Ngin dandaragan dalwallinu coorow carnamah three springs perenjori morowa mingenew mullewa geraldton nabawa northampton yuna moora



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GINGIN   DANDARAGAN   DALWALLINU   COOROW   CARNAMAH   THREE SPRINGS   PERENJORI  

MOROWA   MINGENEW   MULLEWA   GERALDTON   NABAWA   NORTHAMPTON   YUNA   MOORA

Inland Gardens

Planting Guide for the 

inland region between  

Gingin and Yuna

water-wise

habitat


style

local


Healthy and attractive  

urban landscapes

The Northern Agricultural Region (NAR) of Western Australia is renowned 

for its stunning wildflower displays from late winter to early summer, when 

visitors come from far and wide to visit and photograph this natural marvel.  

Through well considered plant choices, our gardens can play an important 

role in helping to preserve and restore our unique plants and wildlife. 

This Planting Guide provides simple garden advice for people living inland 

from Gingin to Yuna.

 

3



  Using this Planting Guide

 3

  Discovering local native plants 



   

 4

  Garden escapees 



   

 5

  Helpful symbols



 6

  Trees and tall shrubs 

   

 10


  Small to medium shrubs 

   


 

14 


Ground covers and herbs  

   


 

16

  Grasses and sedges 



   

 18


 Climbers 

  

 20



  Sourcing local inland plants 

   


 

21

  Designing your native garden 



   

 22


  Step 1: House and garden interactions

 26


  Step 2: Concept planning (diagram) 

   


 28

  The final design 

   

 30


  Growing local inland native plants 

   


 32

  Other local native plants 

 

34

  Useful resources 



   

 

35 



Acknowledgements

Our gardens face a constant struggle against the harsh natural elements of 

the region.  Long, hot summers, low rainfall, droughts, water restrictions, 

and a changing climate, make their survival a challenging task! If your 

garden is situated inland, your plants may also be affected by strong winds 

and saline or acidic soils.

This is where selecting local native plants can help. The plant species that 

are native to our region have evolved over thousands of years to cope with 

these harsh local conditions. 

This Planting Guide will help you discover the stunning variety of plants 

native to this region, along with how to grow them in your garden. You 

will learn which plants work best for given areas, how to maintain them, 

and where they can be purchased.

You will also discover which introduced plant species are known to develop 

into serious weeds. This Planting Guide will help you replace or manage 

these plants if they are growing in your garden. 

Selecting local native plants for your garden is an ideal way to help 

look after your local environment, while saving money on water and 

maintenance. Happy gardening!  

Using this Planting Guide

Getting started

A plant that grew naturally in the local area before European settlement is 

called a ‘local native’.

Local native plants have a huge range of benefits:

  High drought tolerance;

  Low maintenance;

  Minimal watering requirements;

  Minimal need for fertilisers or pesticides;

  Provision of habitat, food and shelter for wildlife;

  The ability to adapt to various landscaping styles; and

  Striking, unique foliage and flowers found nowhere else in the world.

There is a local native plant alternative for most garden situations. The 

plants featured in this Planting Guide include striking ground-covers, low 

shrubs, structured sedges and grasses, flowering creepers, bird attracting 

shrubs, and screening trees.

What is a  

local plant?

Discovering local native plants

Why use  

local plants?

3


 

Weeds are introduced plants, or native plants growing outside their range, 

that are known to become harmful intruders.  Weeds often come from 

parts of the world with similar climates, such as Mediterranean countries 

and South Africa. Thriving in this region’s conditions, they can out-compete 

local natives, as the pests and diseases that controlled them in their original 

country are not present in Australia.  You may be surprised to find a 

number of potential garden escapees lurking in your own backyard.

A plant that escapes from your garden and spreads can create a number of 

serious problems, including:

  Destroying habitat, shelter and food for native animals;

  Changing soil conditions;

  Clogging up waterways and affecting water quality;

  Providing homes for pests such as foxes, feral cats and rats, which all 

prey on native animals;

  Invading local bushland reserves; and

  Being very costly to control.  

Some of Australia’s most invasive weeds have become such a serious 

and costly problem that they have been termed ‘Weeds of National 

Significance’, or WoNS.  For example, a common garden plant in this 

region, Lantana camara, is actually classified as a WoNS and should 

be quickly eradicated.  A local plant substitute could be a Verticordia 



densiflora

For more information visit: www.weeds.org.au/WoNS/  

Garden plants can escape into the local environment naturally, accidentally 

or deliberately:

  Seeds spread naturally via animals, wind, soil and water movement;

  Human activities that spread weeds include:  

 

- Dumped garden clippings containing seeds or plant cuttings;



 

- Deliberately planted species for beautification and landscaping; and

 

- Garden plants that grow through backyard fences directly into nearby 



  bushland.

