P. S. Green Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, tw9 3AB, England

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Found on rocky ledges etc. in the forest edges

L.H.Is.: lower slopes of Mt Eliza, P.S.Green 1579 (A, K); North Head, 1911, W.W.Watts (K); ridge of North Head, A.C.Beauglehole 5750 (CANB); loc. id, J.C.Game 1/13 (BM, K).

Enum. Pl. Javae 215(1828)

T: Java, C.L.Blume ?; holo: ?L n.v. The epithet comes from the Greek diaphanes (transparent), in allusion to the thin membranous leaves.

Adiantum setulosum J.Sm., Bot. Mag. 72: 22 (1846).T: cult. ex Norfolk Island; holo: ?BM n.v.

[Adiantum affine auct. non Willd.: S.F.L.Endlicher, Prodr. Fl. Norfolk. 14 (1833)]

Illustrations: D.L.Jones & S.C.Clemesha, Austral. Ferns & Fern Allies 2nd edn, 71, fig. 46 (1981); D.L.Jones, Encycl. Ferns 214, 215 (1987); S.B.Andrews, Ferns Queensland 11, fig. 1.1H, 15, fig. 1.2F (1990).

Rhizome, with brown scales at apex. Fronds ±clustered: stipes 5–10 cm tall, c. 1 mm diam., smooth, blackish; lamina bipinnate, 10–20 cm long, ±pendulous, delicate, dark green; pinnae 1–3 (–4), often subequal, 10–15 mm long; petiolules 0.5–2 mm long, attached at lower corner of pinnules; pinnules 20–40 per pinna, arranged in a close series on either side of the pinna rachis, dimidiate; upper margin crenulate; lower margin with 1–few, stiff, blackish setae, otherwise pinnae glabrous. Sori 5–10 per pinnule, in notches of upper and outer margins; 'indusium' reniform to almost circular.

Threefrond Maidenhair Fern.

Norfolk Is. Also known from southern China to Australia, Vanuatu, Fiji, New Zealand and the Kermadec Is.

Common on earthy banks in forest as, for example, in the National Park.

N.Is.: high grounds, s.loc., W.G.Milne 15 (K); Mt Bates, R.D.Hoogland 11246 (CANB, K); between Palm Glen and Red Rd, R.J.Chinnock 5965 (AD, K).

Kl. Linn. Pfl-Syst. 1: 108(1809)

T: New Zealand, J.R.Forster & G.Forster '259.458'; lecto: BM, fide B.S.Parris, New Zealand J. Bot. 18: 503 (1980). So named because of its pubescent pinnules.

[Adiantum hispidulum auct. non Sw.: W.J.Hooker, Sp. Fil. 2: 31 (1851), p.p.; G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 7: 725 (1878), p.p.; J.H.Maiden, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 28: 731 (1904); J.S.Turner et al., Conservation Norfolk Is. 29 (1968)]

Illustrations: B.S.Parris, New Zealand J. Bot. 18: 504, fig. 1 & 505, fig. 2 bottom left (1980); S.Frith et al., Ferns New Zealand 15, upper fig. (1986).

Rhizome erect; scales narrowly acute, dark brown. Fronds ±clustered; stipe (10–) 20–30 cm tall, 1–2 mm diam., rough (sometimes smooth on Lord Howe Is.), blackish; lamina strictly pedate at base, slightly coriaceous, dark green, with young fronds pinkish; pinnae 6–10 (–12), 5–20 cm long, graduated, with central pinnae longest; petiolules attached at lower corner of pinnules; lowest petiolule 1–2 mm long, upper pinnules sessile; pinnules 12–60 (–70) per pinna, arranged in a close series on either side of the pinna rachis, dimidiate, flabellate to somewhat rhomboid, upper margins ±serrate, surface (especially below) with numerous long, thin, pale, flexuous hairs. Sori 6–14 per pinnule, in small marginal notches below the upper and outer margins of the pinnules; 'indusium' dark brown, reniform-circular.

Rough Maidenhair Fern.

Fig. 104D–E.v*****_f*****.jpg

Norfolk Is., Lord Howe Is. Also known from New Zealand and the Kermadec Is. Its distribution elsewhere needs investigation.

Common on tracksides, open areas and forest banks.

N.Is.: Mt Bates, R.D.Hoogland 11248 (CANB); Anson Bay, P.S.Green 1871 (K); s. loc., A.Cunningham 43 (K). L.H.Is.: W face of Mt Lidgbird, P.S.Green 1646 (A, K); loc. id., J.C.Game 69/190 (K).

