(Hindi: Mooli) Family: Brassicaceae
Radish is grown for its tender tuberous roots which are eaten raw as salad or as cooked
curd for breakfast in north India. It has a cooling effect, prevents constipation and increases
appetite and is more nutritious when cooked with leaves. Young leaves are also cooked as
vegetable. It is recommended for patients suffering from piles, liver troubles, jaundice etc.
Juice of fresh leaves is sued as diuretic and laxative. Radish is a good source of vitamin-C and
Rat-tail radish (R. sativus var. caudatus), which is similar to common radish, is grown for
root as in radish.
Radish is originated in Europe and Asia. It is believed to have originated from Raphanus
Radish is an annual or biennial depending on the ecotype / cultivar. The rosette leaves
large rooted cultivars. Edible portion develops from both the primary root and hypocotyls.
Inflorescence is of racemose type with white flowers. Fruit is a siliqua. Seeds are yellowish
when mature and turn reddish brown with age. Radish is cross-pollinated due to sporophytic
self incompatibility. Pollination is by honey bees and flies. Stigma receptivity is maintained up
to opening of flower by collecting pollen grains of previously bagged flowers of the same plant.
Radish varieties vary in shape, sized and skin colour of roots and duration of cop. The
types and Indian types. Temperate types are of small size, with excellent quality and mainly
used for salad purpose. Tropical types are more pungent than temperate types and have large
90 cm length, 50-60 cm girth and weight up to 5-15 kg.
A brief description of improved varieties is given below:
Roots are pure white, pungent, 30-35 cm long, tapering
August to middle of October in North Indian Plains.
Suitable for sowing in hotter months, i.e., from March to
Plains; roots medium long, stumpy, pure white and medium
pungent; duration 40-45 days.
Roots mildly pungent, 30-35 cm long, white with green
Developed at IARI Regional Station, Katrain by
pungent and white with green shoulder; yield 15-30 t/ha in
60-65 days; suitable for sowing between October to
December in plains and September in hills.
Developed at PAU, Ludhiana; roots white, tapering, 30-40
Roots are long white and semi stumped. Suitable for
Developed at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana;
lower half, the most suitable for sowing from April to
Roots 22-23 cm long, white with green shoulder and
Roots long, marble white with mild pungency; resistant to
Roots milky white, 23 cm long and cylindrical; yield 9-10
t/ha in 45 days.
European varieties :
Developed at IARI Regional Station, Katrain; Roots white,
throughout the year except winter months in hills; yield 32
t/ha in 60-65 days.
Developed at IARI Regional Station, Katrain; roots pure
Roots bright red, round, small, flesh white, takes 25-30
Roots long, tapering with red skin and white flesh.
A selection made from Chetki population at IIVR, Varanasi;
yield 45 t/ha in 30-35 days.
Ideal temperature for growth and development of quality roots in radish is 10-15.5
should be harvested when roots are small and tender during hot periods.
Being a root crop, radish requires loose and friable soil, rich in organic matter.
In plains of North India, radish can be grown throughout the year. Since temperate
Tropical types are sown from middle of September onwards. If sowing is done later than
November, it bolts earlier.
Land is ploughed to a fine tilth and ridges of 25 cm height and furrows are prepared at
varieties. Indian tropical cultivars take longer time and grow larger. Distance between two rows
is kept at 45 cm and seeds are sown continuously on ridges. Later they are thinned to keep a
distance of 6-8 cm in a row. European types will be ready in 25-30 days and are sown at a
closer spacing of 5-10 cm x 3 cm. Accordingly, seed rate varies from 10.0 kg for large varieties
to 12.0 kg for temperate European types. For round cultivars, sow seeds on soil surface and
put a layer of soil above it. Seeds of large cultivars are sown 1.5-3.0 cm deep. Usually seeds
are sown in phased manner to get continuous supply of roots.
Hafeez and Hudson (1967) narrated beneficial effects of hardening radish seeds by
subjecting them to 2 cycles of wetting and drying in which they are allowed to absorb water
equivalent to 25% of weight and alter dried at 2.2
Radish requires plenty of water from sowing to harvest. For rapid germination and
sowing. If irrigation is restricted, roots will be tougher and pungent, making it unfit for marketing.
In radish, the epicotyl’s grows up and develops into root tubers. As it grows in size,
which will take care of weeds also.
Depending up on the cultivar, roots will be ready for harvest in 25-55 days after sowing.
irrigation is given before pulling out roots. After harvesting, roots are washed, made into
bundles and marketed along with a few leaves.
European varieties yield 5-7 t/ha while in Indian cultivars, it varies from 15-20 t/ha.
Roots can be stored for about 2 months at 0
C and 90-95% RH.
Seeds of European varieties an produced in hills and tropical types in plains. As it
provide isolation distance as in cabbage or cauliflower. Wild mustard, wild turnip and wild
radish should also be removed from field. Roots left in situ, without harvesting, produce
maximum quantity of seeds. One additional earthing up is required during flowering and fruiting
stages to prevent lodging of plants. For producing quality seeds, roots are pulled out and true-
to-type roots alone are replanted. Usual practice is to remove ½ to ¾ of lower root portion
before planting. However, it reduces yield considerably. Hence, replanting roots with minimum
injury is advisable for high yield. Seed yield varies from 600-800 kg/ha.
A few of the important diseases of radish are Alternaria blight, white rust and radish
Alternaria blight: It is caused by Alternaria rapham. Symptoms and control measures
already discussed under Cole-crops.
White rust (Albugo candida): It produces white powdery substance in patches on under-
deformed and produce malformed flowers. Use of resistant cultivars like Arka Nishant and
regular sprayings with mancozeb (0.2-0.3%) are recommended.
Among pests, aphids, (Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae) are the most serious
1. Chromosome number of radish is _____________
3. The mode of pollination for radish is _____________
4. Arka Nishant, a variety of radish is resistant to ___________
5. Among the following _____________is a short duration root crop