Are you 


harbouring 

known 


villains?

Garden escapees

How do garden 

plants become 

bush invaders?


The following pages will help you identify which common garden plants 

can become environmental ‘invaders’.  You might like to remove any of 

these plants that you have in your garden and replace them with the local 

native plants suggested.  This Planting Guide can also be handy to take 

with you when buying new plants.  Some other easy things you can do to 

reduce the impact of weeds include:

  Disposing of your garden waste responsibly, by bagging your waste 

and taking it to the rubbish tip;

  Checking with your local government before you plant into natural 

bushland;

  Joining a local community group or herbarium to learn more about 

native bushland; or

  Contacting the Northern Agricultural Catchments Council (NACC) 

or your local government for information on how to get involved in 

looking after the environment in your area.

If you have a plant that you would like to remove from your garden but are 

not sure how, contact NACC for information.

Below is a list of symbols used throughout this Planting Guide to help you 

determine if a plant is appropriate for your garden.

You can


help!

5

Helpful symbols



Weed

5


DON’T PLANT

 

a garden escapee! 



Athel pine (Tamarix aphylla) 

Origin: Middle East, China and Europe

Flowers: Pinkish-white, from September to December

Reproduces via: Seed, stem and root fragments

Escapes via: Humans (machinery, garden refuse), water movement, 

wind dispersal

Oleander (Nerium oleander) 

Origin:


 

The Mediterranean, 

Southern Asia, Morocco and Portugal

Flowers: White, pink or red, from March to November

Reproduces via: Seed

Escapes via: Wind dispersal

Century plant (Agave americana) 

Origin: North America

Flowers: Yellow, held on upright stems, from December 

to January 

Reproduces via: Seed, root suckers

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate  

plantings), water movement, wind dispersal

Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) 

Origin: Central and South America 

Flowers: Green to yellow, wattle like, from June to October

Reproduces via: Seed

Escapes via: Humans (machinery), animals (through ingestion), 

soil and water movement

Olive Tree (Olea europaea) 

Origin: Europe

Flowers: White, from October to November. 

Fruits are olives, green turning to black  

Reproduces via: Seed, root suckers

Escapes via: Humans (deliberate plantings), animals (through ingestion)

Trees and tall shrubs

 


GROW ME 

instead


Emu Tree (Hakea francisiana)

Form: Shrub or tree, 3 m to 8 m high

Flowers: Pink to red, from July to October

Soil: Sandy soils, sandy clay, loam, clay and gravel 

Firewood Banksia  (Banksia menziesii)

Form: Shrub or tree, 1.5 m to 7 m high 

Flowers: Pink, red or yellow, from February to 

October


Soil: Sandy soils 

Flame Grevillea (Grevillea eriostachya)

Form: Small to tall shrub, 1 m to 5 m high 

Flowers: Yellow-orange to green, high above the foliage, from September to 

December

Soil: Sandy soils



Grevillea candelabroides

Form: Tall shrub, 1.5 m to 4 m high

Flowers: Large vibrant cream to white, from August to January 

Soil: Sandy soils including sandy clay

Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea preissii)  

Form: Tree-like with a grassy top, up to 5 m high, flower spike 

from 1.5 m to 2.5 m

Flowers: White to cream, from June to December

Soil: Sandy soils, grey-brown  

loam, and gravelly sandy clay 

7


GROW ME 

instead


Trees and tall shrubs

 

Jam Tree (Acacia acuminata) 



Often used to host native Sandalwood

Form: Tall shrub or tree, 1 m to 7 m high

Flowers: Yellow, from July to October 

Soil: A large variety of soils

Lesser Bottlebrush (Callistemon phoeniceus) 

Form: Tall shrub to small tree, 1 m to 6 m high, up to 4 m 

wide 

Flowers: Red, from September to January 



Soils: Sandy soils 

Mottlecah (Eucalyptus macrocarpa)

Form: Spreading or sprawling mallee, 0.8 m to 5 m high, smooth 

bark, grey over salmon pink 

Flowers: Red to pink, from April to June 

Soil: Sandy soils and sandy loam

Parrot Bush (Banksia sessilis)

Form: Prickly shrub or tree, 0.5 m to 8 m high 

Flowers: Cream to yellow, from April to November 

Soil: Sandy soils, including limestone

Native Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) 

Hemi–parasitic, host plant needed (such as Jam Tree)

Form: Tall shrub, 1 m to 5 m high, hemi-parasitic on roots   

Flowers: Green or red, from February to June 

Soil: Red sandy soils 


GROW ME 

instead


Pear-fruited Mallee (Eucalyptus pyriformis)

