Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System Interim Recovery Plan

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Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System 


Interim Recovery Plan 






Sheila Hamilton-Brown 





Photograph: Robert Gomer  


2 November 2000 


Department of Conservation and Land Management  

Western Australian Threatened Species and Communities Unit 

PO Box 51, Wanneroo, WA 6946 





Department of Conservation and Land 



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 



Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in Department of 

Conservation and Land Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos 44 and 50 


IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes 

most affecting the ongoing survival of threatened taxa or ecological communities, and begin the 

recovery process. 


CALM is committed to ensuring that Critically Endangered, and where appropriate and feasible, other 

threatened ecological communities are conserved through the preparation and implementation of 

Recovery Plans or Interim Recovery Plans. CALM will also ensure that conservation action 

commences as soon as possible and always within three years of endorsement of Vulnerable rank by 

CALM's Director of Nature Conservation. 


This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from 2 November 2000 but will remain in force until 

withdrawn or replaced. 


The provision of funds identified in this Interim Recovery Plan is dependent on budgetary and other 

constraints affecting CALM, as well as the need to address other priorities. 


Information in this IRP was accurate at 31 October 2000. 



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 




 Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System. 


Description:  Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System (Beard 1976) covering the outcrop of the 

Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks as expressed in the Billeranga Hills. The plant assemblage 

comprises Melaleuca filifolia – Allocasuarina campestris thicket on clay sands over laterite on slopes 

and ridges; open mallee over mixed scrub on yellow sand over gravel on slopes; Eucalyptus 

loxophleba woodland over sandy clay loam or rocky clay on lower slopes and creeklines; and mixed 

scrub or scrub dominated by Dodonaea inaequifolia over red/brown loamy soils on the slopes and 

ridges of the southern hills. 


IBRA Bioregion: Geraldton Sandplains 


CALM Region: Midwest Region 


CALM District: Geraldton 


Shire: Morawa 


Recovery Team: Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team 


Current status: Assessed by the TEC Scientific Advisory Committee on 29 October 1999 as 

Vulnerable. The ranking was endorsed by CALM's Director of Nature Conservation on 24 November 



Critical Habitat: The area of occupancy of the occurrences corresponding to the outcrop of the 

Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks (Beard 1976).  


IRP Objective(s): To maintain the overall health of the community and reduce the level of threat to 

ensure the community does not move to the Endangered category. 


Criteria for success: Maintenance of the diversity and composition of the native species in the 

community and of the full range of its occurrences. 


Criteria for failure: An increased level of modification of occurrences of the community as measured 

by a decline in the diversity and composition of the native species. 


Summary of Recovery Actions  


1.  Form a Recovery Team  

2.  Map the components of the community 

3.  Fence occurrences where appropriate 

4.  Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community 

5.  Design and implement a program for flora monitoring 

6.  Liaise with current owners, land managers and other interested groups 

7.  Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives and mechanisms for conserving the 


8.  Design and implement weed control strategy 

9.  Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 

10.  Acquire occurrences for the conservation estate 




Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 


History, defining characteristics of ecological community, and conservation significance 

A ‘System’ is a specific series of plant communities recurring in a catenary sequence or mosaic pattern 

linked to topographic, pedological and/or geological features. The Billeranga System has a distinctive 

geology, topography and vegetation, different from that of any other comparable system (Beard 1976). 

It covers the outcrop of the Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks as expressed in the Billeranga Hills 

comprising sandstone, acid lavas, chert, siltstone and shale (Baxter and Lipple 1985). The lower 

portion of the hills consist of Archaean Gneiss which was incised by river action in mid-Proterozoic 

times to produce river channels. The channels were in-filled by Proterozoic Neereeno Sandstone 

which was later on buried by andestic lava flows (Morawa Lavas). The Billeranga Hills are therefore a 

very ancient buried landscape (Register of the National Estate 2000).  


It is estimated that the original area of the Billeranga system was 3 250 ha, of which 1 897 ha remains. 

This represents a loss of 58% (mostly from the lower lying areas) of the area of a plant community 

that was originally restricted in distribution. Another 1 000 ha (52%) of the remaining vegetation has 

been modified by grazing and/or weed invasion. Only 80 ha (~ 4%) is in a conservation reserve, vested 

in the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority (NPNCA) and managed by Department of 

Conservation and Land Management.  


