Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System Interim Recovery Plan



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INTERIM RECOVERY PLAN NO. 71 

 

 



Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System 

 

Interim Recovery Plan 

 

2000-2003 

 

by 



 

Sheila Hamilton-Brown 

 

 

 



 

Photograph: Robert Gomer  

 

2 November 2000 



 

Department of Conservation and Land Management  

Western Australian Threatened Species and Communities Unit 

PO Box 51, Wanneroo, WA 6946 

 

 

 



 

Department of Conservation and Land 

Management 

 


Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

FOREWORD 

 

Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in Department of 



Conservation and Land Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos 44 and 50 

 

IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes 



most affecting the ongoing survival of threatened taxa or ecological communities, and begin the 

recovery process. 

 

CALM is committed to ensuring that Critically Endangered, and where appropriate and feasible, other 



threatened ecological communities are conserved through the preparation and implementation of 

Recovery Plans or Interim Recovery Plans. CALM will also ensure that conservation action 

commences as soon as possible and always within three years of endorsement of Vulnerable rank by 

CALM's Director of Nature Conservation. 

 

This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from 2 November 2000 but will remain in force until 



withdrawn or replaced. 

 

The provision of funds identified in this Interim Recovery Plan is dependent on budgetary and other 



constraints affecting CALM, as well as the need to address other priorities. 

 

Information in this IRP was accurate at 31 October 2000. 



 

2


Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

SUMMARY  

 

Name:


 Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System. 

 

Description:  Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System (Beard 1976) covering the outcrop of the 

Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks as expressed in the Billeranga Hills. The plant assemblage 

comprises Melaleuca filifolia – Allocasuarina campestris thicket on clay sands over laterite on slopes 

and ridges; open mallee over mixed scrub on yellow sand over gravel on slopes; Eucalyptus 

loxophleba woodland over sandy clay loam or rocky clay on lower slopes and creeklines; and mixed 

scrub or scrub dominated by Dodonaea inaequifolia over red/brown loamy soils on the slopes and 

ridges of the southern hills. 

 

IBRA Bioregion: Geraldton Sandplains 

 

CALM Region: Midwest Region 

 

CALM District: Geraldton 

 

Shire: Morawa 

 

Recovery Team: Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team 

 

Current status: Assessed by the TEC Scientific Advisory Committee on 29 October 1999 as 

Vulnerable. The ranking was endorsed by CALM's Director of Nature Conservation on 24 November 

1999. 

 

Critical Habitat: The area of occupancy of the occurrences corresponding to the outcrop of the 



Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks (Beard 1976).  

 

IRP Objective(s): To maintain the overall health of the community and reduce the level of threat to 

ensure the community does not move to the Endangered category. 

 

Criteria for success: Maintenance of the diversity and composition of the native species in the 

community and of the full range of its occurrences. 

 

Criteria for failure: An increased level of modification of occurrences of the community as measured 

by a decline in the diversity and composition of the native species. 

 

Summary of Recovery Actions  

 

1.  Form a Recovery Team  

2.  Map the components of the community 

3.  Fence occurrences where appropriate 

4.  Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community 

5.  Design and implement a program for flora monitoring 

6.  Liaise with current owners, land managers and other interested groups 

7.  Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives and mechanisms for conserving the 

community 

8.  Design and implement weed control strategy 

9.  Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 

10.  Acquire occurrences for the conservation estate 



 

 

3



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

1 BACKGROUND 

History, defining characteristics of ecological community, and conservation significance 

A ‘System’ is a specific series of plant communities recurring in a catenary sequence or mosaic pattern 

linked to topographic, pedological and/or geological features. The Billeranga System has a distinctive 

geology, topography and vegetation, different from that of any other comparable system (Beard 1976). 

It covers the outcrop of the Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks as expressed in the Billeranga Hills 

comprising sandstone, acid lavas, chert, siltstone and shale (Baxter and Lipple 1985). The lower 

portion of the hills consist of Archaean Gneiss which was incised by river action in mid-Proterozoic 

times to produce river channels. The channels were in-filled by Proterozoic Neereeno Sandstone 

which was later on buried by andestic lava flows (Morawa Lavas). The Billeranga Hills are therefore a 

very ancient buried landscape (Register of the National Estate 2000).  

 

It is estimated that the original area of the Billeranga system was 3 250 ha, of which 1 897 ha remains. 



