Phalanx grevillea

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Robyn Phillimore and Andrew Brown 




Photograph: Anne Cochrane 

April 2000 


Department of Conservation and Land Management 

Western Australian Threatened Species and Communities Unit (WATSCU) 

PO Box 51, Wanneroo, WA 6946 






Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  




Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in Department of Conservation 

and Land Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos. 44 and 50. 


IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes most 

affecting the ongoing survival of threatened taxa or ecological communities, and begin the recovery process. 


CALM is committed to ensuring that CR taxa are conserved through the preparation and implementation of 

Recovery Plans or Interim Recovery Plans and by ensuring that conservation action commences as soon as 

possible and always within one year of endorsement of that rank by the Minister.  


This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from April 2000 to March 2003 but will remain in force until 

withdrawn or replaced. It is intended that, if the taxon is still ranked CR, this IRP will be replaced by a full 

Recovery Plan after three years.



This IRP was approved by the Director of Nature Conservation on 20 August 2000. The provision of funds 

identified in this Interim Recovery Plan is dependent on budgetary and other constraints affecting CALM, as 

well as the need to address other priorities. 


Information in this IRP was accurate at April 2000. 




Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  




Scientific Name: 

Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides


Common Name: Phalanx grevillea 

Family: Proteaceae 

CALM Region: Wheatbelt 

Shire: Wongan- Ballidu 

Flowering Period: September to March  

CALM District: Merredin 

Recovery Team: Merredin District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (MDTFRT) 


Illustrations and/or further information: Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds) (1998). 

Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; 

Olde, P.M. and Marriott, N.R. (1993). New species and taxonomic changes in Grevillea  (Proteaceae: 

Grevilleoideae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia: 9 (2) 237-304; Olde, P.M. and Marriott, N.R. 

(1995). The Grevillea Book Volume 2, Kangaroo Press Ltd, New South Wales. 


Current status: Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides was declared as Rare Flora in October 1996 and 

was ranked as Critically Endangered (CR) in February 1997. It currently meets World Conservation Union 

(IUCN) Red List Category ‘CR’ under criteria B1+2b,c,d,e and C1 (IUCN 1994), due to there being just five 

small highly fragmented populations, a decline in the area of occupancy and the quality of its habitat (mainly on 

disturbed road and rail reserves), and a continuing decline in the number of individual plants. The main threats 

include weeds, accidental destruction through road and rail maintenance and recreational activities, fire and 

competition from associated native plant species. 


Habitat requirements: Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides is endemic to Western Australia where it is 

apparently confined to the Ballidu area. It is known from five populations containing 115 plants in open heath 

on grey sandy loam and yellow gravelly sand, with shrubs of Allocasuarina and Melaleuca


Critical habitat: The critical habitat for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides comprises the area of 

occupancy of the known populations; areas with open heath on grey sandy loam and yellow gravelly sand, with 

shrubs of Allocasuarina and Melaleuca within 200 metres of known populations; corridors of remnant 

vegetation that link populations; additional areas with open heath on grey sandy loam and yellow gravelly sand, 

with shrubs of Allocasuarina and Melaleuca and that do not currently contain the subspecies. 


Existing Recovery Actions: The following recovery actions have been or are currently being implemented: 



Appropriate land managers have been informed of the subspecies’ location and their legal obligations. 



Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at populations 2 and 4, and subpopulations 1a, 1b, 

3a and 5a. 



Dashboard stickers and posters that illustrate DRF markers and describing their purpose have been produced 

and distributed. 



A poster that provides a description of the subspecies and information about threats and recovery actions 

has been developed. 



A reply paid postal drop describing the subspecies and its habitat has also been developed and distributed to 

local farmers and residents in the Wongan-Ballidu Shire.  



Subpopulations 1b and 3b have been fenced. 



Seed and cutting material was collected in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 by CALM’s Threatened Flora Seed 

Centre and Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA). 



Smoke trials were undertaken by BGPA in 1995. 



The Merredin District Threatened Flora Recovery Team is overseeing the implementation of this IRP. 



CALM staff from the Merredin District Office regularly monitor the populations. 


IRP Objective: The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan (IRP) is to abate identified threats and maintain 

and/or enhance in situ populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the taxon in the wild. 





Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  


Recovery Criteria 

Criterion for success: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have 


Criterion for failure: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have 



Recovery actions 



Coordinate recovery actions. 



Collect seed and cutting material. 



Install Declared Rare Flora markers. 



Obtain biological and ecological information. 



Undertake weed control. 



Propagate plants for translocation. 



Liaise with land managers. 



Undertake and monitor translocation. 



Conduct further surveys. 



Promote awareness. 



Monitor populations. 



Write full RP. 



Develop and implement a fire strategy. 








The genus Grevillea is named in honour of Charles Greville, a past Vice President of the Royal Society who 

introduced and cultivated many Australian plants in England. Some 340 species are known, most of which 

occur in Australia with some 150 found in the South-western Botanical Province of Western Australia. Here, 

they are concentrated on the sandheaths and lateritic rises of the kwongan, often in association with granite 

outcrops (Olde and Marriott, 1994).  


Based on the persistence of foliar indumentum, leaf lobe length, conflorescence and pistil length, 

Grevillea dryandroides has been split into two subspecies (Olde and Marriott, 1993). G.  dryandroides 

subsp. dryandroides differs from the subspecies hirsutus in having smooth leaves with lobes that are less 

than 12 millimetres long. 


W.E. Blackall made the first collection of Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides from the Pithara area in 

1931. Further collections were made from Ballidu, Pithara and Wubin between 1934 and 1996. Despite recent 

surveys in these areas only five populations are currently known from a single area near Ballidu. 


Most  Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides populations are located on road and rail reserves and are 

therefore particularly vulnerable to maintenance such as firebreak grading, cable installation, weedicide 

application and tourist visitation.  


Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides was declared as Rare Flora in October 1996 and was ranked as 

Critically Endangered (CR) in February 1997. It currently meets World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List 

Category ‘CR’ under criteria B1+2b,c,d,e and C1 (IUCN 1994), due to there being just five small highly 

fragmented populations, a decline in the area of occupancy and the quality of its habitat (mainly on disturbed 

road and rail reserves), and a continuing decline in the number of individual plants. 




Grevillea  dryandroides subsp. dryandroides is a root suckering shrub to 50 centimetres tall. It usually forms 

colonies of less than five plants or is scattered singly amongst associated vegetation. The leaves are dull, 

yellow-green, each with leaf lobes 5 to 15 millimetres long. The inflorescence is 3 to 4 centimetres long, and 

pedicles are 1 to 1.5 millimetres long. Individual flowers are pink to orange-pink with a grey-green limb. The 

style is red or pink with a green tip. The perianth is 6 to7 millimetres long and the pistil 17 to 18 millimetres 

long (Olde and Marriott, 1993). Flowers occur from September to March (Brown et al., 1998). 





Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  


Distribution and habitat 


Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides is endemic to Western Australia where it is apparently confined to 

the Ballidu area. It is known from five populations that include 115 plants. 


Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides is found in open heath on grey sandy loam and yellow gravelly 

sand, with shrubs of Allocasuarina and Melaleuca. Associated species include Acacia resinimargineaAcacia 

yorkrakinensis subsp. acrita,  Acacia sessilispica,  Dampiera lavandulacea,  Calytrix breviseta subsp. stipulosa

Chorizema rhynchotropisOpercularia spermacoceaMelaleuca cordataWaitzia acuminataHakea scoparia

Allocasuarina campestrisStylidium sp., Conospermum stoechadis subsp. ?sclerophyllumSynaphea sp., Hakea 

meisneriana,  Glischrocaryon aureum var. aureum,  Jacksonia sp., Melaleuca conothamnoides,  Verticordia 

chrysantha,  Petrophile incurvata,  Melaleuca uncinata,  Melaleuca orbicularis,  Verticordia sp., Hibbertia 

huegelii, and Thryptomene sp. 


Critical Habitat 


Critical habitat is habitat identified as being critical to the survival of a listed threatened species or listed 

threatened ecological community. Habitat is defined as the biophysical medium or media (a) occupied 

(continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism or group of organisms; or (b) once occupied 

(continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism, or group of organisms, and into which organisms 

of that kind that the potential to be reintroduced. (sections 207A and 528 of Commonwealth Environment 

Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act)). 