Form: Multi-branched tree, 1.5 m to 5 m high, smooth bark

Flowers: Large, ranging from red to cream to yellow, from June to November 

Soil: Sandy soils

Pink Pokers (Grevillea petrophiloides)

Form: Upright and tall shrub, 1 m to 4 m high 

Flowers: Red to pink or white to cream, from January to 

December


Soil: Sandy soils and gravel

Red Pokers (Hakea bucculenta) - North NAR only

Form: Upright and tall shrub, 1.5 m to 4.5 m high 

Flowers: Red, from August to September 

Soil: Loamy or clayey sand  

Smelly Socks or White Plume Grevillea (Grevillea leucopteris)

Form: Tall and spreading bushy shrub, 1 m to 5 m high 

Flowers: Cream to white or cream to yellow, high above foliage, from July to 

December 

Soil: Sandy soils and sandy clay 

Roadside Teatree (Leptospermum erubescens) - South 

NAR only


Form: Shrub, 1 m to 3 m high

Flowers: White to pink, from July to November 

Soil: Sandy soils, often  

with gravel 

9


DON’T PLANT

 

a garden escapee! 



Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) 

Origin: South Africa

Flowers: Yellow, from June to October

Reproduces via: Seed

Escapes via: Humans (machinery, garden refuse),  

animals, soil and water movement

Common Lantana (Lantana camara) 

Origin: Central and South America 

Flowers: Cream to yellow, pink to purple, or orange to red, from January to 

March or June to September    

Reproduces via: Seed, root suckers

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate plantings), 

birds and animals (through ingestion), water movement

Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis) 

Origin: Tropical 

Africa, Asia and America

Flowers: Cream to yellow or red, from June to September  

Reproduces via: Seed  

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse), water 

movement, ants

Milkwort (Polygala myrtifolia) 

Origin: South Africa

Flowers: White or purple, from August to November

Reproduces via: Seed    

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate 

plantings), birds (through ingestion), ants, soil 

and water movement

Veldt Daisy (Dimorphotheca ecklonis) 

Origin: South Africa

Flowers: Bluish-white or purple, from October to February

Reproduces via: Seed, root fragments

Escapes via: Humans (deliberate plantings, garden waste)

Small to medium shrubs 


GROW ME 

instead


Geraldton Wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum)

Form: Upright shrub, 0.5 m to 4 m high

Flowers: White to pink, from June to November 

Soil: Sandy soils

Chapman Valley Pea (Mirbelia spinosa)

Form: Upright spiny shrub, 0.5 m to 1.5 m high 

Flowers: Yellow to orange or red to brown, from June  

to November 

Soil: Sandy soils 

Acacia alata var. biglandulosa

Form: Multi-branched shrub, 0.5 m to 2 m high. Unique leaf 

form

Flowers: White to cream or pink, from May to October



Soil: A variety of soil types,  

including clay and sand

Pink Summer Calytrix (Calytrix fraseri)

Form: Small shrub, 0.2 m to 1 m high 

Flowers: Brilliant pink, purple and yellow, from 

November to August

Soil: Sandy soils

Compacted Feather Flower (Verticordia densiflora)

Form: Upright to spreading shrub, 0.25 m to 2 m high 

Flowers: Pink to purple to white or cream to yellow, from September to February 

Soil: Sand, clay, loam and gravelly soils

11


GROW ME 

instead


Pin-cushion Coneflower (Isopogon dubius)

Form: Dense, bushy shrub, 0.3 m to 1.5 m high

Flowers: Pink or pink-red, from July to October 

Soil: Sand, sandy loam, clayey soils, and sandy gravel 

Large-headed Honey Myrtle  (Melaleuca megacephela - 

North NAR only

Form: Upright shrub, 0.5 m to 3 m high 

Flowers: Yellow-cream, from August to December    

Soil: Sandy soil

Heart-leafed Honey Myrtle (Melaleuca cordata) 

Form: Erect, spreading shrub, 0.3 m to 2 m high

Flowers: Purple-pink, from May to January 

Soil: Sandy and often gravelly soils

One-sided Bottlebrush (Calothamnus quadrifidus) 

Form: Erect to open spreading shrub, 0.2 m to 2 m high    

Flowers: Usually a brilliant red, can be white or yellow, 

from June to December 

Soil: Sandy and layered soils

Morrison Feather Flower (Verticordia nitens)

Form: Upright shrub, 0.5 m to 2 m high

Flowers: Brilliant yellow-orange, from October to February 

Soil: Sandy soil

Small to medium shrubs 


GROW ME 

instead


Tall Labichea (Labichea lanceolata) 