The Billeranga System consists of a number of plant communities including Melaleuca  filifolia – 

Allocasuarina campestris thicket on yellow brown clay sands over laterite on the mid to upper slopes 

and ridges; open mallee (including Eucalyptus jucunda, E. eudesmoides, E. loxophleba and  E. 

pyriformis) over mixed scrub on yellow brown sand over gravel on the western slopes; and Eucalyptus 

loxophleba woodland with mixed understorey over brown sandy clay loam on lower slopes, valleys 

and creeklines (True and O’Callaghan 1998, author personal observations). The mixed scrub 

(including  Acacia acuminata, Allocasuarina campestris and  Dodonaea inaequifolia) and Dodonaea 

inaequifolia dominated scrub is restricted to the red loamy soils of the slopes and summits of the 

southern portion of these hills; the latter is thought to occur nowhere else in Western Australia (Beard 



The Billeranga System contains a number of taxa that are listed as Priority. These are either totally 

confined to the hills (P1) or are very restricted in their distribution in Western Australia (P3) (Table 1).  


Table 1: Priority taxa found in the Billeranga Hills (Dept. of CALM 1999) 


Conservation category* 

Species Name 


Acacia pterocaulon 


Baeckea sp. Billeranga Hills 


Acacia nodiflora 


Calytrix chrysantha 


Geleznowia verrucosa subsp. verrucosa 


Grevillea stenostachya 


Lepidobolus densus 


A list of taxa that occur in quadrats (True and O’Callaghan 1998) and from author personal 

observations in occurrences in the community is given in Appendix 1. 




Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Extent and location of occurrences 

The Billeranga Hills are located approximately 15 km south-west of Morawa, in the Shire of Morawa. 

The range is approximately 19 km long and 2-4 km wide, and lies in a north-south direction. There are 

five occurrences with all, except 85 ha, on private land. All have been modified to some degree and 

one or more of the following threats are currently affecting or have the potential to affect the 

occurrences: grazing, weed invasion and fire (Table 2). 


Table 2: Summary of occurrence information and threats 



Land Status 

Estimated area 


Condition Threats 

Private land 

578 ± 50 

Slightly modified  

Weed  invasion  and  inappropriate  fire 


Private land 

35 ± 10 

Moderately modified  Weed  invasion  and  inappropriate  fire 


Private land 

40 ± 10 

Slightly modified 

Weed  invasion    and  inappropriate  fire 


Private land and 

Class A Nature 






modified Grazing, weed invasion  and 

inappropriate fire regimes 

Private land 

586 ± 110 

Moderately modified  Grazing, 




inappropriate fire regimes 


Critical Habitat 


Critical habitat is habitat identified as being critical to the survival of a listed threatened species or 

listed threatened ecological community. Habitat is defined as the biophysical medium or media (a) 

occupied (continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism or group of organisms; or (b) 

once occupied (continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism, or group of organisms, and 

into which organisms of that kind that the potential to be reintroduced. (sections 207A and 528 of 

Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act)). 


The critical habitat for the plant assemblage of the Billeranga System comprises the area of occupancy 

of the known occurrences corresponding to the outcrop of the Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks 

(Beard 1976) and includes: 


•  Clay sands over laterite on slopes and ridges for the Melaleuca  filifolia – Allocasuarina 

campestris thicket association. 

•  Yellow sand over gravel on slopes for the open mallee over mixed scrub association. 

•  Red/brown loamy soils on the slopes and ridges for the mixed scrub or scrub dominated Dodonaea 

inaequifolia association. 

•  Sandy clay loam or rocky clay on lower slopes and creeklines  for the Eucalyptus  loxophleba 

woodland association. 


Biological and ecological characteristics 

The variation in the floristic composition of the community on the Billeranga System is assumed to 

correspond to different aspects/exposures, soil/substrate types and depths, and moisture regimes. 

Determination of this variation is a priority in this Interim Recovery Plan (IRP). 




Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Threatening processes 

All the occurrences are adjacent to farm-cleared land with little vegetation buffer. Potential and 

current threatening processes to individual occurrences were summarised in Table 2 and are elaborated 

as follows: 




Clearing for agriculture in the Shire of Morawa has been extensive with more than 80% cleared (P. 