The critical habitat for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides comprises: 


the area of occupancy of the known populations, 


areas of similar habitat ie. open heath on grey sandy loam and yellow gravelly sand, with shrubs of 

Allocasuarina and Melaleuca, within 200 metres of known populations (these provide potential habitat for 

natural range extension), 


corridors of remnant vegetation that link populations (these are necessary to allow pollinators to move 

between populations and are usually road and rail verges), 


additional occurrences of similar habitat ie. open heath on grey sandy loam and yellow gravelly sand, with 

shrubs of Allocasuarina and Melaleuca (this represent possible translocation sites). 


Biology and ecology 


It is known that the subspecies is pollinated by birds and regenerates from seed or suckers after fire or 

disturbance (Olde and Marriott, 1995). Smoke trials undertaken by the Botanic Parks and Gardens Authority 

(BGPA) in 1995 on two adult plants supports this hypothesis, with up to 60 seedlings germinating in a 15 metre 

radius around the plants. Otherwise the biology and ecology of Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides is 

poorly known. 


Some minor seed predation has been observed but not enough to prevent a large amount being stored in the soil.  




The main threats include weeds, accidental destruction through road and rail maintenance and recreational 

activities, fire and competition from an associated native plant species.  



Weed  invasion is a threat to all populations. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil 

moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to their 

high fuel loads. Narrow, linear populations, such as road and rail reserves, are severely affected by weed 

seed blown in from adjacent cleared land (Lynch 1987; Saunders et al. 1987; Taylor 1987). 



Road and track maintenance threatens population 2 and subpopulations 1a, 1b, 3a, 3c, 5a and 5b. Threats 

include maintenance of telephone cables located underneath subpopulation 3a, grading of road reserves, 

spraying of chemicals, construction of drainage channels and mowing of roadside vegetation. These events 

often encourage weed invasion as well as causing damage to actual plants. Relevant authorities need to be 




Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  


informed of the location of populations so that appropriate protective measures can be implemented. 

Adjacent landowners should also be informed to prevent possible damage due to grazing, crop maintenance, 

firebreak maintenance or other activities that may threaten the populations.  



Lack of population recruitment has been observed at all populations. Possible causes include seed and/or 

seedling predation and a lack of disturbance events to stimulate germination.  



Human activities threaten subpopulation 3b and population 4, both of which are located in Shire reserves. 

Threats include trampling by people, accidental mowing and construction of new graves.  



Inappropriate fire regimes may affect the viability of plants. Seed of Grevillea dryandroides subsp. 

dryandroides probably germinates following fire and occasional fires are needed for recruitment. No natural 

fire has occurred in the area of the populations in recent times. Too frequent fire may rapidly deplete the soil 

seed bank if it occurs before plants have reached maturity. It could also deplete nutrients stored in the roots 

and so affect the plants' capacity to resprout. Further investigation is required and will be addressed in 

management action 9.  



Competition from a local dodder species (Cuscuta sp.) is a threat to subpopulations 1b and 5b, as the vine 

covers many adult plants. Dodder not only competes for light, nutrients and possibly pollinators but also 

physically restricts the host, therefore posing an immediate threat to the longevity of individual plants.  


Summary of population information and threats 


Pop. No. and Location 

Land Status 

Year/No. plants 



1a. Ballidu 

MRWA road 


1991 9 

1998 4 


Road maintenance, weed invasion 

1b. Ballidu 

Westrail reserve 

1991 18 

1995 40 

1999 26 


Rail maintenance, weed invasion, 

dodder infestation 

2. Ballidu 

Shire road 


1980 36 

1999 5 


Weed invasion, road maintenance  

3a. Ballidu 

MRWA road 


1988 62 

1999 20+ 


Road maintenance, weed invasion, 

cable maintenance 

3b. Ballidu 

Shire Reserve 


1999 1 


Weed invasion, trampling, 

mowing, poor habitat 

3c. Ballidu 

Westrail reserve 



Rail maintenance, weed invasion 

4. Ballidu 

Shire Reserve 


1999 9 

Moderate Trampling, 



weed invasion 

5a. Ballidu 

MRWA road 


1995 3 

1999 45* 


Weed invasion, road maintenance  

5b. Ballidu 

Westrail reserve 




Rail maintenance, weed invasion, 

dodder infestation 

*Total for both subpopulations combined. 