Form: Shrub, 0.5 m to 2 m high

Flowers: Vibrant yellow, from June to December

Soil: Sandy and layered soils 

Silky Eremophila (Eremophila nivea)  - North NAR only

Form: Shrub, 1 m to 2 m high. White-grey foliage   

Flowers: Blue-purple-violet, from August to October    

Soil: Sandy clay and clay  

loam soils

Pink Woolly Feather Flower (Verticordia monadelpha)

Form: Striking shrub, 0.3 m to 2 m high

Flowers: Pink-red, from August to January

Soil: Sandy soils and gravel

Yellow Starflower (Calytrix angulata)

Form: Shrub, 0.2 m to 1 m high 

Flowers: Yellow, from August to January 

Soil: Sandy soils

Yellow Feather Flower (Verticordia chrysantha) 

Form: Shrub, 0.3 m to 1 m high 

Flowers: Yellow, from August to January

Soil: Sandy gravelly soils and deep yellow sand 

13


DON’T PLANT

 

a garden escapee! 



Arum Lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica) 

Origin: South Africa

Flowers: White, from July to December   

Reproduces via: Primarily seed

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate plantings), birds, foxes, 

stock, soil and water movement

Succulents (Various spp) 

Origin: Africa, Mediterranean

Flowers: Various   

Reproduces via: Vegetative prapogation (most 

species), seed (some species)    

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate 

plantings), wind dispersal

Perennial Sea Lavender or Statice (Limonium sinuatum) 

Origin: Europe, 

Western Asia and Northern Africa

Flowers: Purple, white or yellow, from September to May

Reproduces via: Seed    

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate plantings, road verge 

mowing and grading)

Caltrop (Tribulus terrestris)  

Origin: Mediterranean

Flowers: Yellow, for most of the year    

Reproduces via: Seed   

Escapes via: Humans (tyres, machinery, clothing, 

footwear), animals (by adhesion),  

soil and water movement

Wild Gladiolus (Gladiolus caryophyllaceus) 

Origin: South Africa

Flowers: Pink, from August to November    

Reproduces via: Primarily seed, occasionally offsets    

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate plantings) birds, wind 

dispersal

Ground covers and herbs



GROW ME 

instead


Catspaw (Anigozanthos humilis)

Form: Brightly coloured herb, 0.1 m to 1 m high 

Flowers: Striking yellow-red-orange, from July to October 

Soil: Sand, sandy loam, clay and limestone.  

Prefers well drained soils

Mangles Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos manglesii)

Form: Striking herb, 0.2 m to 1.1 m high 

Flowers: Vibrant green and red, from August to 

November 

Soil: Sand, sandy loam

Yellow Leschenaultia (Lechenaultia linarioides) 

Form: Sprawling, open shrub, up to 1.5 m high 

Flowers: Blend of red, pink, cream or yellow, year round

Soil: Sandy soils, limestone, red sandy clay

Grey Cottonhead (Conostylis candicans) 

Form: Attractive herb, 0.05 m to 0.4 m high 

Flowers: Yellow, from July to November 

Soil: Sand, sandy loam and limestone 



Hibbertia subvaginata 

Form: Erect, spreading or straggling shrub, 0.15 m to 1.2 m high 

Flowers: Bright yellow, from July to December

Soil: Sandy soil in floodplains and sandplains 

15


DON’T PLANT

 

a garden escapee! 



Buffalo Grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) 

Origin: Africa, North and South 

America

Flowers: From November to March   



Reproduces via: Vegetative propagation, sometimes seed  

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse), soil and water movement,  

vegetative spread from properties, livestock faeces

Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) 

Origin: East Asia

Flowers: From December to February

Reproduces via: Vegetative propagation (e.g. lawn clippings)

Escapes via: Soil and water movement, humans  

(garden refuse), vegetative spread from properties

Fountain Grass (Cenchrus setaceus) 

Origin: East Africa and Middle East

Flowers: From August to February   

Reproduces via: Seed

Escapes via: Wind dispersal, water movement, humans (adhering to clothing, 

garden refuse and deliberate plantings)

Couch Grass (Cynodon dactylon) 

Origin: Tropics 

Flowers: From December to February   

Reproduces via: Vegetative propagation, seed 

Escapes via: Water, garden refuse (lawn clippings)

Walkaway Burr (Cenchrus echinatus) 

Origin: South America, southern North 

America

Flowers: From January to August   



Reproduces via: Seed 

Escapes via: Wind dispersal, adhering to animals and humans (clothing),  

soil and water movement

Grasses and Sedges



GROW ME 

instead


Father Christmas Grass (Austrostipa elegantissima)