Whale, personal communication


). The last mass clearing of the Billeranga System – mostly on the 

lower-lying areas - occurred 50 years ago. Any new proposals to clear one hectare or more of any 

portion of the community on private land would be subject to assessment in accordance with the 

Memorandum of Understanding for the protection of remnant vegetation on private land in the 

agricultural region of Western Australia (Government of Western Australia 1997). 




Up until 10 years ago, occurrences 1 (partially), 2 and 3 were grazed; these are now fenced. Part of 

occurrence 4 has recently been fenced with funding from the Remnant Vegetation Protection scheme, 

with support from CALM WATSCU. The other occurrences, however, are still being grazed. Grazing 

has caused alterations to the species composition of much of the occurrences by the selective grazing 

of edible species, the introduction of weeds and nutrients, trampling and general disturbance.  


Weed invasion 


Weeds can have significant impacts on a community through competition with the native species, 

prevention of regeneration and alteration of fire regimes (Hobbs and Mooney 1993). Disturbances 

such as fires and grazing can predispose areas to weed invasion if weed propagules are present. All of 

the occurrences of this community are close to agricultural areas that act as weed sources, and are 

vulnerable to weed invasion following any disturbance. At present, weed levels in all but occurrence 1 

are quite high. 


Altered fire regimes 


Fire can cause alterations to the species composition by increasing the number of weeds. As well, an 

increase in the frequency of fire can prevent species from completing growth and reproductive cycles. 

Although, there have been no documented incidence of fire, the risk of frequent fire is increased by the 

presence of grassy weeds in the understorey, as they are likely to be more flammable than many of the 

original native species in the understorey.  


Guide for decision-makers


Section 1 provides details of current and possible future threats. Developments in the immediate 

vicinity of the occurrences require assessment. No developments should be approved unless the 

proponents can demonstrate that they will have no significant impact on the ecological community. 


Current status 

The ‘Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System’ community meets the following criteria for 

Vulnerable (VU): 


B) The ecological community can be modified or destroyed and would be vulnerable to threatening 

processes, is restricted in area and/or range and/or is only found at a few locations. 




Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Recovery strategy 

To devise, in close liaison with landowners, recovery actions for all known occurrences, and promote 

and assist their conservation. 


To conduct appropriate research into the ecology of the community to develop further understanding 

about the management actions required to maintain or improve its condition. 




•  To improve the long term security of the plant community by protecting and maintaining the 

known occurrences, and reducing the level of threat so that the community will not move into the 

Endangered category. 


Criteria for success 

•  Improvement in the condition of known occurrences of the community measured by a reduction in 

grazing pressure, weed invasion and inappropriate fire regime by encouraging landholders to fence 

occurrences and implement weed control strategies and fire management plans. 

•  No further loss of area covered by the community. 


Criterion for failure 

•  Significant undefined clearing of the community and/or sustained or increased level of 

modification of occurrences of the community as measured by a decline in the diversity and 

composition of the native species and increase in weed diversity using existing and potential 




All but one of the occurrences occur on land not managed by CALM. Land managers will be notified 

of the importance of the community and, if not already protected, their cooperation sought to ensure 

that on-farm activities do not affect the occurrences. As well, permission and cooperation will be 

sought from the appropriate land managers prior to any recovery actions being taken. 



Existing Recovery Action 

The Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (GTFRT) is the recovery team for this 

ecological community and is responsible for overseeing Recovery Actions. Its membership has been 

expanded to include a CALM WATSCU member with expertise in ecological community 

conservation. The Recovery Team will continue to report annually to CALM’s Corporate Executive. 



Essential Recovery Actions 

3.2.1  Map the components of the community 

A vegetation map (with species lists) of the Billeranga System will be produced using aerial 

photography and ground survey. This information will be added to the TECs database as 

recommended in English and Blyth (1999). 



Map the components of the community 



Estimated cost:  

$5,500 for one year. 



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 


3.2.2  Fence occurrences where appropriate 

Seek to fence the remaining occurrences to ensure stock is excluded and vehicle access can be limited 

to management needs only. For those occurrences that are already fenced, seek funds to assist in the 

maintenance and repair of the fences. 