Guide for decision-makers 


Section 1 provides details of current and possible future threats. Developments in the immediate vicinity of any 

of the populations or within the defined critical habitat of Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides require 

assessment. No developments should be approved unless the proponents can demonstrate that they will have no 

significant impact on the subspecies, and its habitat or potential habitat. 







The objective of this IRP is to abate identified threats and maintain and/or enhance in situ populations to ensure 

the long-term preservation of the taxon in the wild. 





Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  


Criterion for success: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have 


Criterion for failure: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have 






Existing recovery actions 


Local Shires and private property owners have been formally notified of the presence of populations of 

Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides on their lands. Notifications detail the Declared Rare status of the 

taxon and the associated legal responsibilities.  


Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at populations 2 and 4, and subpopulations 1a, 1b, 3a 

and 5a. DRF markers alert people working in the area of the presence of threatened flora, and help prevent 

accidental damage. An increased awareness of these markers is being promoted to relevant land managers such 

as local authorities. Dashboard stickers and posters have been produced and distributed. These illustrate DRF 

markers, inform of their purpose and provide a contact telephone number to use if such a marker is encountered. 


An A4 sized poster, which provides a description of the subspecies, and information about threats and recovery 

actions, has been developed for Grevillea dryandroides subsp.  dryandroides. It is hoped that the poster will 

result in the discovery of new populations. 


A reply paid postal drop illustrating Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides and describing its distinctive 

features and habitat has been distributed by CALM’s Merredin District office to local farmers and residents in 

the Wongan-Ballidu Shire. Postal drops aim to provide information about threatened species and a contact name 

and number. It is hoped that by targeting residents of specific areas new populations will be located.  


Subpopulation 1b was fenced following the destruction of ten plants during firebreak grading and weedicide 

activities in 1991. Subpopulation 3b was fenced in 1999 to reduce the risk of plants being trampled. 


Seed was collected from populations 1 and 5 in November 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 and stored in CALM’s 

Threatened Flora Seed Centre. A total of 604 seeds have been collected from approximately 20 plants and these 

are being stored at -18

C. The initial germination rate of Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides seed was 

found to range between 40 and 100%. A sample germinated after one year in storage gave an 80% germination 



Eighteen cuttings were collected by staff from the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) in 1994 and a 

further ten in 1997. The success rate of these cuttings has been low with only six plants from the first batch and 

one plant from the second batch surviving. Material was also collected by BGPA for tissue culture in 1997. The 

TFSC propagated six seedlings in 1997, with three still alive. 


Thirty  Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides cuttings were taken in 1999 and are currently being 

propagated at BGPA for a potential translocation. 


Smoke trials undertaken by BGPA in 1995, on two adult Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides plants 

resulted in 50 to 60 seedlings germinating in a 15 metre radius around the plants. 


The Merredin District Threatened Flora Recovery Team is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will 

include information on progress in annual reports to CALM’s Corporate Executive and funding bodies. 


CALM’s Merredin District Office staff regularly monitor all populations. 


Future recovery actions 


Where recovery actions are implemented on lands other than those managed by CALM, permission has been or 

will be sought from the appropriate land managers prior to actions being undertaken.  




Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  





Co-ordinate recovery actions 


The MDTFRT oversees the implementation of recovery actions for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides 

and will include information on progress in its annual report to CALM's Corporate Executive and funding 




Coordinate recovery actions 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$300 per year. 



Install Declared Rare Flora markers 


Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers are required at subpopulations 3c and 5b. 



Install Declared Rare Flora markers at subpopulations 3c and 5b. 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$600 in first year. 



Undertake weed control 


Weeds are a threat to all populations and effective control with the use of herbicides and hand pulling is 

required. The following actions will be implemented: 




Appropriate herbicides will be selected after determining which weeds are present. 



Invasive weeds will be controlled by hand removal or spot spraying. 



Dodder infestations will be controlled by hand removal when deemed necessary. 



