Arthur S Weston, PhD, Consulting Botanist
8 Pitt Street
ST JAMES WA 6102
Tel/Fax (08) 9458 9738
PO Box 443
BAYSWATER WA 6933
(Bayswater House, 26 Bassendean Road, Bayswater, 6053)
Ph. (08) 6267 2400, 0418 912 217
3 February 2010
This report describes methods and presents results of spring searches for rare flora in Lots 81,
(Wilson Street) and Reserve Road, Gidgegannup. The principal objectives of this project were
to search for Threatened (EPBC-listed), Declared Rare and Priority Flora.
Fieldwork for the project was done by botanist Dr Arthur Weston and an assistant in
Landforms and Soils
PREPARATION FOR FIELD WORK
AFTER FIELD WORK
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
VEGETATION AND HABITATS
Map of Gidgegannup rare flora search area
based upon DEWHA EPBC Act Protected Matters Report: Database Search Area:
This report describes methods and presents results of spring searches for rare flora in the Lots
81, 99, 52, 51 and 50 that are on the north side of Toodyay Road between Reen and Reserve
Roads, Gidgegannup. The principal objective of this project was to search for Threatened
(EPBC-listed), Declared Rare and Priority Flora.
These lots are referred to in this report as ‘the search area’.
The Gidgegannup search area is approximately 35 km north-east of Perth. It is in the area on
the north side of Toodyay Road between the northern ends of Stoneville and Bunning Roads.
It borders The Springs Road, Toodyay Road, Reen Road (the southern 1.5 km of which is
shown on some maps as Wilson Street) and Reserve Road. It is approximately 1.8 km wide,
between 1 km and 0.5 km deep and 186 ha in area.
The street addresses of the lots are 102 Reen Rd. (Lot 81), 39 The Springs Rd. (Lot 99), 1949
(2009) uses these street numbers, rather than lot numbers, on its Property Finder Hybrid
The aim of the search was to find any plants of Declared Rare and Priority Flora that might be
in the search area and to record locations of any found. In particular, we looked for the DRF
Thelymitra dedmaniarum (Cinnamon Sun Orchid) and other flora listed in Appendix A of this
report. These are the Declared Rare Flora (R, DRF) and Priority Flora (P) listed in results of
Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) searches of relevant DEC flora
databases and in results of searches of relevant EPBC Act Protected Matters databases with
the DEWHA EPBC Act Protected Matters Search Tool.
The EPA’s Guidance No. 51 (Environmental Protection Authority 2004) advises that the most
especially ephemerals and geophytes, in an area are flowering, fruiting and have foliage that
allows identification. For a Level 2 search for rare flora the Guidance specifies ‘one or more
visit/s in the main flowering season’, which is usually, but not always, spring. The October-
November period would probably be the best time for the Gidgegannup search area because
the two Declared Rare orchids to be searched for there are most likely to be in flower, and
Spring Rare Flora Searches, Lots 81, 99, 52, 51, 50 Toodyay Rd, Gidgegannup ASW 3/02/10
1.3 REGIONAL SETTING
Beard shows the Gidgegannup area as being in the north-western part of the Dale
briefly describes the subdistrict’s climate, geology, landforms, soils, vegetation and flora.
There are vegetation maps in [or accompanying] Beard (1981, 1979a) at scales of 1:1 000 000
and 1:250 000, respectively.
With winter rainfall and a bioclimatic dry season, when precipitation is less than the amount
climate can be classified as Dry Mediterranean or warm mediterranean. It is shown as the
former in Beard (1990, Fig. 2.8; 1981, Figs. 8, 9) and described as the latter in Beard (1980, p.
The nearest Bureau of Meteorology stations in the Dale Subdistrict are Kalamunda (closed in
1994) and Bickley, where the mean annual rainfalls are 1065 mm (Kalamunda 1908-1993)
and 1109 mm (Bickley 1969-2009). The mean annual rainfall in Gidgegannup is probably less
than 1000 mm because, as shown by rainfall maps in Beard (1979a and b, Figs. 1), mean
annual rainfall on the Darling Plateau decreases northwards from Bickley.