Fence occurrences where appropriate 


GTFRT in liaison with landowners 

Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs and seek funds through other sources. 


3.2.3  Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community 

Monitor the extent, and determine and compare the condition of the known occurrences. The boundary 

of the occurrences should be monitored regularly and can be determined from current aerial 

photographs and annual ground-truthing. This information will be added to the TECs database as 

recommended in English and Blyth (1999). 



Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community 



Estimated cost:  

$2,000 for the initial monitoring, $500 for subsequent monitoring 


3.2.4  Design and implement a program for flora monitoring  


Data collected will include plant species diversity, species richness and weed levels. Occurrences will 

be monitored regularly to provide information on condition. The program could include installing 

permanent quadrats on occurrences 1, 2 and 3, and re-scoring quadrats erected in 1997 (True and 

O’Callaghan 1998) on occurrences 4 and 5, as well as taking photographs from the same area. This 

information will be added to the TECs database as recommended in English and Blyth (1999).  



Design and implement a program for flora monitoring  



Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs and seek funds through other sources 


3.2.5  Liaise with current owners, land managers and other interested groups 


With all but one occurrences on private land, the involvement of land managers, landowners and local 

community groups in the recovery of the community wherever possible and practical is essential to the 

recovery process. 



Liaise with current owners, land managers, and other interested groups  



Estimated cost:  

$1,000 for the first year (+ 10% increment for subsequent years). 


3.2.6  Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives and mechanisms for 

conserving the community  


Incentives for protection include the CALM’s Land for Wildlife scheme, covenanting schemes and 

other funds that are available to ensure long term protection of the community. 



Encourage and assist landowners to utilise the available incentives and 

mechanisms for conserving the community 





Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Estimated cost:  



3.2.7  Design and implement weed control strategy 

As all occurrences are adjacent to cleared farmland and have some degree of weed infestation, a weed 

control strategy is required that takes into account the nature of the community and the need for 

continuing maintenance. The weed control program should include: 


1.  Determining which weeds and native species are present. 

2.  The selection of the appropriate herbicide and establishing priorities for treatment. 

3.  The control of invasive weeds by hand or spot spraying as soon as the weeds emerge. 

4.  Rehabilitation through reintroduction of local native species where such species are no longer 

capable of regenerating following weed control. 



Design and implement weed control strategy 



Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs 


3.2.8  Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 

A fire management plan should be developed with landowners and the relevant authorities. The plan 

should deal with issues such as knowledge of the recovery of the community and its component 

species from fire; minimising wildfires; the need for, design and position of firebreaks/fire-fighting 

access tracks; fire management including the need for and design of prescribed fire and fire 

suppression. The plan should include an annual fire monitoring and reporting schedule.  



Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 



Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs 


3.2.9  Seek to acquire occurrences for the conservation estate 

To secure the long-term recovery of this community, CALM should seek funds and negotiate with 

landowners to acquire occurrences and adequate buffer areas if and when they become available. Such 

areas should then be declared Class A reserves for the purpose of ‘Conservation of Flora and Fauna’ 

and vested in the Conservation Commission. 



Seek to acquire the occurrence for conservation  


CALM (Land Acquisitions Section) 

Estimated cost:  

CALM to negotiate costs on a market/valuation basis. 



This Interim Recovery Plan (IRP) will operate from 2 November 2000 for three years but will remain 

in force until withdrawn or replaced.   




The following people provided valuable advice and assistance in the preparation of this Interim 

Recovery Plan: 


John Blyth 



Principal Ecologist, CALM, Wildlife Research Centre, Woodvale 

Phillip and Robyn Kapor,  

Landholders, Morawa 



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Greg Keighery,  


Senior Research Scientist, CALM, Wildlife Research Centre, Woodvale 

Mike Meinema  


District Manager, CALM Geraldton 

Chris and Joan Moffet 

Bellaranga Farmstay, Morawa 

Robyn Stephens 


Director, Acacia Environmental Consultancy 



Baxter, J. L. and Lipple, S. L. (1985). Perenjori, Western Australia. 1:250,000 Geological Series – 

Explanatory Notes. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth. 


