 5m. Less common species recorded from this vegetation type included
This vegetation type was recorded from several, degraded unfenced remnants
surrounded by cleared farmland to the immediate north of the existing Koolanooka
Mine pit. Apart from scattered Ptilotus exaltatus var. exaltatus and Ptilotus obovatus
subsp. obovatus, very few native understorey species were associated with this
24. Tall Shrubland of Acacia acuminata, Allocasuarina campestris and Melaleuca
This vegetation type is associated with a narrow strip of vegetation that adjoins
cleared pasture to the east of the existing Koolanooka Mine pit. The surface of the
ground of this vegetation type was mostly bare and stony with areas of Borya
25. Shrubland to Closed Tall Scrub of Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Acacia
This vegetation type was widespread over the plain to the west of the Koolanooka
Hills ranges which surrounds the old Koolanooka Mine administration area and is one
of largest vegetation types represented in the study area. Other, less common shrub
species associated with this vegetation type included Melaleuca cordata, Hakea
preissii and Senna artemisioides subsp. artemisioides.
26. Open Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus eudesmioides
This vegetation was associated with a small area (<0.1ha) adjacent to a windmill to
the southwest of the Koolanooka Hills, approximately 1km to the northeast of the
junction of Fallon and Koolanooka Spring Rd.
This is a variable vegetation type, which ranges from a very open, predominantly
cleared vegetation adjacent to the old Koolanooka mine administration area to a more
closed tall shrubland dominated by Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Acacia burkitii,
Koolanooka Spring and Fallon Roads.
28. Low Open Woodland of Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba on bare
This vegetation is associated with two degraded remnants either side of Morawa Rd
East, approximately 1km west of Fallon Rd, abutting the western boundary of the
study area. Although currently fenced, these remnants have been previously grazed
and are consequently in degraded condition. The vegetation associated with both
remnants was associated with a high level of litter as a result of bark shed and limb
fall. Scattered understorey shrub species included Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa,
Acacia tetragonophylla and Melaleuca uncinata. Herb species recorded from this
vegetation type included Ptilotus exaltatus var. exaltatus, Ptilotus obovatus subsp.
29. Tall Shrubland of Acacia aneura, Acacia tetragonophylla and Grevillea
This vegetation type to 3m in height, occurs as a large unfenced remnant in the
northeastern corner of the study area. A minor drainage line that flows in a northerly
direction, intersects the southwestern corner of the remnant, which is a CALM
managed reserve. The most common species were Acacia aneura, Acacia
tetragonophylla and Grevillea intregrifolia while less common shrub species included
Hakea preissii, Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis and Acacia exocarpoides. Herb and
grass species recorded from this vegetation type includes Maireana drummondii,
30. Tall Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Acacia aneura, Acacia assimilis subsp.
This is a mostly intact vegetation type recorded from a remnant to the immediate
north of the existing Koolanooka Mine pit. Dominated by Acacia aneura, Acacia
assimilis subsp. assimilis, Grevillea intregrifolia, Grevillea paradoxa and
Allocasuarina campestris to 4m in height this vegetation type occurs over a gently
sloping plain. Other shrub species recorded from this vegetation type included
31. Tall Shrubland of Acacia aneura and Melaleuca acuminata subsp. websteri
This vegetation type, up to 3m in height, is represented by two small, unfenced
disturbed and virtually devoid of ground cover as a result of over-grazing and have a
high level of litter as a result of bark shed and limb fall.
Ecological Communities are defined as ‘naturally occurring biological assemblages
Ecological Communities (TECs) are ecological communities that have been assessed
and assigned to one of four categories related to the status of the threat to the
community, ie Presumed Totally Destroyed, Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered
(EN) and Vulnerable (VU). Some TECs are protected under the Commonwealth
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999. Although TEC’s
are not protected under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 or any other Western
Australian legislation, some TECs trigger the Commonwealth Environment Protection
and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999. In addition, the EPA’s position on TECs as
described in its Guidance Statement Number 10 (EPA, 2003), states that proposals
that result in the direct loss of threatened ecological communities are likely to be
Plant assemblages of the Koolanooka System were assessed by the WA Threatened
Koolanooka System TEC is described by the Department of Conservation and Land
Management as Allocasuarina campestris scrub over red loam on hill slopes; shrubs
and emergent mallees on shallow red loam over massive ironstone on steep rocky
slopes; Eucalyptus ebbanoensis subsp. ebbanoensis mallee and Acacia sp. scrub with
scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana over red loam and ironstone on the upper slopes
and summits; Eucalyptus loxophleba woodland over scrub on the footslopes; and
mixed Acacia sp. scrub on granite.