This represents a loss of 58% (mostly from the lower lying areas) of the area of a plant community 

that was originally restricted in distribution. Another 1 000 ha (52%) of the remaining vegetation has 

been modified by grazing and/or weed invasion. Only 80 ha (~ 4%) is in a conservation reserve, vested 

in the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority (NPNCA) and managed by Department of 

Conservation and Land Management.  

 

The Billeranga System consists of a number of plant communities including Melaleuca  filifolia – 



Allocasuarina campestris thicket on yellow brown clay sands over laterite on the mid to upper slopes 

and ridges; open mallee (including Eucalyptus jucunda, E. eudesmoides, E. loxophleba and  E. 



pyriformis) over mixed scrub on yellow brown sand over gravel on the western slopes; and Eucalyptus 

loxophleba woodland with mixed understorey over brown sandy clay loam on lower slopes, valleys 

and creeklines (True and O’Callaghan 1998, author personal observations). The mixed scrub 

(including  Acacia acuminata, Allocasuarina campestris and  Dodonaea inaequifolia) and Dodonaea 

inaequifolia dominated scrub is restricted to the red loamy soils of the slopes and summits of the 

southern portion of these hills; the latter is thought to occur nowhere else in Western Australia (Beard 

1976).  

 

The Billeranga System contains a number of taxa that are listed as Priority. These are either totally 



confined to the hills (P1) or are very restricted in their distribution in Western Australia (P3) (Table 1).  

 

Table 1: Priority taxa found in the Billeranga Hills (Dept. of CALM 1999) 



 

Conservation category* 

Species Name 

P1 


Acacia pterocaulon 

 

Baeckea sp. Billeranga Hills 

P3 

Acacia nodiflora 

 

Calytrix chrysantha 

 

Geleznowia verrucosa subsp. verrucosa 

 

Grevillea stenostachya 

 

Lepidobolus densus 

 

A list of taxa that occur in quadrats (True and O’Callaghan 1998) and from author personal 



observations in occurrences in the community is given in Appendix 1. 

 

 



4

Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Extent and location of occurrences 

The Billeranga Hills are located approximately 15 km south-west of Morawa, in the Shire of Morawa. 

The range is approximately 19 km long and 2-4 km wide, and lies in a north-south direction. There are 

five occurrences with all, except 85 ha, on private land. All have been modified to some degree and 

one or more of the following threats are currently affecting or have the potential to affect the 

occurrences: grazing, weed invasion and fire (Table 2). 

 

Table 2: Summary of occurrence information and threats 

 

Occ. 



Land Status 

Estimated area 

(ha) 

Condition Threats 

Private land 



578 ± 50 

Slightly modified  

Weed  invasion  and  inappropriate  fire 

regimes 


Private land 

35 ± 10 

Moderately modified  Weed  invasion  and  inappropriate  fire 

regimes 

Private land 



40 ± 10 

Slightly modified 

Weed  invasion    and  inappropriate  fire 

regimes 


Private land and 

Class A Nature 

Reserve 


658 

± 

77 



Moderately 

modified Grazing, weed invasion  and 

inappropriate fire regimes 

Private land 



586 ± 110 

Moderately modified  Grazing, 

weed 

invasion 



and 

inappropriate fire regimes 

 

Critical Habitat 

 

Critical habitat is habitat identified as being critical to the survival of a listed threatened species or 



listed threatened ecological community. Habitat is defined as the biophysical medium or media (a) 

occupied (continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism or group of organisms; or (b) 

once occupied (continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism, or group of organisms, and 

into which organisms of that kind that the potential to be reintroduced. (sections 207A and 528 of 

Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act)). 

 

The critical habitat for the plant assemblage of the Billeranga System comprises the area of occupancy 



of the known occurrences corresponding to the outcrop of the Billeranga group of Proterozoic rocks 

(Beard 1976) and includes: 

 

•  Clay sands over laterite on slopes and ridges for the Melaleuca  filifolia – Allocasuarina 



campestris thicket association. 

•  Yellow sand over gravel on slopes for the open mallee over mixed scrub association. 

•  Red/brown loamy soils on the slopes and ridges for the mixed scrub or scrub dominated Dodonaea 

inaequifolia association. 

•  Sandy clay loam or rocky clay on lower slopes and creeklines  for the Eucalyptus  loxophleba 

woodland association. 

