P. S. Green Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, tw9 3AB, England

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Found in disturbed sites and open rocky places.

N.Is.: Mt Bates, P.S.Green 1396 (A, K, NSW); s. loc., Oct.–Dec. 1849, C.J.Simmons (K).

tenuifolia(G.Forst.) Bernh. ex C.Presl
Tent. Pterid. 162(1836)

Lonchitis tenuifolia G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. 80 (1786).T: islands of the Pacific Ocean, G.Forster; lecto: BM, fide P.J.Brownsey & R.J.Chinnock, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 10: 5 (1987). The epithet comes from the Latin tenuis (fine, slender) and folium (a leaf), in allusion to the habit of the leaves.

Illustrations: P.J.Brownsey & R.J.Chinnock, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 10: 5, fig. 2D (1987); D.L.Jones, Encycl. Ferns 5 (1987); S.B.Andrews, Ferns Queensland 128, fig. 10.3B (1990).

Rhizome apex covered with pale brown hairs. Fronds: stipe 30–150 cm tall, with pale glandular and non-glandular hairs above when young; lamina 25–150 cm long, 25–120 cm broad, bipinnate at apex, becoming 4-pinnate towards base with hairs on undersurface fine and 0.1–1 mm long; rachis and its branches with soft, pale glandular and non-glandular hairs 0.1–1 mm long, above and below; primary pinnae subopposite, 15–80 cm long. Sori marginal, associated with ultimate segments, protected by broad, reflexed, ear-like, membranous marginal lobes of lamina; lobes 0.5–1.2 mm wide, sometimes bearing glandular hairs on outer surface.

Fig. 104C.v*****_f*****.jpg

Norfolk Is. Apparently rare, although much confused with H. dicksonioides. Also known from Qld and the Pacific islands, from Taiwan and Hainan, through the Philippines, Flores and New Guinea to New Caledonia, and as far as Mangareva and Pitcairn Is.

N.Is.: Ball Bay, W.R.Sykes NI 106 (CHR); s. loc., J.Backhouse 736 (BM).

elegansCarruth. in B.C.Seemann
Fl. Vit. 347(1873)

T: Fiji, W.G.Milne & J.MacGillivray; holo: BM. Named in allusion to the elegant appearance of the fronds in this fern.

Hypolepis sp.; A.N.Rodd & J.Pickard, Cunninghamia 1: 269 (1983).

[Davallia flaccida auct. non R.Br.: G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 7: 714, 717 (1878), p.p.]

[Hypolepis tenuifolia auct. non (G.Forst.) Bernh. ex C.Presl: G.Bentham, op. cit. 726, p.p.; W.R.B.Oliver, Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 49: 123 (1917)]

Illustrations: G.Brownlie, Pteridophyte Fl. Fiji 119, fig. 2 (1977); P.J.Brownsey & R.J.Chinnock, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 10: 5, fig. 2B, 20, fig. 9 (1987); P.G.Wilson in G.J.Harden, Fl. New South Wales 1: 46 (1990).

Rhizome apex minutely scurfy with pale brown hairs, or glabrous, not scaly. Fronds: stipe 30–50 cm tall, with pale, non-glandular hairs when young; lamina 50–100 cm or more long and wide, bipinnate at apex, becoming 4- or 5-pinnate towards base; rachis and its branches with stiff, slightly curved, pale, non-glandular hairs above and below; primary pinnae ±opposite, 15–40 cm long. Sori marginal, associated with ultimate segments, protected by ear-like, reflexed marginal lobes of lamina when young; lobes ±semicircular, c. 0.5 mm wide, membranous, glabrous.

Lord Howe Is. Common. Also known from eastern New Guinea to New Caledonia, and from Fiji, Samoa and Rapa, as well as eastern Australia.

Especially common in open areas.

L.H.Is.: Old Settlement Beach, J.C.Game 65/1/10 (BM, K, NSW); behind 'Mountain Inn', 1968, R.J.Chinnock (NSW); E slopes of Mt Lidgbird, P.S.Green 1693 (A, K, NSW).


PteridiumGled. ex Scop.
Fl. Carniol. 169(1760)
a diminutive of the Greek pteris (a fern)

Type: P. aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

Rhizome apex hairy. Fronds: stipe ±distant, erect, smooth; lamina medium to large, 3- or 4-pinnate, stiff, revolute along margins, with veins free. Sori marginal, linear; outer indusia formed from the reflexed margin; the inner indusia thin; paraphyses absent.

A cosmopolitan genus of c. 6 species, treated by some as a single variable species. One species native to Norfolk Is.

G.Bentham, Filices, Pteris, Fl. Austral. 7: 731–732 (1878); R.M.Tryon, A revision of the genus Pteridium, Rhodora 43: 1–31, 37–67 (1941), reprinted as Contr. Gray Herb. 134: 1–70 (1941); P.J.Brownsey, The taxonomy of Bracken (Pteridium: Dennstaedtiaceae) in Australia, Aust. Syst. Bot. 2: 113–128 (1989).

For information on a wide range of topics relating to the taxonomy and biology of Bracken in a worldwide sense, see Bot. J. Linn Soc. 73: 1–302 (1976).

esculentum(G.Forst.) Cockayne
Rep. Bot. Survey Tongariro Park 34(1908)

Pteris esculenta G.Forst., Pl. Esc. 74 (1786); Pteris aquilina var. esculenta (G.Forst.) Hook.f., Fl. Nov.-Zel. 2: 25 (1854); Pteridium aquilinum var. esculentum (G.Forst.) Kuhn, Chaetopt. 27 (1882).T: 'Society Islands' [probably New Zealand], J.R.Forster & G.Forster; lecto: BM n.v., fide P.J.Brownsey, op. cit. 119. The epithet comes from the Latin esculentus (edible), in allusion to the use of the rhizome as a source of starch when a 'starvation' food.

[Pteris aquilina auct. non L.: W.B.Hemsley, Ann. Bot. (London) 10: 276 (1896)]

[Pteridium aquilinum auct. non (L.) Kuhn: W.W.Watts, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 37: 396 (1913)]

Illustrations: D.L.Jones & S.C.Clemesha, Austral. Ferns & Fern Allies 2nd edn, 190, fig. 259a (1981); D.L.Jones, Encycl. Ferns 334 (1987); P.J.Brownsey & J.C.Smith-Dodsworth, New Zealand Ferns & Allied Pl. 105, fig. 127, t. 23F (1989).

Rhizome black, ±fleshy. Fronds 1–2 m or more tall, broadly triangular in outline, hard, coriaceous, often distant on rhizome; stipe erect; lamina 3 or 4-pinnate; rachis grooved above; ultimate segments of pinnae linear, decurrent; margins reflexed. Sori continuous around segments, even the decurrent base, protected by continuous indusium formed from margin.


Norfolk Is. Known also from Malesia to Australia, New Zealand, the Kermadec Is., New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji and Polynesia. Recorded from Lord Howe Is. (F.J.H. von Mueller, Fragm. 9: 75, 1875), and accepted for the Island by W.R.B.Oliver (Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 49: 124, 1917), but no authentic specimen has been seen; the record is doubted by A.N.Rodd & J.Pickard in their census (Cunninghamia 1: 278, 1983).

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