Weed control will be scheduled to include spraying at other threatened flora populations within the Merredin 



The tolerance of associated native plant species to herbicides at the site of Grevillea dryandroides subsp. 

dryandroides  is not known and weed control programs will be undertaken in conjunction with research (see 

Recovery Action 9).  



Undertake weed control  


CALM (Merredin District, CALMScience) through the MDTFRT 


$1,100 per year. 



Liaise with land managers 


Staff from CALM's Merredin District will continue to liaise with Westrail, Main Roads WA, the Shire and 

adjacent landowners to ensure that populations are not damaged or destroyed accidentally. 



Liaise with land managers 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$700 per year. 



Conduct further surveys 


Further surveys, supervised by CALM staff and with assistance from local naturalists and wildflower society 

members, will be conducted during the subspecies’ flowering period (September to October, February to 

March). Likely survey sites will include the Wubin and Pithara areas where historical collections of the 

subspecies were made.  



Conduct further surveys 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 

Cost: $2,100 






Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  



6. Monitor 



Monitoring of factors such as weed invasion, habitat degradation, salinity levels and population stability 

(expansion or decline), pollinator activity, seed production, recruitment from seedlings and the plant’s longevity 

is essential. All populations will be inspected annually. 



Monitor populations 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$900 per year. 



Develop and implement a fire management strategy 


Frequent fire may prevent the accumulation of sufficient soil stored seed to allow regeneration. Fire should 

therefore be excluded from the area at least in the short term. A fire management strategy will be developed to 

determine fire control measures and an appropriate fire frequency. 



Develop and implement a fire management strategy 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$2,300 in first year, and $1,000 in subsequent years. 



Collect seed and cutting material 


A small quantity of seed has been collected from populations 1 and 5. Additional seed will be collected as 

required. Cuttings will also be collected to add to the living collection of genetic material at the BGPA. 



Collect seed and cutting material 


CALM (Merredin District, TFSC) and BGPA, through the MDTFRT 


$3,000 per year. 



Obtain biological and ecological information 


Increased knowledge of the biology and ecology of the subspecies will provide a scientific basis for 

management of Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides in the wild. Investigations will include: 




Study of the soil seed bank dynamics and the role of various factors including disturbance, competition, 

rainfall and grazing on recruitment and seedling survival. 



Determination of the plant’s reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth. 



Investigation of the plant’s mating system and pollination biology. 



Investigation of population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size. 



The impact of increased salinity levels on the habitat. 



Obtain biological and ecological information 


CALM (CALMScience, Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$15,900 per year. 



Propagate plants for translocation 


The propagation of plants in readiness for translocation is essential as all known wild populations of Grevillea 

dryandroides subsp. dryandroides are under threat. A total of 604 seeds and 30 cuttings were taken in 1999 and 

are currently being germinated and propagated at BGPA for planting in June 2000. 



Propagate plants for translocation 


CALM (Merredin District) and BGPA through the MDTFRT 


$2,100 for first and second years. 





Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  



Undertake and monitor translocation 


Although translocations are generally undertaken under full RPs, the many threats to wild populations of this 

CR subspecies require the development of an urgent translocation proposal within the time frame of this IRP. 

This will be coordinated by the MDTFRT. A translocation proposal has been approved for this subspecies. 


A translocation site has been selected which contains healthy remnant vegetation, is relatively free of weeds, 

and contains a similar soil type, associated vegetation and structure to that of the known populations. The site is 

also adjacent to Population 2, therefore the translocation can be considered a restocking under the definitions 

provided by Policy Statement 29 and the guidelines for translocation of threatened plants in Australia. An 

irrigation system will be set up during planting out of seedlings. Monitoring of the translocation is essential and 

will occur during the flowering period of the subspecies. 



Undertake and monitor translocation 


CALM (CALMScience, Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$11,500 in first year, and $5,600 in subsequent years. 


12. Promote 



The importance of biodiversity conservation and the protection of the CR Grevillea dryandroides subsp. 

dryandroides will be promoted to the public. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals 

will also be implemented.  


Action: Promote 



CALM (Merredin District, Corporate Relations) through the MDTFRT 


$600 per year. 



Write a full Recovery Plan 


At the end of the three year term of this IRP, the need for further recovery will be assessed. If the subspecies is 

still ranked CR a full RP will be developed. A RP will be prepared with the benefit of knowledge gained over 

the time frame of this IRP. 