 

Biological and ecological characteristics 

The variation in the floristic composition of the community on the Billeranga System is assumed to 

correspond to different aspects/exposures, soil/substrate types and depths, and moisture regimes. 

Determination of this variation is a priority in this Interim Recovery Plan (IRP). 

 

 



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Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Threatening processes 

All the occurrences are adjacent to farm-cleared land with little vegetation buffer. Potential and 

current threatening processes to individual occurrences were summarised in Table 2 and are elaborated 

as follows: 

 

Clearing  

 

Clearing for agriculture in the Shire of Morawa has been extensive with more than 80% cleared (P. 



Whale, personal communication

1

). The last mass clearing of the Billeranga System – mostly on the 



lower-lying areas - occurred 50 years ago. Any new proposals to clear one hectare or more of any 

portion of the community on private land would be subject to assessment in accordance with the 

Memorandum of Understanding for the protection of remnant vegetation on private land in the 

agricultural region of Western Australia (Government of Western Australia 1997). 

 

Grazing 

 

Up until 10 years ago, occurrences 1 (partially), 2 and 3 were grazed; these are now fenced. Part of 

occurrence 4 has recently been fenced with funding from the Remnant Vegetation Protection scheme, 

with support from CALM WATSCU. The other occurrences, however, are still being grazed. Grazing 

has caused alterations to the species composition of much of the occurrences by the selective grazing 

of edible species, the introduction of weeds and nutrients, trampling and general disturbance.  

 

Weed invasion 

 

Weeds can have significant impacts on a community through competition with the native species, 

prevention of regeneration and alteration of fire regimes (Hobbs and Mooney 1993). Disturbances 

such as fires and grazing can predispose areas to weed invasion if weed propagules are present. All of 

the occurrences of this community are close to agricultural areas that act as weed sources, and are 

vulnerable to weed invasion following any disturbance. At present, weed levels in all but occurrence 1 

are quite high. 

 

Altered fire regimes 



 

Fire can cause alterations to the species composition by increasing the number of weeds. As well, an 

increase in the frequency of fire can prevent species from completing growth and reproductive cycles. 

Although, there have been no documented incidence of fire, the risk of frequent fire is increased by the 

presence of grassy weeds in the understorey, as they are likely to be more flammable than many of the 

original native species in the understorey.  

 

Guide for decision-makers

 

Section 1 provides details of current and possible future threats. Developments in the immediate 



vicinity of the occurrences require assessment. No developments should be approved unless the 

proponents can demonstrate that they will have no significant impact on the ecological community. 

 

Current status 

The ‘Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System’ community meets the following criteria for 

Vulnerable (VU): 

 

B) The ecological community can be modified or destroyed and would be vulnerable to threatening 



processes, is restricted in area and/or range and/or is only found at a few locations. 

 

 



6

Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Recovery strategy 

To devise, in close liaison with landowners, recovery actions for all known occurrences, and promote 

and assist their conservation. 

 

To conduct appropriate research into the ecology of the community to develop further understanding 



about the management actions required to maintain or improve its condition. 

 



RECOVERY AIM AND CRITERIA 

Aim 

•  To improve the long term security of the plant community by protecting and maintaining the 

known occurrences, and reducing the level of threat so that the community will not move into the 

Endangered category. 

 

Criteria for success 

•  Improvement in the condition of known occurrences of the community measured by a reduction in 

grazing pressure, weed invasion and inappropriate fire regime by encouraging landholders to fence 

occurrences and implement weed control strategies and fire management plans. 

•  No further loss of area covered by the community. 

 

Criterion for failure 

•  Significant undefined clearing of the community and/or sustained or increased level of 

modification of occurrences of the community as measured by a decline in the diversity and 

composition of the native species and increase in weed diversity using existing and potential 

 

3 RECOVERY 



ACTIONS 

All but one of the occurrences occur on land not managed by CALM. Land managers will be notified 

of the importance of the community and, if not already protected, their cooperation sought to ensure 

that on-farm activities do not affect the occurrences. As well, permission and cooperation will be 

sought from the appropriate land managers prior to any recovery actions being taken. 

 

3.1 



Existing Recovery Action 

The Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (GTFRT) is the recovery team for this 

ecological community and is responsible for overseeing Recovery Actions. Its membership has been 

expanded to include a CALM WATSCU member with expertise in ecological community 

conservation. The Recovery Team will continue to report annually to CALM’s Corporate Executive. 