Landforms and Soils
The 1:250 000 scale Landforms and Soils Perth sheet by Churchward and McArthur (1980)
(D) unit and the Minor Valleys Yarragil (Yg) unit. The Yg unit is in the northern part of Lot
50 and near the southern edges of the other lots in the search area. The D unit is in the rest of
the search area.
All of the Darling Plateau uplands on the Perth sheet south of Avon River and to as far east as
major valleys in that area are mapped as the Murray (My) unit.
Beard (1981, 1979a) shows, at scales of 1:1 000 000 and 1:250 000, the vegetation of the
Gidgegannup area and beyond it to be Jarrah-marri (Eucalyptus marginata – Corymbia
(Eucalyptus) calophylla) forest (e
Mc) in the western sector of the Dale Subdistrict. There is
The 1:250 000 scale Vegetation Perth sheet by Heddle et al. (1980) shows the search area as
High Rainfall (Mapping Unit 2) and the Yarragil Complex (Minimum Development Swamps)
in Medium to High Rainfall (Mapping Unit 10). Vegetation Complex 10 is in the northern
part of Lot 50 and near the southern edges of the other lots in the search area. Vegetation
Complex 2 is in the rest of the search area.
The vegetation of Vegetation Complex 2 and the upper slopes of Vegetation Complex 10 is
characteristically Eucalyptus marginata – Corymbia calophylla Open Forest, with Eucalyptus
patens and E. megacarpa on the valley floors of Vegetation Complex 10.
All of the Darling Plateau uplands on the Perth sheet south of Avon River and to as far east as
Darling Plateau major valleys in that area are mapped as the Murray and Bindoon Complex in
Low to Medium Rainfall (Mapping Unit 21).
Beard (1979a, 1981, 1990) lists some characteristic flora of the Darling System and Heddle et
vegetation types (Table 3.2) and which vegetation complexes these site-vegetation types are
in (Table 3.4). The Heddle et al. Table 3.2 is from Havel (1975), the same source and
essentially the same table as Table II in Beard (1979a).
The species, and other taxa, listed in the first two columns of Table A1, in Appendix A, are
Prior to beginning searches in the field, two sets of databases were searched for Priority,
of Environment and Conservation (DEC) staff were requested to search three DEC flora
databases for Priority and Declared Rare Flora, and the Department of the Environment,
Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) EPBC Act Protected Matters Search Tool was used
to generate a report listing Threatened (EPBC-listed) Flora. The names of the databases
searched, the parameters used for the searches and the results of the searches are given in
Appendix A's Table A1 lists the 46 species of Declared Rare and Priority Flora that are in the
table gives information about conservation codes for the Declared Rare, Priority and
Threatened Flora listed and their distributions, localities, growth forms, habitats and flowering
times. The information in the table was compiled from Atkins (2008), FloraBase (2009),
Paczkowska and Chapman (2000), Grieve (1998), Marchant et al. (1987), Hoffman and
Brown (1998) and Brown et al. (1998), other references, herbarium specimens and personal
During preparation of the table, herbarium specimens in the Western Australian Herbarium
the table were examined for familiarisation with their appearance, habitats, distribution and
The field work component of the study, searches for rare flora, was undertaken by botanist
the second day, he visited a nearby reserved known population of the principal species
searched for, the DRF orchid Thelymitra dedmaniarum (Cinnamon Sun Orchid), to confirm
that it was in flower and identifiable. It was, but on substrates and vegetation units not
represented in the Gidgegannup search area.
Lots 81, 99, 52 and 50 were searched on-site by car and on foot, and Lot 51 was searched
The principal taxa (species, subspecies, varieties) searched for, including Thelymitra
and otherwise significant flora, especially those listed in Atkins (2008), were also searched
Specimens of plants not readily identifiable in the field, or with help from keys and
specimens of uncommon and possibly significant plants were also collected and pressed.
2.3 AFTER FIELD WORK
After returning from field work, pressing of plant specimens collected during the field work
checking them against FloraBase (2009), a variety of keys and descriptions in floras and
taxonomic works, only some of which are referred to in this report, by consulting other
botanists, and, after fumigation, by comparing them with specimens in collections in the
Western Australian Herbarium in South Perth.