Form: Tufted grass, 0.5 m to 2 m high 

Flowers: Beard-like seed masses, from August to January

Soil: Sand, loam, and clay  

Pithy Sword-sedge (Lepidosperma longitudinale) - South NAR 

only


Form: Tufted perennial grass or sedge, 0.5 m to 2 m high 

Flowers: Brown, from May to October 

Soil: Peaty sands and clay 

Wallaby Grass (Austrodanthonia caespitosa)

Form: Tufted grass, 0.15 m to 0.9 m high

Flowers: Purple-green, from October to January  

Soil: Sand and loam soil types 

Foxtail Mulga Grass (Neurachne alopecuroidea)

Form: Tufted grass, 0.15 m to 0.8 m high

Flowers: Grey-green, from July to November 

Soil: Sand, loam, and clay  

Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra)

Form: Tufted grass, 0.3 m to 2 m high

Flowers: Red-brown to purple, from January to December  

Soil: A range of soil types including  

sand, clay, alluvium and gravel

17


DON’T PLANT

 

a garden escapee! 



Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides)  

Origin: South Africa

Flowers: White, from August to September

Reproduces via: Primarily seed, occasionally rhizomes or tubers. 

Germinates from March to December  

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate plantings,  

machinery), animals, soil and water movement

Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) 

Origin: South America

Flowers: Yellow, orange or red, from August to October

Reproduces via: Seed

Escapes via: Humans (garden refuse, deliberate  

plantings), wind dispersal, water movement

Siratro  or Purple Bean (Macroptilium atropurpureum) 

Origin: Tropical 

America


Flowers: Black-purple-red, from March to November

Reproduces via: Seed, vegetative propagation

Escapes via: Humans, (garden refuse, deliberate plantings,  

machinery), animals, soil and water movement

Climbers


GROW ME 

instead


Chapman Valley Creeper (Marianthus ringens) - North NAR 

only


Form: Shrub or climber, 1 m to 3 m high

Flowers: Orange-red, from August to November 

Soil: Sand or clay and gravel 

Native Yam (Dioscorea hastifolia)

Form: Tuberous climber, up to 3 m high 

Flowers: Vibrant yellow, from April to July. Produces a four winged fruit

Soil: Sandy soils 

Twining Fringe Lily (Thysanotus patersonii)

Form: Twining leafless herb, 0.15 m to 0.5 m high 

Flowers: Brilliant mauve, from July to November 

Soil: Sandy soils, clay, and sandy clay

Climbing Mulla Mulla  (Ptilotus divaricatus)

Form: Flat to scrambling shrub, 0.3 m to 1.5 m high 

Flowers: White-cream or pink-purple, from

September to December 

Soil: Sandy soil 

Painted Marianthus (Marianthus bicolour)

Form: Upright spreading shrub or climber, 0.5 m to 3 m high

Flowers: White-cream, from December to May

Soil: Sand, clay, loam,  

gravel and sandstone

19


 

Not all nurseries stock local native plants. Ask your local nursery for plants 

of local provenance, meaning that they have been grown from seed or 

cuttings collected from the local area. These plants have adapted to local 

conditions and are the best plants for your garden.

You can search for nurseries that stock native plants online or in your local 

business directory. Some nurseries that stock native plants suitable for the 

NAR include:

  Lullfitz Nursery, Wanneroo - www.lullfitz.com.au 

  Jurien Coastal Nursery, Jurien Bay

  Muchea Tree Farm, Muchea - www.mucheatreefarm.com.au

  Salmon Gums Community Nursery, C.Y. O’Connor Institute, Moora

  Mooreview Plants and Trees, Walkaway

  City of Greater Geraldton Community Nursery, Waggrakine -        

www.cgg.wa.gov.au/live/my-environment/community-nursery.aspx

  The Drylands Permaculture Farm, Waggrakine www.drylands.org.au

You may be able to place orders in advance during late spring to early 

summer. Advance orders are recommended if you need larger quantities of 

plants or would like to ensure the species you want are available.  

Sourcing local inland native plants



 

This section provides you with a process for planning and designing your 

garden. Every garden is unique - making planning essential for ensuring 

success. If you already have an established garden and want to include 

some local natives, you might prefer to skip this section and go to 

‘Growing local inland native plants’, on page 30.

It is important to remember that native plants have evolved to suit their 

natural environment, whereas your backyard is likely to have been changed 

by clearing, the introduction of foreign soils, building materials, exotic plant 

species, and water supplied via reticulated systems. 

The combination of natural and modified features needs to be considered 

in order to provide the best environment for your new plants.  It is also 

important to consider what may be buried in your front or back yard 

before you start digging.  Make sure you contact ‘Dial Before You Dig’ 

on phone number 1100 or website www.1100.com.au, to identify where 

underground services are located.