 

3.2 



Essential Recovery Actions 

3.2.1  Map the components of the community 

A vegetation map (with species lists) of the Billeranga System will be produced using aerial 

photography and ground survey. This information will be added to the TECs database as 

recommended in English and Blyth (1999). 



 

Action:  

Map the components of the community 



Responsibility:  

GTFRT 


Estimated cost:  

$5,500 for one year. 

 

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Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

 

3.2.2  Fence occurrences where appropriate 

Seek to fence the remaining occurrences to ensure stock is excluded and vehicle access can be limited 

to management needs only. For those occurrences that are already fenced, seek funds to assist in the 

maintenance and repair of the fences. 

 

Action:  

Fence occurrences where appropriate 



Responsibility:  

GTFRT in liaison with landowners 



Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs and seek funds through other sources. 



 

3.2.3  Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community 

Monitor the extent, and determine and compare the condition of the known occurrences. The boundary 

of the occurrences should be monitored regularly and can be determined from current aerial 

photographs and annual ground-truthing. This information will be added to the TECs database as 

recommended in English and Blyth (1999). 

 

Action:  

Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community 



Responsibility:  

GTFRT 


Estimated cost:  

$2,000 for the initial monitoring, $500 for subsequent monitoring 

 

3.2.4  Design and implement a program for flora monitoring  

 

Data collected will include plant species diversity, species richness and weed levels. Occurrences will 



be monitored regularly to provide information on condition. The program could include installing 

permanent quadrats on occurrences 1, 2 and 3, and re-scoring quadrats erected in 1997 (True and 

O’Callaghan 1998) on occurrences 4 and 5, as well as taking photographs from the same area. This 

information will be added to the TECs database as recommended in English and Blyth (1999).  

 

Action:  

Design and implement a program for flora monitoring  



Responsibility:  

GTFRT 


Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs and seek funds through other sources 

 

3.2.5  Liaise with current owners, land managers and other interested groups 

 

With all but one occurrences on private land, the involvement of land managers, landowners and local 



community groups in the recovery of the community wherever possible and practical is essential to the 

recovery process. 



 

Action:  

Liaise with current owners, land managers, and other interested groups  



Responsibility:  

GTFRT 


Estimated cost:  

$1,000 for the first year (+ 10% increment for subsequent years). 

 

3.2.6  Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives and mechanisms for 

conserving the community  

 

Incentives for protection include the CALM’s Land for Wildlife scheme, covenanting schemes and 

other funds that are available to ensure long term protection of the community. 

 

Action: 

Encourage and assist landowners to utilise the available incentives and 

mechanisms for conserving the community 

Responsibility:  

GTFRT 


 

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Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Estimated cost:  

$Nil 


 

3.2.7  Design and implement weed control strategy 

As all occurrences are adjacent to cleared farmland and have some degree of weed infestation, a weed 

control strategy is required that takes into account the nature of the community and the need for 

continuing maintenance. The weed control program should include: 

 

1.  Determining which weeds and native species are present. 



2.  The selection of the appropriate herbicide and establishing priorities for treatment. 

3.  The control of invasive weeds by hand or spot spraying as soon as the weeds emerge. 

4.  Rehabilitation through reintroduction of local native species where such species are no longer 

capable of regenerating following weed control. 



 

Action:  

Design and implement weed control strategy 



Responsibility:  

GTFRT 


Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs 

 

3.2.8  Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 

A fire management plan should be developed with landowners and the relevant authorities. The plan 

should deal with issues such as knowledge of the recovery of the community and its component 

species from fire; minimising wildfires; the need for, design and position of firebreaks/fire-fighting 

access tracks; fire management including the need for and design of prescribed fire and fire 

suppression. The plan should include an annual fire monitoring and reporting schedule.  



 

Action:  

Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 



Responsibility:  

GTFRT 


Estimated cost:  

GTFRT to determine costs 

 

3.2.9  Seek to acquire occurrences for the conservation estate 

To secure the long-term recovery of this community, CALM should seek funds and negotiate with 

landowners to acquire occurrences and adequate buffer areas if and when they become available. Such 

areas should then be declared Class A reserves for the purpose of ‘Conservation of Flora and Fauna’ 

and vested in the Conservation Commission. 

