Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners 2007-1953



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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners 2007-1953
2007 MARIO R. CAPECCHI, SIR MARTIN J. EVANS, and OLIVER SMITHIES for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells

2006 ANDREW Z. FIRE, and CRAIG C. MELLO for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA

2005 BARRY J. MARSHALL, and J. ROBIN WARREN for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.

2004 RICHARD AXEL, and LINDA B BUCK for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

2003 PAUL C. LAUTERBUR, and SIR PETER MANSFIELD for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.

2002 SYDNEY BRENNER, H. ROBERT HORVITZ and JOHN E. SULSTON for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.

2001 LELAND H. HARTWELL, R. TIMOTHY HUNT and PAUL M. NURSE for their discoveries of "key regulators of the cell cycle."

2000 ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

1999 GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.

1998 ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

1997 STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection

1996 PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence.

1995 EDWARD B. LEWIS, CHRISTIANE NSLEIN-VOLHARD and ERIC F. WIESCHAUS for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.

1994 ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

1993 RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes.

1992 EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.

1991 ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells.

1990 JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.

1989 J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes.

1988 SIR JAMES W. BLACK , GERTRUDE B. ELION and GEORGE H. HITCHINGS for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.

1987 SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.

1986 STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors.

1985 MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

1984 NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KLER and CAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.

1983 BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.

1982 SUNE K. BERGSTR , BENGT I. SAMUELSSON and SIR JOHN R. VANE for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.

1981 ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.

DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.

1980 BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.

1979 ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer assisted tomography.

1978 WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS and HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics.

1977 ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain

ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.

1976 BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

1975 DAVID BALTIMORE , RENATO DULBECCO and HOWARD MARTIN TEMIN for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.

1974 ALBERT CLAUDE , CHRISTIAN DE DUVE and GEORGE E. PALADE for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.

1973 KARL VON FRISCH , KONRAD LORENZ and NIKOLAAS TINBERGEN for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns.

1972 GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.

1971 EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.

1970 SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.

1969 MAX DELBRUK , ALFRED D. HERSHEY and SALVADOR E. LURIA for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses.

1968 ROBERT W. HOLLEY , HAR GOBIND KHORANA and MARSHALL W. NIRENBERG for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

1967 RAGNAR GRANIT , HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE and GEORGE WALD for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.

1966 PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses

CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer.

1965 FRANCIS JACOB , ANDR LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.

1964 KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

1963 SIR JOHN CAREW ECCLES , SIR ALAN LLOYD HODGKIN and SIR ANDREW FIELDING HUXLEY for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.

1962 FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK , JAMES DEWEY WATSON and MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.

1959 SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid.

1958 GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events

JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.



1953

SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle



FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism.

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