Natural disasters in the world



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NATURAL DISASTERS IN THE WORLD
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NATURAL DISASTERS IN THE WORLD

Every year in this or that region of the world there are strong floods of rivers, breakthroughs of dams and dams, earthquakes, storms and hurricanes, forest and peat fires. Each natural disaster has its own characteristics, the nature of the defeats, the volume and scale of destruction, the magnitude of disasters and human casualties. Natural disasters are dangerous natural phenomena or processes of geophysical, geological, hydrological, atmospheric and other origin of such a scale that cause catastrophic situations characterized by sudden disruption of the life of the population, damage and destruction of material values, defeat and death of people and animals.

The true scourge of humanity is earthquakes, floods, extensive forest and peat fires, mudflows and landslides, storms and hurricanes, tornadoes, snow drifts, icing. These natural disasters have claimed the lives of more than 3 million people in the last 20 years alone. Almost 1 billion inhabitants of our planet, according to the UN, have experienced the consequences of natural disasters during this period.

Earthquakes are underground shocks (tremors) and vibrations of the Earth's surface caused by natural processes in the earth's crust.

The projection of the center of the earthquake source on the earth's surface is called the epicenter. Earthquake foci occur at different depths, mostly 20-30 km from the surface. According to their intensity (manifestation of the forces of nature on the surface), earthquakes are divided into 12 grades - points.

More than 100 earthquakes occur annually on the globe, leading to various kinds of destruction.

When an earthquake occurs underwater, huge tsunami waves are generated. Sometimes their height reaches 60 m (sixteen-storey building). When they reach land, they cause tremendous destruction.

It is not yet possible to prevent the onset of an earthquake. The forecast is justified in 80 cases and is indicative. But the earthquake in Japan in 1995 was predicted by Siberian scientists quite accurately. They came to the conclusion that a natural disaster with a force of 7 points could occur in Japan in the period from January 10 to 12, 1995. As it turned out, scientists were mistaken in the timing by about 5 days, and in the strength of the earthquake - by only 0.2 points ... Their observations indicate a sharp increase in seismic activity across the planet since January 4th.

If the first shocks hit you at home (on the first floor), you must immediately take the children, documents for all family members and run out into the street as soon as possible. You have no more than 15-20 seconds at your disposal.

Those who remained on the second and subsequent floors must stand in the doorways of the main walls, opening the doors.

We can use the corners formed by the main walls, narrow corridors inside the building, stand near the supporting columns, because these places are the most durable, there are more chances to remain unharmed. In no case should you jump out of windows and balconies.

As soon as the tremors stop, you must immediately go outside and stand farther from the building to a free area.

Make sure no one uses the elevator. At any moment, he can stop, and people will get stuck, which is very dangerous.

If the first tremors caught you on the street, immediately move away from buildings, structures, fences and poles - they can fall and crush you.

If you are in a car or other transport, it is better to stop and remain in place until the end of the ground vibration. On the bus, you do not need to break windows, rush to the doors, thereby creating panic, the risk of injury, etc. Bus and tram drivers will stop the vehicle themselves and keep the doors open.

Remember, after the first one, there may be repeated shocks. Be prepared for this yourself and warn those around you. This can be expected in a few hours, and sometimes even a day. Keep away from enterprises with flammable, explosive and highly toxic substances. Don't stand on bridges. Do not touch the wires - they may be energized. At the time of destruction, flying bricks, glass, cornices, lighting fixtures, signboards, road signs, and poles are also dangerous.

Floods are the temporary flooding of a significant part of the land with water as a result of the actions of the forces of nature. They happen for three reasons.

First, as a result of heavy rainfall or intense snow melting. Moreover, due to strong surge winds, some are observed on sea coasts, for example, the Caspian Sea, and at the mouths of rivers flowing into the sea (bay). The surge wind retains water at the mouth, as a result of which its level in the river rises.