During the process of identification and following it, the names of the plants identified were
Most of the search area is cleared or parkland cleared Jarrah and Marri on uplands of sandy
loamy soils, often with pisolytic gravel and, in some places, surface laterite. In some areas
there are sparse understoreys of native plants, among alien grasses and forbs. Balga
(Xanthorrhoea preissii) is in some of these understories, and Parrotbush (Banksia (formerly
Dryandra) sessilis) is in a few.
The interior of the northwest part of Lot 51 has an outcrop of rock 1 m to 2 m or more in
height bordered by degraded or completely degraded Jarrah and/or Marri woodland to forest.
There is also a small area of Wandoo (Eucalyptus wandoo) in the north-western part of Lot
50, a stand of young Flooded Gum (Eucalyptus rudis) southeast of the Wandoo and a small
stand of what is probably Wandoo, but may be Bullich, in the southern quarter of Lot 51.
There are low-lying areas that are wet, at least seasonally, in the centre of the southern third
northern half of Lot 50. There are few, if any, native plants other than Juncus pallidus in most
of these wetlands in Lots 99, 52 and 51. There is a stream along the southern boundary of Lot
81 and in the southwest corner of Lot 99, and there are dams in some of the lots.
The vegetation of the wet area and along the stream in Lot 81 is dominated by Taxandria
northern half of Lot 50 have a variety of vegetation. The most common or conspicuous
dominants in the Lot 50 wetlands are Flooded Gum (Eucalyptus rudis), Variable-leaved
Hakea (Hakea varia) and Astartea ?scoparia. The wetland at Waypoint 676 (50 J 422900 mE
6482813 mN) has a population of ‘belly’ plants, with small plants of several native species in
Drosera, Stylidium, Levenhookia, Centrolepis, Goodenia and other genera.
No species or other taxon of Threatened, Declared Rare or Priority Flora was found during the
possibly have habitat for Drosera occidentalis subsp. occidentalis (P4) or other ephemeral or
geophytic Priority flora. In the unlikely event that there is suitable habitat, it is more likely to
be in Lot 50 at Waypoint 676 (50 J 422900 mE 6482813 mN), or east of it, than elsewhere.
It is unlikely that any plants of Drosera occidentalis subsp. occidentalis would have been in
leaves thought to belong to Drosera occidentalis subsp. occidentalis were seen.
No attempt was made to record all of the taxa in the project area, and it is likely that some,
Some species may occur in the project area but be identifiable at a different season or only
rarely; e.g. only during the first spring or two after a fire. And the occurrence and intensity of
flowering of many species varies from year to year. For instance, a known, reserved
population of the DRF orchid Thelymitra dedmaniarum (Cinnamon Sun Orchid), was in
flower and identifiable, but the plants and flowers were in smaller numbers and more poorly
developed than in recent years (Fox pers. comm.).
Dr. N. Segal assisted with field work.
Assistance by Mike Hislop and staff of the Western Australian Herbarium and other botanists
in identifying plant specimens and access to the Western Australian Herbarium collections,
which was essential for carrying out the project, are greatly appreciated.
Atkins, K.J. (2008). Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia, 6 October
Beard, J. S. (1990). Plant life of Western Australia. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, N.S.W.
Beard, J.S. (1981). Sheet 7, Swan, Vegetation Survey of Western Australia 1:1,000,000
Beard , J. S. (1980). A new phytogeographic map of Western Australia. West. Aust. Herb.
Beard, J.S. (1979a). The Vegetation of the Perth Area, Vegetation Survey of Western
Beard, J.S. (1979b). The Vegetation of the Pinjarra Area, Vegetation Survey of Western
Brown, A., Dundas, P., Dixon, K. and Hopper, S. (2008). Orchids of Western Australia.
Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (1998). Western Australia’s Threatened
Bureau of Meteorology (2009). Climate Averages, Publicly available data prepared by the
Churchward, H.M. and McArthur, W.M. (1980). Landforms and Soils of the Darling System,
Soils (prepared in 1978). In: Mulcahy (1980).