Designing your native garden

21


 

DESCRIPTION AND EXAMPLES

  Outline your property boundary;

  Note power, water, telephone and gas lines;

  Note existing trees, paths and structures (house, shed, etc.).

  Identify plants, fences and buildings that are creating shelter on your 

site.

  Identify the direction of North and mark it on your plan.



  Most suburban properties are relatively flat, however, if your site is on a 

slope it is important to note this on your site plan;

  The slope of your property will help to identify wetter and drier areas. 

These will be important for plant selection; 

  A good way to represent slope is with contour lines. Accurate contours 

may require the use of survey equipment.

  The soil on your property may include native soils, imported building 

sands, and gardening soils;

  Identify if your soil is sand, clay or loam (or a combination);

  Soils vary in their level of acidity. This is measured in pH, which can be 

determined by purchasing a simple test kit, available at most garden 

and hardware stores;

  If the soil types and pH vary across your property, it is useful to map 

this on your plan. You can then match the right plants to the right soil 

types.

  Take note of your ground surface – is it hard or soft, light or dark 



in colour? This can affect the temperature of your garden, as some 

surfaces will absorb heat while others will reflect it. 

STEP 1:  House and garden interactions 

(site planning)

FEATURE

Existing physical 



features

Microclimate

Orientation

Slope/aspect

Soil

Ground surface



A good place to start planning is to sketch a simple site plan, which will 

provide a visual account of your site’s features. The table below outlines 

a number of key factors that should be considered during the planning 

phase.


STEP 1:  House and garden interactions 

(site planning)

 

DESCRIPTION AND EXAMPLES



  Determine how exposed your site is to strong winds, noting where 

solid buildings and fences may increase wind speeds and its damaging 

effect, and where these physical barriers may provide wind protection;

  Some local native plants will have adapted to survive in strong 

winds, while others may require shelter. You may need to consider 

establishing windbreaks for protection.

  Note on your plan where your site receives sunlight throughout the 

day, its intensity, and how this changes seasonally;

  This will help you determine the best location for different plants. It will 

also allow you to select plants to provide shade for certain areas of your 

house and garden;

  Buildings have a major effect on the microclimate of your property. 

Your house is likely to create a warm sunny area facing north, and a 

cool shady area on the south;

  Note that in summer the south side of the house is exposed to sunlight 

during the early morning and late afternoon, but is usually shaded in 

the middle of the day.

  Land around a suburban house may be open to views from the street 

and surrounding houses. Plants can be used to create strategic screens 

to separate private and public areas.

  Be sure to consider the volume and type of traffic (for example, cars or 

pedestrians) that will pass through, or close to, your garden.

FEATURE

Light/shade



Views

Traffic


Wind

23


 

STEP 1:  House and garden interactions 

(Site analysis)


 

STEP 1:  House and garden interactions 

(Site analysis)

25

NORTH



 

Now that you’ve sketched the features of your property you can start to 

think about what you would like to add, remove, or change. Develop a 

list of your ideas. Be specific and include anything that will be required to 

make it happen, from plant species to new fencing.

Step 2: Concept planning

 (exploring your ideas)

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS

PEDESTRIAN



ACCESS

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS LAUNDRY

TO CLOTHES LINE

TALL DENSE PLANTING

TO SCREEN CHOOK PEN

AND FENCE LINE

CHOOK 


PEN

EASTERN


WIND BREAK

TALL DENSE PLANTING

SOME PLANTING

BENEATH 


EXISTING TREE

SHADE TREE

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS TO

PERIMETER OF

SHED


SHED

ORNAMENTAL PLANTING

AGAINST VERANDAH

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS SHED

TO HOUSE


PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

VERANDAH TO DRIVEWAY

PLANT SMALL SHRUBS & CLIMBERS

TO BREAK UP FENCE LINE

TALL DENSE PLANTING

PRIVACY SCREEN

DRIVEWAY

VEHICLE ACCESS

ORNAMENTAL 

PLANTING AGAINST

VERANDAH

PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

CHOOK PEN TO HOUSE

TO SHED


VERGE

LOW WATER USE

STREET TREES TO

SHADE FROM

SUMMER SUN

LOW


ORNAMENTAL

PLANTING


PRIVACY SCREEN

AGAINST FENCE LINE

SHADE LOVING PLANTS 

CLOSER TO HOUSE

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS


VERGE TO 

FRONT ENTRY

TALLER

PLANTING


SCREEN/WIND

BREAK


SMALL SHRUBS &

CLIMBERS TO 

BREAK UP FENCE LINE

OPEN


GROUND COVER

AREA


 

Having considered all the factors that will affect your new plants, they 

will have a much better chance of survival. You may also wish to seek 

professional advice - horticulturalists, landscape designers and landscape 

architects have a wealth of experience in garden design. Check local 

business directories for professionals in your area. 