 

Action: 

Seek to acquire the occurrence for conservation  



Responsibility:  

CALM (Land Acquisitions Section) 



Estimated cost:  

CALM to negotiate costs on a market/valuation basis. 

 



TERM OF PLAN 

This Interim Recovery Plan (IRP) will operate from 2 November 2000 for three years but will remain 

in force until withdrawn or replaced.   

 

5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

The following people provided valuable advice and assistance in the preparation of this Interim 



Recovery Plan: 

 

John Blyth 



 

 

Principal Ecologist, CALM, Wildlife Research Centre, Woodvale 



Phillip and Robyn Kapor,  

Landholders, Morawa 

 

9


Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Greg Keighery,  

 

Senior Research Scientist, CALM, Wildlife Research Centre, Woodvale 



Mike Meinema  

 

District Manager, CALM Geraldton 



Chris and Joan Moffet 

Bellaranga Farmstay, Morawa 

Robyn Stephens 

 

Director, Acacia Environmental Consultancy 



 

6 REFERENCES 

Baxter, J. L. and Lipple, S. L. (1985). Perenjori, Western Australia. 1:250,000 Geological Series – 

Explanatory Notes. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth. 

 

Beard, J. S. (1976). Vegetation Survey of Western Australia. The Vegetation of the Perenjori Area, 



Western Australia. 1:250,000 series. Vegmap Publications, Perth. 

 

Department of Conservation and Land Management (1999). Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for 



Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth. 

 

Government of Western Australia (1997). Memorandum of Understanding between the Commissioner 



of Soil and Land Conservation, Environmental Protection Authority, Department of Environmental 

Protection, Agriculture Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management, 

Water and Rivers Commission for the protection of remnant vegetation on private land in the 

agricultural region of Western Australia. Western Australian Department of Agriculture, Perth. 

 

Hobbs, R. J. and Mooney, H. A. (1993). Restoration ecology and invasions. In Nature Conservation 3: 



Reconstruction of Fragmented Ecosystems. pp 127-133, Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. and Ehrlich, 

P. R. (eds). Surrey Beatty and Sons: NSW. 

 

Register of the National Estate (2000). Australian Heritage Commission Register of the National 



Estate. http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/heritage/register/site. 

 

True, D and O’Callaghan, A. (1998). Community Bushland Surveys. A joint project of Australian 



Trust for Conservation Volunteers, World Wide Fund for Nature Australia and Department of 

Conservation and Land Management. 

 

 

10



Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

 

Appendix 1: List of species found in each occurrence of the Billeranga System 



(Note: this is not a comprehensive list) 

 

 Occurrence 

Species 1 





4* 

5* 

Acacia acuaria 

+        



Acacia acuminata 

  +  + 


Acacia andrewsii 

       + 



Acacia assimilis subsp. assimilis + 

 

 





Acacia blakelyi 

     + + 

Acacia colletioides + 



 

 

Acacia hemiteles 

       + 

Acacia erinacea + 

 





Acacia latipes subsp. latipes 

     + + 

Acacia multispicata 

     + + 



Acacia neurophylla subsp. neurophylla + 

 

 





Acacia nodiflora + 

 

 



 

Acacia pterocaulon 

+     +  + 



Acacia restiacea 

     +   



Acacia tratmaniana 

     +   



Acacia tetragonophylla 

+ +   


  + 

Acacia ulicina 

       + 



Acanthocarpus canaliculatus 

       + 



Aira caryophyllea 

     + + 



Allocasuarina campestris + 

 

 





Anthocercis genistoides 

+     +  + 

Astroloma serratifolium 

+     +  + 



Austrostipa elegantissima 

     + + 



Austrostipa trichophylla 

       + 



Baeckea margarethae 

     +   



Baeckea sp. Billeranga Hills 



 

 



Beaufortia squarrosa 

     + + 



Brachysema aphyllum 

  + +   


Calothamnus quadrifidus 

 

 



 

 

 



Calytrix chrysantha 

     + + 



Calytrix ecalycata 

     + + 



Cheilanthes austrotenuifolia 

     + + 



Comesperma scoparium 

     + + 



Comesperma volubile 

     +   



Cryptandra arbutiflora  

     +   



Dampiera lavandulacea 

     +   



Dampiera salahae 

       + 



Dianella revoluta 

       + 



Dioscorea hastifolia 

     + + 



Dodonaea inaequifolia 

+ +  +  +  + 



Dodonaea larraeoides 

       + 



Drosera pallida 

     +   



Ecdeiocolea monostachya 

       + 



Enchylaena tomentosa 

     + + 



Eremophila clarkei 

+ +    +   



Eremophila glabra 

       + 



Eremophila oldfieldii subsp. oldfieldii + 

 