In the event of a flood threat, preventive measures are taken to reduce damage and create conditions for effective rescue operations. First of all, it is necessary to inform the population about the emergence of a threat, to strengthen monitoring of the water level, to alert the forces and means. The condition of dams, dams, bridges, locks is checked, the identified deficiencies are eliminated. Additional embankments and dams are being erected, drainage canals are being dug, and other hydraulic structures are being prepared.

We must remember that time is short and it must be used with maximum benefit.

If the flood threat continues to grow, the work of enterprises, organizations, educational institutions and preschool institutions will cease in the proposed flood zone. Children are sent home or transferred to safe places. Food, valuables, clothing, shoes are transferred to the upper floors of buildings, to attics, and as the water rises, to roofs. Cattle are driven to high places.

If a decision is made to evacuate from the danger zone, then first of all, children, children's institutions and hospitals are taken out.

Evacuation is one of the ways to save people's lives. For this, all available floating facilities are used: bots, barges, boats, rafts, amphibious vehicles, etc.

To enter the boat, the boat should be one at a time, stepping into the middle of the deck. During the movement, it is forbidden to change places, board, push. After docking, one of the adults goes ashore and holds the boat overboard until everyone is on land.

When there are no boats, you need to use what is nearby at hand - barrels, logs, wooden shields and doors, fragments of fences, car tires and other objects that can keep a person on the water. Children can only be allowed on such a voyage with adults.

What to do, what to do if the water caught you in the field or in the forest. Urgently go to high places, and climb strong, spreading trees in the forest.

It is better to swim up to a drowning person from the back. Approaching, take him by the head, shoulders, arms, collar, turn him face up and swim to the shore, working with his free hand and legs.

If you have a boat, you should approach the person in distress against the current, in windy weather - against the wind and the stream of water. It is best to pull a person out of the water from the stern side. Having delivered him ashore, immediately proceed to provide first aid.

Forest fires

Forest fires - up to 80% occur due to violation of fire safety measures by the population when handling fire in places of work and rest, as well as as a result of the use of faulty equipment in the forest. It happens that the forest catches fire from lightning during a thunderstorm.

By their nature, fires are subdivided into local, underground and raised. Most often, ground fires occur - up to 90% of the total. In this case, the fire spreads only along the soil cover, covering the lower parts of trees, grass and protruding roots.

In case of a runaway head fire, which begins only with a strong wind, the fire usually moves along the tops of trees in "leaps". The wind carries sparks, burning branches and needles, which create new centers for several tens, or even hundreds of meters. The flame moves at a speed of 15-20 km / h.

A mudflow is a temporary flow of water that suddenly forms in riverbeds with a high content of stones, sand and other solid materials. The reason for its occurrence is intense and prolonged downpours, rapid melting of snow or glaciers.

Unlike ordinary streams, mudflows move, as a rule, in separate waves, and not in a continuous stream. The sizes of individual boulders and debris reach 3-4 m in diameter. When it encounters obstacles, the mudflow passes over them, continuing to build up its energy.

Mudflows occur in the North Caucasus, in some regions of the Urals and Eastern Siberia.

Possessing a large mass and a high speed of advance (up to 15 km / h), mudflows destroy buildings, roads, hydraulic engineering and other structures, disable communication lines, power transmission lines, and lead to the death of people and animals. Does all this last for a very short time? 1-3 hours. The time of the onset of occurrence in the mountains and until it reaches the flat part is estimated at 20-30 minutes.

What measures are being taken to reduce losses? They fix the surface of the earth with plantings, expand the vegetation cover on mountain slopes, arrange anti-mudflow dams, dams and other protective structures.

For the timely adoption of measures, the organization of reliable protection of the population, a clear warning and warning system is of paramount importance. There is very little time in such cases, and the population can find out about the impending danger in just tens of minutes, less often in 1-2 hours or more. The main thing is to immediately leave the likely flooded zone to higher places.



Landslide is a sliding displacement of earth masses under its own weight. It occurs most often along the banks of rivers and reservoirs, on mountain slopes. The main reason for their occurrence is excessive saturation of clay rocks with groundwater. A landslide can also be caused by an earthquake.
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