Step 2: Concept planning

 (exploring your ideas)

Landscape and planting design

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS

PEDESTRIAN



ACCESS

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS LAUNDRY

TO CLOTHES LINE

TALL DENSE PLANTING

TO SCREEN CHOOK PEN

AND FENCE LINE

CHOOK 


PEN

EASTERN


WIND BREAK

TALL DENSE PLANTING

SOME PLANTING

BENEATH 


EXISTING TREE

SHADE TREE

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS TO

PERIMETER OF

SHED


SHED

ORNAMENTAL PLANTING

AGAINST VERANDAH

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS SHED

TO HOUSE


PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

VERANDAH TO DRIVEWAY

PLANT SMALL SHRUBS & CLIMBERS

TO BREAK UP FENCE LINE

TALL DENSE PLANTING

PRIVACY SCREEN

DRIVEWAY

VEHICLE ACCESS

ORNAMENTAL 

PLANTING AGAINST

VERANDAH

PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

CHOOK PEN TO HOUSE

TO SHED


VERGE

LOW WATER USE

STREET TREES TO

SHADE FROM

SUMMER SUN

LOW


ORNAMENTAL

PLANTING


PRIVACY SCREEN

AGAINST FENCE LINE

SHADE LOVING PLANTS 

CLOSER TO HOUSE

PEDESTRIAN

ACCESS


VERGE TO 

FRONT ENTRY

TALLER

PLANTING


SCREEN/WIND

BREAK


SMALL SHRUBS &

CLIMBERS TO 

BREAK UP FENCE LINE

OPEN


GROUND COVER

AREA


27

NORTH


 

The final design

Curved design 

Angular design



The final design

Icons


 

 Mottlecah 



(Eucalyptus macrocarpa)

  Jam Tree (Acacia acuminata)

  Lesser Bottlebrush (Callistemon phoeniceus)

  Red Pokers (Hakea bucculenta)

   Geraldton Wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum)

   Large-headed Honey Myrtle (Melaleuca megacephala)

   One-sided Bottlebrush (Calothamnus quadrifidus)

   Heart-leafed Honey Myrtle (Melaleuca cordata)

  Hibbertia subvaginata

  Mangles Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos manglesii)

  Grey Cottonhead (Conostylis candicans)

  Pithy-sword Sedge (Lepidosperma longitudinale)

  Father Christmas Grass (Austrostipa elegantissima)

  Native Wisteria (Hardenbergia comptoniana)

  Old Man’s Beard (Clematis linearifolia)

Trees and tall 

shrubs

Small  - medium 



shrubs

Ground covers  

and herbs  

Grasses and 

sedges 

Climbers


Lawn

Mulch


Concrete,  

Paving


Gravel,  

Rock Mulch

29


 

The best time for planting is after the first winter rains, when the soil is 

still warm.  The warmth encourages root growth and gives plants time to 

establish before cold winter nights arrive.  

Keep an eye on your new plants throughout their first summer.  They may 

need an occasional deep watering, however try not to water more than 

once a week.  After their first summer they should be able to cope on their 

own or with very little water.  

Your aim is to establish strong, deep root systems that are water-efficient 

and drought tolerant. Over-watering will leach nutrients from the soil and 

encourage excessive growth, reducing flowers, along with the life of the 

plant.  Be mindful of current water restrictions and prescribed watering 

times.

A layer of coarse mulch added to your garden can reduce evaporative 



water loss by more than 70 per cent.  Organic mulch stabilises soil 

temperatures, which benefits root density, prevents weed growth and 

helps to promote good soil structure and productivity.

Apply 5 cm to 10 cm of mulch or gravel, creating a bowl shape around the 

plant to help retain water.  To avoid plant disease, mulch should be kept 

away from plant stems.

Growing local inland native plants 

When to plant

Watering

Mulch and 

gravels


Fertilisers are not generally needed for growing local native plants, and 

many are sensitive to the phosphorus found in most fertilisers.  The addition 

of organic mulch to the soil will often provide all the nutirents native plants 

require. If you do decide to fertilise, read the fertiliser package and ensure 

you select a slow release fertiliser suitable for native plants. Encouraging 

rapid growth should be avoided, as this will result in ‘leggy’ plants which 

are weak and short-lived. 

Local native plants benefit from a light pruning after flowering. 

Potted plants generally require a little more care than those planted into 

garden beds.  It is advisable to allow plants to become dormant in summer, 

as they would normally, so keep watering to a minimum.  Keep in mind also 

that some plants may need re-potting periodically, to prevent them from 

become root bound.