Beard, J. S. (1976). Vegetation Survey of Western Australia. The Vegetation of the Perenjori Area, 

Western Australia. 1:250,000 series. Vegmap Publications, Perth. 


Department of Conservation and Land Management (1999). Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for 

Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth. 


Government of Western Australia (1997). Memorandum of Understanding between the Commissioner 

of Soil and Land Conservation, Environmental Protection Authority, Department of Environmental 

Protection, Agriculture Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management, 

Water and Rivers Commission for the protection of remnant vegetation on private land in the 

agricultural region of Western Australia. Western Australian Department of Agriculture, Perth. 


Hobbs, R. J. and Mooney, H. A. (1993). Restoration ecology and invasions. In Nature Conservation 3: 

Reconstruction of Fragmented Ecosystems. pp 127-133, Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. and Ehrlich, 

P. R. (eds). Surrey Beatty and Sons: NSW. 


Register of the National Estate (2000). Australian Heritage Commission Register of the National 



True, D and O’Callaghan, A. (1998). Community Bushland Surveys. A joint project of Australian 

Trust for Conservation Volunteers, World Wide Fund for Nature Australia and Department of 

Conservation and Land Management. 




Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 


Appendix 1: List of species found in each occurrence of the Billeranga System 

(Note: this is not a comprehensive list) 