There has been much confusion of this species with Adiantum hispidulum. It was recently re-established as distinct by B.S.Parris, New Zealand J. Bot. 18: 503–506 (1980). While this book was in the final stages of preparation, M.F.Large & J.E.Braggins, New Zealand J. Bot. 31: 416 (1993), reduced the species to a variety of A. hispidulum, a view which has much to recommend it.

J. Bot. (Schrader) 1800(2):
82 (1802)

T: New South Wales, coll. not known; holo: ?S n.v. Named in reference to the slightly hispid stipes.

Illustrations: B.S.Parris, New Zealand J. Bot. 18: 504, fig. 1, 505, fig. 2 top (1980); S.Firth et al., Ferns New Zealand 15, lower fig. (1986); B.D.Duncan & G.Isaac, Ferns & Allied Pl. Victoria, Tasmania & S. Australia 140, fig. 13.9 (1986).

Description as for A. pubescens except that the stipes are consistently rough, the fronds not strictly pedate and the lamina below has short, ±rigid hairs, less than 0.5 mm long.

Maidenhair Fern.

Lord Howe Is. Also known from New Zealand (North Is.) and Australia. Its exact distribution needs investigation, see under Adiantum pubescens.

L.H.Is.: ridge between Old Settlement and North Bay, P.S.Green 1939 (K).

1Doubtful records

Adiantum formosum R.Br. was recorded from the 'Little Slope', Lord Howe Is., by J.H.Maiden (Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 45: 564, 1920) and there is a specimen merely labelled 'Lord Howe Island' (NSW P2501) in the National Herbarium of N.S.W. It has never been collected since and the record needs confirmation.

Adiantum fulvum Raoul was recorded from Norfolk Is. by W.J.Hooker (Syn. Fil. 120, 1868), presumably on the strength of a specimen at Kew simply labelled 'Norfolk Island' in Hooker's hand (and without any other annotation). This record has not been supported by any further collections and it must be assumed that the specimen was mislabelled.


Syn. Fil. 5: 126(1806)
from the Greek cheilos (a lip) and anthos (a flower), in allusion to the 'flower', or in this case sorus, being marginal in these ferns

Type: C. micropteris Sw.

Terrestrial or epiphytic ferns. Rhizome short, scaly. Fronds clustered; stipe erect, ±slender; lamina pinnatifid or 1–4-pinnate, usually glandular, scaly or hairy; pinnules less than 1 cm long; veins free or rarely anastomosing. Sori marginal, elongate or linear, spreading and ±joined laterally, protected by the reflexed, modified laminal margin.

A genus of nearly 200 species throughout the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Two species native to both islands.

G.Bentham, Filices, Cheilanthes, Fl. Austral. 7: 726–727 (1878); T.C.Chambers & P.A.Farrant, A re-examination of the genus Cheilanthes (Adiantaceae) in Australia, Telopea 4: 509–557 (1991).

Stipe and rachis glabrous or stipe with a few fine hairs and scales towards base

1. C. sieberi

Stipe and rachis ±densely scaly throughout

2. C. distans

sieberiKunze in J.G.C.Lehmann
Pl. Preiss. 2: 112(1847)

Cheilanthes tenuifolia var. sieberi (Kunze) Hook.f., Handb. New Zealand Fl. 362 (1867).T: Western Australia, J.A.L.Preiss 1304; lecto: BM, fide H.M.Quirk et al., Austral. J. Bot. 312: 517 (1983). Named after Franz Wilhelm Sieber (1789–1844), Bohemian botanist who collected in New South Wales in 1823.

[Cheilanthes tenuifolia auct. non (Burm.f.) Sw.: G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 7: 726 (1876), p.p.; F.J.H. von Mueller, J. Bot. 22: 290 (1884)]

[Cheilanthes humilis auct. non (G.Forst.) P.S.Green: P.S.Green, Kew Bull. 43: 653 (1988)]

Illustrations: H.M.Quirk et al., Austral. J. Bot. 31: 518 (1983); S.B.Andrews, Ferns Queensland 338, fig. 34.5A (1990); T.C.Chambers & P.A.Farrant, Telopea 4: 534, fig. 13g–h (1991).

Rhizome horizontal, shortly creeping. Fronds ±clustered; stipe stiff, wiry, grooved, glabrous or with a few fine hairs, especially towards the scaly base, chestnut-brown; lamina narrow, 10–20 (–30) cm tall, 1–2 cm broad, suboppositely 2- (to 3)-pinnate; pinnules deeply pinnatisect. Sori marginal, ±discrete to continuous, protected by inrolled margin of lamina.

Norfolk Is., Lord Howe Is. Rare on both islands and not collected recently on Norfolk Is. Also known from New Zealand, Australia (widespread) and New Caledonia.

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