Department of Agriculture and Food (2009). Natural Resource Management Database.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2009). EPBC Act Protected
Matters Report. Accessed online:
Environmental Protection Authority. (2004). Terrestrial Flora and Vegetation Surveys for
Environmental Factors No. 51. Perth, Western Australia.
FloraBase. (2009). FloraBase: Flora of Western Australia. Western Australian Herbarium,
Havel, J.J. (1975). Site-vegetation mapping in the northern jarrah forest (Darling Range): I,
Definition of site-vegetation types. II, Location and mapping of site-vegetation types.
Bull. For. Dept West. Aust. 86, 87.
Heddle, E.M., Loneragan, O.W., and Havel, J.J. (1980). Vegetation Complexes of the
Vegetation (prepared in 1978). In: Mulcahy (1980).
Hoffman, N. and Brown, A. (1998). Orchids of South-west Australia (revised second edition
Landgate. (2009). Property Finder. Accessed online:
. Search for Gidgegannup.
Marchant, N.G., Wheeler, J.R., Rye, B.L., Bennett, E.M., Lander, N.S. and Macfarlane, T.D.
Mulcahy, M.J. (committee chairman). (1980). Atlas of Natural Resources, Darling System,
Paczkowska, G. and Chapman, A.R. (2000). The Western Australian Flora, A Descriptive
Herbarium, CALM and the Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority: Perth.
Figures 2a and 2b Aerial views of Gidgegannup rare flora search area.
2a. From Google Earth.
2b. From Strategen ‘Preliminary Environmental Assessment’ and provided by Brian Hunt.
Table A1 lists 46 taxa (species, subspecies and varieties) of Declared Rare (R) and Priority
(P) Flora recorded in Gidgegannup and nearby. It also lists Endangered (E) and Vulnerable
(V) Threatened Flora recorded in the same area. These 48 are the principal species and other
taxa searched for in the proposed structure plan area comprising Lots 81, 99, 52, 51 and 50
Toodyay Road, Gidgegannup in November 2009. The proposed structure plan area is between
Reen Road (Wilson Street) and Reserve Road on the north side of The Spring Road and
The table also provides information about conservation codes, distributions, locality records,
information about habitat is at least indicative and should help in assessing how likely rare
flora is to occur in the search area.
The Table A1 basic list of taxa was compiled from the results of searches of three Western
Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts Protected Matters
databases. The three DEC databases are (1) Threatened (Declared Rare) Flora (Summary of
Threatened Flora Data) (DEFL), (2) WA Herbarium Specimen (WAHERB Specimen
Database General Enquiry) (WAHERB), and (3) Declared Rare and Priority Flora List
(Access database). The database searches were for Declared Rare, Priority and Threatened
Flora taxa recorded in a rectangle with latitudes and longitudes for the upper left and lower
right corners of 31
42’ S and 116
06’ E, and 31
55’ S and 116
20’ E, respectively, and, in
the case of the Access database, the search was for taxa with one or more of the names
Chidlow, Gidgegannup, Mt Helena, Mundaring, Parkerville, Sawyers Valley, Stoneville and
Wooroloo in their distributions.
The DEC databases were searched by an officer in the Species and Communities Branch, and
national environmental significance or other matters protected by the EPBC Act that have
been recorded in the same rectangle.
provided some information about conservation codes, localities and distributions, habitats and
flowering times. Much of the information in the last column of the table - on plant features,
form and habitats - came from FloraBase (2009) and Paczkowska and Chapman (2000).
Additional information in the table was obtained from examination of herbarium specimens
and their labels in the Western Australian Herbarium, consultations with other botanists, and
information in Atkins (2008), Brown et al. (2008), Brown et al. (1998), Hoffman and Brown
(1998), Marchant et al. (1987) and relevant parts of the Flora of Australia and How to Know
Conservation Codes Definitions
Department of Conservation and Land Management definitions of the Conservation Codes
(Atkins 2008) in Table A1 are:
The need for further survey of poorly known taxa is prioritised into the Priority 1, 2 and 3
those taxa, as indicated by the apparent degree of threat to the taxa based on current
The three Federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999
Taxon list from July 2007 and November 2009 DEC database search results and from EPBC protected matters search tool report November 2009
Divaricately branched, spinescent, glaucous leafless
shrub, 0.9–2.5 m high; fl. yl.