Write a full Recovery Plan 


CALM (WATSCU, Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$16,500 in third year. 


4. TERM 




This IRP will operate from April 2000 to March 2003 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. It is 

intended that, if the taxon is still ranked CR, this IRP will be replaced by a full RP after three years. 




The following people have provided assistance and advice in the preparation of this IRP: 


Alex Agafonoff 

Former Conservation Officer, CALM Merredin District 

Paul Armstrong 

Student, Curtin University 

Brett Beecham 

Regional Ecologist, CALM Wheatbelt Region 

Dave Coates 

Principal Research Scientist, CALM W.A. Herbarium 

Anne Cochrane 

Manager, CALM Threatened Flora Seed Centre 

Val English 

Ecologist, CALM W.A. Threatened Species and Communities Unit 

Rebecca Evans 

Former Project Officer, CALM W.A. Threatened Species and Communities Unit 

Mike Fitzgerald 

Project Officer, CALM Merredin District 

Nigel Goode 

Works Manager, Wongan-Ballidu Shire 

Sophie Juszkiewicz 

Propagator, Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority 

Leonie Monks 

Research Scientist, CALMScience 




Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  


Paul Roberts 

District Manager, CALM Merredin District 

Amanda Shade 

Horticulturalist, Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority 

Gillian Stack 

Former Project Officer, CALM W.A. Threatened Species and Communities Unit 


We would like to thank the staff of the W.A. Herbarium for providing access to Herbarium databases and 

specimen information, and CALM's Wildlife Branch for their extensive assistance. 




Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998). Western Australia’s Threatened Flora

Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

CALM (1992). Policy Statement No. 44 Wildlife Management Programs. Department of Conservation and 

Land Management, Western Australia. 

CALM (1994). Policy Statement No. 50 Setting Priorities for the Conservation of Western Australia’s 

Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

CALM (1995). Policy Statement No. 29 Translocation of Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

Guidelines for the Translocation of Threatened Australian Plants. (1997) The Australian Network for Plant 

Conservation Working Group. Canberra, Australia. 

Lynch, J.F. (1987). Responses of breeding bird communities to forest fragmentation. Pp 123-40 in Nature 

Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation. D. A. Saunders, G.W. Arnold, A.A. Burbidge 

and A.J.M. Hopkins (eds). Surrey Beatty and Sons, N. S. W.  

Olde, P.M. and Marriott, N.R. (1993). New species and taxonomic changes in Grevillea (Proteaceae: 

Grevilleoideae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 9 (2): 237-304. 

Olde, P.M. and Marriott, N.R. (1994). The Grevillea Book Volume 1, Kangaroo Press Ltd, New South Wales. 

Olde, P.M. and Marriott, N.R. (1995). The Grevillea Book Volume 2, Kangaroo Press Ltd, New South Wales. 

Panetta, F. D. and Hopkins, A.J.M. (1991). Weeds in Corridors: Invasion and Management. Pp 341-51 in 

Nature Conservation 2: The Role of Corridors. D. A. Saunders and R. J. Hobbs (eds). Surrey Beatty and 

Sons, N. S. W. 

Saunders, D. A., Arnold, G.W., Burbidge, A.A. and Hopkins, A.J.M. (1987). The role of remnants of native 

vegetation in nature conservation: future directions. Pp 387-92 in Nature Conservation: The Role of 

Remnants of Native Vegetation. D. A. Saunders, G.W. Arnold, A.A. Burbidge and A.J.M. Hopkins (eds). 

Surrey Beatty and Sons, N. S. W.  

Taylor, S.G. (1987). Conservation strategies for human dominated landscapes: the South Australian example. 

Pp 313-22 in Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation. D. A. Saunders, G.W. 

Arnold, A.A. Burbidge and A.J.M. Hopkins (eds). Surrey Beatty and Sons, N. S. W.  

Western Australian Herbarium (1998). FloraBase - Information on the Western Australian Flora. Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.  

World Conservation Union (1994). IUCN red list categories prepared by the IUCN Species Survival 

Commission, as approved by the 40th meeting of the IUCN Council. Gland, Switzerland. 