You can help your local environment by using sustainable and locally 

sourced materials and avoiding materials taken from natural systems such as 

moss rocks, river stones, fallen logs and red gum mulch.

Fertilising

Pruning


Potted plants

Sustainable 

landscaping

27

31



 

The following local native plants suit a variety of landscaping styles and can 

also be incorporated into your native garden.  For more information on 

these plants see ‘Useful resources’ on page 34.

Native Grape (Clematicissus angustissima)

Aphanopetalum clematideum

Mesomelaena pseudostygia

Small-flower Mat-rush (Lomandra micrantha)

Purple Flag (Patersonia occidentalis)

Tar Bush (Eremophila glabra)

Blue Leschenaultia (Lechenaultia biloba) - South NAR only

Green Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos viridis) - South NAR only

Blueberry Lily (Dianella revoluta)

Tall Triggerplant (Stylidium elongatum)

Matted Triggerplant (Stylidium repens)

Prickly Conostylis (Conostylis aculeata)

Tall Dampiera (Dampiera altissima)

Other local native plants

Climbers

Grasses and  

sedges

Ground covers  



and herbs

Dysentery Bush (Alyxia buxifolia)

Spoon-leafed Wattle (Acacia spathulifolia)

Silky-leafed Blood flower (Calothamnus sanguineus)

Acacia idiomorpha

Acacia ericifolia

Grevillea biternata

Grevillea intricata

Honey Bush (Hakea lissocarpha)



Scaevola virgata

Melaleuca depressa - North NAR only

Scholtzia capitata - Mid to north NAR only

Acorn Banksia (Banksia prionotes)



Alyogyne hakeifolia

Alyogyne wrayae

Quandong (Santalum acuminatum) - Hemi-parasitic (needs a host plant)

River Redgum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) - Large tree (4 m – 30 m)

Salmon Gum (Eucalyptus salmonophloia) - Large tree (4 m – 30 m)

Swamp Sheoak (Allocasuarina obesa) - Large tree (water logged/swampy areas)

Malallie (Eucalyptus eudesmioides) - Mallee up to 10 m

Christmas Tree (Nuytsia floribunda) - Semi-parasitic (needs a host plant)

Rose Mallee (Eucalyptus rhodantha)

Small and  

medium shrubs

Trees and tall 

shrubs


33

Useful resources

  In the Garden – www.watercorporation.com.au

  Dial Before You Dig – www.1100.com.au

  Florabase -  https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/ 

  Sustainable Gardening Australia - www.sgaonline.org.au

  The Wildflower Society of Western Australia -  

http://members.ozemail.com.au/~wildflowers/

  Weeds or Wildflowers - www.environmentalweedsactionnetwork.org.au 

  Your local government’s website

  Northern Agricultural Catchments Council - www.nacc.com.au 

  NARvis (Northern Agricultural Region Vision) - www.narvis.com.au

  Creating a Water Wise Garden, Water Corporation (2011).

  Trees and Shrubs for the Midlands and Northern Wheatbelt, D.G. Wilcox, 

E.C. Lefroy, T.C. Stoneman, N.R. Schoknecht, and E.A. Griffin. (1996).

  Western Weeds: Second Edition, B.M.J. Hussey, G.J. Keighery, J. Dodd, 

S.G. Lloyd, and R.D. Cousens (1997).

  Wildflowers of Southern Western Australia (Third Edition), M.G. Corrick 

and B.A. Fuhrer (2009).

Online

Books 


Acknowledgements

The Northern Agricultural Catchments Council thanks the following 

contributors for their assistance and generous support in producing this 

Planting Guide:

Claire Lock, Rural Solutions SA; Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural 

Resources Management Board; The Geraldton Regional Herbarium;

WA Country Builders (Geraldton). Images and descriptions used with the 

permission of the Western Australian Herbarium,  Department of Parks and 

Wildlife (https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/help/copyright). Additional Photos: 

Lex Bailey, Jenny Borger, Tony Brooker, Jenna Brooker, Mike Clarke, Chiara 

Danese, Ann Gunness, Tanith Mortimore, Robyn Nicholas, Riki Porteus, 

Natalie, Ken C. Richardson, Leigh Crook, Brian J. Carter,Tony Tapper and 

Steve Vallance.

Project Team: Stephen Vigilante, Jason Sampson, Stephen Poole, Jenna 

Brooker, Tanith Mortimore (NACC), Ashley Robb (NACC), Wendy Payne 

(NACC). 

The Northern Agricultural Catchments Council acknowledges the funding 

support from the Australian Government in the preparation of this 

publication. NACC is the regional natural resource management body for the 

Northern Agricultural Region of Western Australia.

Production Date: March 2012

Revised Date: August 2015

35


This project is supported 

through funding from the 



Australian Government


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