Sand, loam, clay loam. Granite outcrops, hills.
Forrest NP, Serpentine, Mt
Aug–Oct Shrub, 0.9–2.5 m high, 'minni-ritchi' bark, phyllodes
mostly 8-13 cm long, 1-2 mm wide; fl yellow.
Wagerup, Bridgetown (Winnejup)
Shrub 0.5-2.5 m tall; bark minni-ritchi; phylls narrow; fls yl.
Granitic soils, occasionally on laterite.
Bindoon, Muchea, Sawyers
fl white, cream, pink, green.
Grey sand, lateritic gravel.
Nambung, Cataby, Swan View
fl. wh, pnk, ppl. White/grey sand, sandy clay, gravelly
loam.; winter-wet areas, near swamps.
Mundaring Weir, Dandalup, John
Erect, spindly shrub, to 0.6(–1) m high; fl yl, green.
Sandy or loamy soils; granite outcrops.
165 Witchcliffe – Upper Swan,
whorled, sessile, ovate-cordate; flowers small, standard yellow.
Swamps; soil often peaty.
previously recorded near Kalgoorlie
but not in SW Botanical Province
Tree or shrub (large) 2–8 m high; fl. yellow.
Stony loam. Ironstone hills.
blue, pink, white. Laterite, stony soils, granite.
Gibson, Walpole, Bridgetown,
Pallinup River, Needilup
and sepals prominently clubbed.
Loam, gravel, laterite. Moist situations.
273 Red Hill, Gosnells, St Ronans
Gravelly skeletal soils, granite outcrops and rocks, hillsides.
066 Bindoon, Smiths Mill, York,
Sand, laterite, gravel.
Cyanicula ixioides subsp.
066 MWBeechina, Wooroloo,
Datatine, Perth, Toodyay,
Calingiri, Walpole, Gingin
Tuberous, perennial, herb, 0.05–0.15 m high; fl yellow.
Darlington, Red Hill
Erect shrub, 0.25–0.5(–1) m high; fl (fl bracts?) red,
pink, green. Loam, sandy loam; granite outcrops.
outlier in or near Gidgegannup
Glaucous shrub 0.5–1 m high; phyllodes simple, straight,
rigid, terete, pungent; fls burnt orange?, yl, red, pink.
Sandy lateritic soils. Undulating plains.
Gidgegannup, Swan View, JFNP,
Eucalypt woodlands on red-brown loam/sand over granite.
Nov-Dec A pygmy sundew.
Sand in wet depressions and swamp margins.
Eucalyptus loxophleba x
Mallee or tree, 4–20 m high, bark rough black-brown on trunk.
165 'Bindoon, Julimar, Gidgegannup,
brown sandy loam, red laterite soils.
Steep gullies, slopes, ridges, breakaways.
165 'Avon Valley National Park,
Red-brown clay, brown loam, gravel, laterite, granite.
Flats, slopes, hilltops, ridges, valleys, breakaways.
Grevillea curviloba subsp.
090 'Bullsbrook, Muchea
(Aug-)Oct Prostrate to erect shrub 0.1–2.5 m high; lvs usually divided,
with broad sinuses and the undersurface exposed; leaf lobes
usually obovate cuneate, sometimes linear, more than 1.5 mm
wide; fl. wh, cream. Grey sand; winter-wet heath.
090 Stoneville-Toodyay, Gidgegannup
Medium shrub; Low heath on granite sand and outcrops.
090 'Murray River, N Bannister, York,
Spreading, virgate shrub, 1–3(–5) m high, up to 3 m wide; lvs simple,
irregular. In gravelly soil, or sand, or clay; along creek beds.
= G. pimelioides
orange. Gravelly soils over granite; rocky hillsides.