Olde, P.M. and Marriott, N.R. (1993). New species and taxonomic changes in Grevillea (Proteaceae: 

Grevilleoideae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 9 (2): 237-304. 


Grevillea dryandroides 


Tufty, root-suckering shrub 10 -50 cm high with leafless peduncles trailing up to 1 m from the foliage; 

branchlets angular, villous. Leaves 5 - 20 cm long, ascending, shortly petiolate, subpinnatisect, secund; leaf 

rachis straight, incurved or recurved; leaf lobes 5 - 35 mm long, 1.2-2.5 mm wide, linear, closely aligned, the 

apex uncinate; upper surface glabrous to villous, the midvein evident; margin angularly to smoothly refracted; 

lower surface binucleate, the lamina obscured or almost so by the margins, villous on the grooves, the midvein 

prominent. Conflorescences erect on trailing peduncles, terminal, usually branched, sometimes simple; unit 

conflorescence 3-10 cm long, conico- to oblong- secund, dense; peduncles sparsely to densely sericeous to 

appressed- villous; floral rachis sericeous; floral bracts 1-2 mm long, ovate - acuminate, some usually at 

anthesis. Flowers: pedicels 1-2 mm long, sericeous; torus 1-1.5 mm across, oblique to almost straight; perianth 




Interim Recovery Plan for Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides  




6-8 mm long, pink to purplish - red, ovoid-sigmoid, sericeous to tomentose outside, glabrous inside’ limb green, 

revolute, ellipsoid; pistil 17-23 mm long; stipe 0.5-1.5 mm long; ovary appressed-villous; style red, straight, 

sparely villous becoming glabrous near the style - end; pollen presenter straight, erect, very narrowly elongate- 

conical, the base slightly bulbous. Fruits 14-16.5 mm long, 8.5 mm wide, oblique, oblong to ellipsoid; pericarp 

0.5 mm thick throughout. Seed 7 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, oblong-ellipsoid; outer face convex, rugulose; inner 

face flat, channelled around the margin: margin recurved with a papery or waxy border.  




Two subspecies are here recognised based on the persistence of foliar indumentum, leaf lobe length, 

conflorescence and pistil length. 


Key to subspecies of Grevillea dryandroides 



 Most leaf lobe <10 mm long, glabrescent; pistil 17 mm long; ovarian stipe < 1 mm long  .............................  

..................................................................................................  Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides 



 Most leaf lobe >12 mm long, persistently hairy; pistil 19-23 mm long; ovarian stipe 1-1.5 mm long  ...........  

............................................................................................................  Grevillea dryandroides subsp. hirsuta 


Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides 


A lightly root-suckering shrub 10-50 cm high, usually forming colonies of <5 plants or scattered singly among 

the vegetation; leaves dull, yellow-green; leaf rachis glabrous; leaf lobes 5-10 (15) mm long, glabrescent; unit 

conflorescence 3-4 cm long, oblong-secund; pedicels 1-1.5 mm long; torus oblique at c. 30

; perianth 6-7 mm 

long; pistil 17 mm long; ovarian stipe 0.5-0.7 mm long.  


Document Outline

    • History
      • Description
        • Distribution and habitat
    • Critical Habitat
      • Biology and ecology
        • Summary of population information and threats
        • Pop. No. and Location
    • Land Status
    • Condition
    • Threats
      • 1a. Ballidu
      • 1b. Ballidu
      • 2. Ballidu
      • 3a. Ballidu
      • Guide for decision-makers
        • Objective
        • Existing recovery actions
        • Future recovery actions
        • 1. Co-ordinate recovery actions
        • 3. Undertake weed control
        • Cost:  $1,100 per year.
        • 4. Liaise with land managers
        • 5. Conduct further surveys
        • 6. Monitor populations
        • 7. Develop and implement a fire management strategy
        • 8. Collect seed and cutting material
        • 9. Obtain biological and ecological information
        • 12. Promote awareness
        • 13. Write a full Recovery Plan
        • 4. TERM OF PLAN
        • 6. REFERENCES
      • Grevillea dryandroides
      • Key to subspecies of Grevillea dryandroides
      • Grevillea dryandroides subsp. dryandroides

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