Species 1 



Acacia acuaria 


Acacia acuminata 

  +  + 

Acacia andrewsii 


Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis + 



Acacia blakelyi 

     + + 

Acacia colletioides + 



Acacia hemiteles 


Acacia erinacea + 


Acacia latipes subsp. latipes 

     + + 

Acacia multispicata 

     + + 

Acacia neurophylla subsp. neurophylla + 



Acacia nodiflora + 




Acacia pterocaulon 

+     +  + 

Acacia restiacea 


Acacia tratmaniana 


Acacia tetragonophylla 

+ +   


Acacia ulicina 


Acanthocarpus canaliculatus 


Aira caryophyllea 

     + + 

Allocasuarina campestris + 



Anthocercis genistoides 

+     +  + 

Astroloma serratifolium 

+     +  + 

Austrostipa elegantissima 

     + + 

Austrostipa trichophylla 


Baeckea margarethae 


Baeckea sp. Billeranga Hills 



Beaufortia squarrosa 

     + + 

Brachysema aphyllum 

  + +   

Calothamnus quadrifidus 






Calytrix chrysantha 

     + + 

Calytrix ecalycata 

     + + 

Cheilanthes austrotenuifolia 

     + + 

Comesperma scoparium 

     + + 

Comesperma volubile 


Cryptandra arbutiflora  


Dampiera lavandulacea 


Dampiera salahae 


Dianella revoluta 


Dioscorea hastifolia 

     + + 

Dodonaea inaequifolia 

+ +  +  +  + 

Dodonaea larraeoides 


Drosera pallida 


Ecdeiocolea monostachya 


Enchylaena tomentosa 

     + + 

Eremophila clarkei 

+ +    +   

Eremophila glabra 


Eremophila oldfieldii subsp. oldfieldii + 




Erodium cygnorum  



Eucalyptus eudesmoides  



Eucalyptus jucunda 

     + + 

Eucalyptus leptopoda 




Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Eucalyptus loxophleba + 


Eucalyptus pyriformis 

     + + 

Eucalyptus salmonophloia 


Geleznowia verrucosa 


Goodenia pulchella 

     + + 

Grevillea biformis subsp. biformis 

     + + 

Grevillea dielsiana 

+ +    +  + 

Grevillea hakeoides subsp.  hakeoides 


Grevillea levis 


Grevillea paniculata 


Grevillea stenostachya 


Grevillea teretifolia 


Hakea preissii 


Hakea recurva 


Hakea scoparia 

  + +   

Hemigenia obovata 


Hibbertia acerosa + 





Hibbertia exasperata 


Hibbertia huegelii 

     + + 

Hibbertia spicata 

     + + 

Jacksonia densiflora 


Jacksonia fasciculata 


Jacksonia floribunda 


Keraudrenia hermanniifolia 

     + + 

Lawrencella rosea 

     + + 

Lepidobolus densus 


Lepidosperma scabrum 


Lepidosperma squamatum 


Lepidosperma tenue 


Leucopogon insularis  

     + + 

Lysiosepalum rugosum 


Maireana brevifolia 

+     +  + 

Melaleuca acuminata subsp. websteri 


Melaleuca adnata 

     + + 

Melaleuca barlowii 


Melaleuca cordata 


Melaleuca coronicarpa subsp. coronicarpa 


Melaleuca eleuterostachya 


Melaleuca filifolia 

+   +  +  + 

Melaleuca nematophylla 

  + +   

Melaleuca oldfieldii 


Melaleuca radula 


     + + 

Melaleuca steedmanii 

  + +   

Melaleuca uncinata 


Mesomelaena graciliceps 


Mirbelia trichocalyx 

     + + 

Neurachne alopecuroidea 


Olearia revoluta 

     + + 

Osteospermum clandestinum 


Patersonia occidentalis 

+ +    +   

Petrophile conifera + 



Petrophile ericifolia subsp.  subpubescens 

     + + 

Pimelea avonensis 


Plectrachne drummondii 


Prostanthera magnifica 


Ptilotus obovatus 

+     +  + 

Rhagodia drummondii 

     + + 



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Rhodanthe spicata 


Ricinocarpos velutinus + 


Santalum spicatum 

  +  + 

Scaevola spinescens 

     + + 

Sclerolaena uniflora 


Senna artemisioides subsp.  filifolia 


Senna glutinosa subsp. charlesiana 


Stylidium repens 

     + + 

Stypandra glauca 

     + + 

Templetonia aculeata  



Thysanotus patersonii 

     + + 

Trachymene ornata 


Verticordia densiflora var. stelluligera  



Waitzia acuminata  




Waitzia nitida  




Wurmbea densiflora 


Xylomelum occidentale 



* Data mainly from True and O’Callaghan (1998). 



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 


Summary of costs for each Recovery Action 



Year 1 

Year 2 

Year 3 

Recovery action 








Form a Recovery Team 








Map the components of the community 


Fence occurrences where appropriate 

Monitor the extent and boundaries of the  community 




Design and implement a program for flora monitoring 

Liaise with current owners, land managers and other 

interested groups  

$1,000 $1,100 


Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives 

and mechanisms for conserving the community 

$Nil $Nil 


Design and implement weed control strategy 

Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 

Acquire occurrences for the conservation estate 

CALM to negotiate based on market value

* Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team to calculate costs 




Document Outline

    • History, defining characteristics of ecological community, and conservation significance
            • Lepidobolus densus
    • Extent and location of occurrences
    • Critical Habitat
    • Biological and ecological characteristics
    • Threatening processes
    • Guide for decision-makers
    • Current status
    • Recovery strategy
    • Aim
    • Criteria for success
    • Criterion for failure
    • 3.1Existing Recovery Action
    • 3.2Essential Recovery Actions
    • 3.2.1Map the components of the community
    • 3.2.2Fence occurrences where appropriate
    • 3.2.3Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community
    • 3.2.4Design and implement a program for flora monitoring
    • 3.2.5Liaise with current owners, land managers and other interested groups
    • 3.2.6Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives and mechanisms for conserving the community
    • 3.2.7Design and implement weed control strategy
    • 3.2.8Design and apply appropriate fire management plans
    • 3.2.9Seek to acquire occurrences for the conservation estate
              • Baxter, J. L. and Lipple, S. L. \(1985\). Pere
              • Beard, J. S. (1976). Vegetation Survey of Western Australia. The Vegetation of the Perenjori Area, Western Australia. 1:250,000 series. Vegmap Publications, Perth.
              • Department of Conservation and Land Management (1999). Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
              • Hobbs, R. J. and Mooney, H. A. (1993). Restoration ecology and invasions. In Nature Conservation 3: Reconstruction of Fragmented Ecosystems. pp 127-133, Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. and Ehrlich, P. R. (eds). Surrey Beatty and Sons: NSW.
              • Register of the National Estate (2000). Australian Heritage Commission Register of the National Estate.
              • True, D and O’Callaghan, A. \(1998\). Communit
        • Appendix 1: List of species found in each occurrence of the Billeranga System�(Note: this is not a comprehensive list)
        • Summary of costs for each Recovery Action
    • Fence occurrences where appropriate

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