Aug-Nov Erect shrub to 1 m tall; fls deep blue, purple.
Gravelly soils, soils over granite.
widespread and well-recorded in
SWA, JF and WAR Bioregions east
and south of Perth
0.6(–1) m high. Fl. blue, purple, violet.
Sandy soils, lateritic gravelly soils. Hillslopes, granite outcrops,
flats, ironstone ridges.
Boyagin Rock, Dryandra
large; fl. yellow. Loam over granite, lateritic soils, gravel.
Granite rocks, lateritic ridges & boulders, hills.
SEE Trithuria australis
52 'West Cape Howe, Porongurup
Black sand, sandy clay; creeks, seepage areas.
Glen Forrest –
Eucalypt forest, swamps, near river.
Chester Block, (Parkerville)
Rhizomatous, slender, tufted 0.15–0.25 m high.
Pinjarra, Upper Swan, Gingin,
Cooljarloo, (Woorooloo, Midland,
Byfields Mill), Mt Helena
Decumbent herb of clay seasonal wetlands.
N.R., Bindoon, Dardadine,
Lateritic or granitic soils.
Helena Valley, Dardanup,
Erect to scrambling perennial, herb, 0.5–1 m high; fl. white.
Gravelly or sandy loam; granite outcrops.
263 ‘Kalamunda, Waroona, Murray,
Lateritic soils. Similar to Lot 202 plant but head not nodding.
345 Bindoon, York,
Erect, slender perennial to 1.5 m, lvs deeply pinnatifid; fls yl.
Peaty sand. Swamps, slopes.
345 Swan View – Donnelly
Jarrah-marri forest, generally after fire
JFNP, Glen Forrest
182 Gidgegannup, Wooroloo, JFNP,
Eucalypt woodland on lateritic and granitic soils.
Glabrous (?) small shrub.
Tetratheca sp. Granite (S.
Bickley Brook, Kalamunda,
Lesmurdie, Helena Valley
Clay, moist loam, clayey sand. Granite boulders.
A Cinnamon Sun Orchid; tuberous, perennial, herb, to
0.8 m high; fls yellow.
Granitic wandoo open woodland, post-fire.
Dumbleyung, Corrigin, Hartfield Rd ,
Boonanaring, Bungendore, Shire Res
34155, Mts Peron, Lesueur
Oct–Dec Tuberous, perennial, herb, 0.15–0.25 m high; fl. yellow,
054F ‘John Forrest, Brookton Highway,
Oct–Dec Rhizomatous, lfless perennial herb to 0.4 m high; fl. ppl.
White or grey sand, lateritic gravel, laterite.
N of Gerldton
Aquatic or semi-aquatic. Similar to a Centrolepis.
273 Gidgegannup, Wooroloo,
Low gravelly damp area.
273 Gillingarra-Forrestdale, Gingin,
Erect, more or less open shrub to 75 cm tall; fls pink, ppl.
Sand, sandy clay, winter wet depressions.
Verticordia serrata var.
St Ronan's Well
Shrub to 1 m high, differs from other varieties in the linear
acuminate leaves 6-20 mm long; cilia to 1.2 mm long; fl glden.
White sand, gravel. Open woodland.
Threatened Flora. Column 6: Fam. – numbers used in Western Australian Herbarium for families; e.g. 066 is Orchidaceae, and 163 is Mimosaceae.
Leafless Rock Wattle
Grevillea curviloba subsp. curviloba
Zig Zag Grevillea
Species or species habitat known to occur within area
Species or species habitat likely to occur within area
Species or species habitat likely to occur within area
Note: The results of an internet search of the DEWHA Biodiversity Species Profile and Threats
Database for Thelymitra lists ‘Thelymitra manginii’ (as Endangered) but not the currently accepted
‘Thelymitra dedmaniarum’ (which is R), of which Thelymitra manginii is a synonym. Neither name is
in the DEWHA EPBC Act Protected Matters Report for a database search area defined by the
following pairs of coordinates of its corners -31.7,116.1, -31.7,116.3333, -31.91666,116.3333, -