The description of the Koolanooka System TEC provided by CALM and based on the
corresponds with the description of several vegetation types mapped for the
Koolanooka study area during this assessment (Figure 4). These are:
Closed Tall Scrub dominated by Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis, Allocasuarina
3. Open Woodland to Very Open Shrub Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus ebbanoensis
subsp. ebbanoensis over a Tall Open Shrubland to Tall Open Scrub of Acacia
dominated by Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus.
Open Woodland to Shrub Mallee of Eucalyptus ebbanoensis subsp. ebbanoensis
with scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana over a herbland dominated by Ptilotus
Very Open Tree Mallee to Low Open Woodland of Eucalyptus oldfieldii subsp.
Tall Shrubland of Allocasuarina campestris on stony, bare ground
12 Open to Very Open Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissiama over
and Senna artemisioides subsp. helmsii with scattered Allocasuarina huegeliana
13 Open Woodland of Allocasuarina huegeliana over Tall Open Scrub dominated
Herbland dominated by Borya sphaerocephala
Shrubland dominated by Acacia exocarpoides on granite outcrop
Tall Shrubland of Acacia acuminata, Allocasuarina campestris and Melaleuca
A total of 220 taxa belonging to 117 genera and 43 families were recorded from the
ATA Environmental during October 2003 (Appendix 1). This included 207 native and
13 introduced or non-endemic species. The dominant families were Asteraceae (Daisy
family – 26 taxa), Mimosaceae (Acacia family – 21 taxa), Myrtaceae (Eucalyptus
family – 21 taxa) and Poaceae (Grass family – 19 taxa). These four dominant families
represented approximately 39% of the total number of taxa recorded from the study
ATA Environmental undertook a search of CALM’s Rare Flora Database prior to
listed as having been previously recorded in the vicinity of the study area (Table 1).
vicinity of the study area (i.e. Acacia acanthoclada subsp. glaucescens (P3), and
occurring in the area, were recorded during the survey of the study area.
The majority (i.e ~20 plants) of the Priority 3 listed taxa Acacia acanthoclada subsp.
Koolanooka Spring Rd in association with Tall Open Scrub of Grevillea intregrifolia,
scattered Eucalyptus leptopoda over a stony surface and Tree Mallee of Eucalyptus
plants (~10) were recorded from the small area of Tall Shrubland Acacia
ground to the immediate north of Koolanooka Spring Rd, approximately 1km west of
Koolanooka Springs (Reserve 19006). As this taxa could not be positively identified
in the field, the precise location and population size of the taxa could only be
estimated (Figure 3). An estimated 40 plants in total were recorded from four
populations associated with two vegetation types.
A single individual plant of the Priority 2 listed Persoonia pentasticha was recorded
Band Iron Formation on the western slope of the Koolanooka Hills range (Figure 3).
A single plant of the Priority 3 listed Frankenia glomerata was recorded from an area
adjacent to the Morawa Rifle Range (Reserve 46614) (Figure 3).
A population of approximately seven plants of the Priority 2 listed Baeckea sp. Three
immediate north of Koolanooka Spring Rd, approximately 1km west of Koolanooka
Springs (Reserve 19006) (Figure 3).
No Declared Rare Flora (DRF) were recorded from the study area during the October
recorded from the vicinity of the study area, is associated with saline sandy clays or
red/brown loams. These types of soils are not found within the survey area and as a
consequence it can be stated with a high level of certainty that this species does not
occur within the study area. Another DRF taxon previously recorded from the vicinity
of the study area, Eremophila rostrata, an erect shrub, 1.2–3 m high with red to pink
flowers, on sandy loam, stony saline clay, granite and quartzite hills, is quite
distinguishable and would have been identified from the study area had it occurred
Very few weeds or introduced species were recorded during the survey of the study
farmland that exhibited signs of having been extensively grazed by sheep. It is likely
that so few weed species were recorded from the vegetation associated with the
Koolanooka Hills because stock were unlikely to have ever grazed on the hills,
preferring the pasture on the surrounding flats.
A total of 13 weed species were recorded from the study (see Appendix 1).
access tracks surrounding the old Koolanooka Mine pit, is considered by the
Department of Agriculture to be a Declared Weed. No other Declared Weeds were
recorded from the study area.