 



 



Erodium cygnorum  

 

 





Eucalyptus eudesmoides  

 

 





Eucalyptus jucunda 

     + + 

Eucalyptus leptopoda 

     +   

 

11


Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Eucalyptus loxophleba + 

 





Eucalyptus pyriformis 

     + + 

Eucalyptus salmonophloia 

       + 



Geleznowia verrucosa 

     +   



Goodenia pulchella 

     + + 



Grevillea biformis subsp. biformis 

     + + 



Grevillea dielsiana 

+ +    +  + 



Grevillea hakeoides subsp.  hakeoides 

       + 



Grevillea levis 

     +   



Grevillea paniculata 

     +   



Grevillea stenostachya 

  +     


Grevillea teretifolia 

+        



Hakea preissii 

       + 



Hakea recurva 

       + 



Hakea scoparia 

  + +   


Hemigenia obovata 

+        



Hibbertia acerosa + 

 

 



 

 

Hibbertia exasperata 

     +   

Hibbertia huegelii 

     + + 



Hibbertia spicata 

     + + 



Jacksonia densiflora 

       + 



Jacksonia fasciculata 

     +   



Jacksonia floribunda 

     +   



Keraudrenia hermanniifolia 

     + + 



Lawrencella rosea 

     + + 



Lepidobolus densus 

       + 



Lepidosperma scabrum 

       + 



Lepidosperma squamatum 

       + 



Lepidosperma tenue 

       + 



Leucopogon insularis  

     + + 



Lysiosepalum rugosum 

       + 



Maireana brevifolia 

+     +  + 



Melaleuca acuminata subsp. websteri 

       + 



Melaleuca adnata 

     + + 



Melaleuca barlowii 

       + 



Melaleuca cordata 

     +   



Melaleuca coronicarpa subsp. coronicarpa 

       + 



Melaleuca eleuterostachya 

       + 



Melaleuca filifolia 

+   +  +  + 



Melaleuca nematophylla 

  + +   


Melaleuca oldfieldii 

       + 



Melaleuca radula 

 

     + + 



Melaleuca steedmanii 

  + +   


Melaleuca uncinata 

     +   



Mesomelaena graciliceps 

     +   



Mirbelia trichocalyx 

     + + 



Neurachne alopecuroidea 

     +   



Olearia revoluta 

     + + 



Osteospermum clandestinum 

     +   



Patersonia occidentalis 

+ +    +   



Petrophile conifera + 

 

 





Petrophile ericifolia subsp.  subpubescens 

     + + 

Pimelea avonensis 

     +   



Plectrachne drummondii 

       + 



Prostanthera magnifica 

+        



Ptilotus obovatus 

+     +  + 



Rhagodia drummondii 

     + + 

 

12


Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

Rhodanthe spicata 

     +   



Ricinocarpos velutinus + 

 





Santalum spicatum 

  +  + 

Scaevola spinescens 

     + + 



Sclerolaena uniflora 

       + 



Senna artemisioides subsp.  filifolia 

     +   



Senna glutinosa subsp. charlesiana 

       + 



Stylidium repens 

     + + 



Stypandra glauca 

     + + 



Templetonia aculeata  

 

 





Thysanotus patersonii 

     + + 

Trachymene ornata 

     +   



Verticordia densiflora var. stelluligera  

 

 





Waitzia acuminata  

 

 

 





Waitzia nitida  

 

 



 

Wurmbea densiflora 

       + 

Xylomelum occidentale 

       + 

 

* Data mainly from True and O’Callaghan (1998). 



 

13


Interim Recovery Plan No. 71 

  

Summary of costs for each Recovery Action 



 

 

Year 1 

Year 2 

Year 3 

Recovery action 

 

 

 

Existing 

 

 



 

Form a Recovery Team 

$Nil 

$Nil 


$Nil 

Essential/Desirable 

 

 



 

Map the components of the community 

$5,500 





Fence occurrences where appropriate 



Monitor the extent and boundaries of the  community 

$2,000 

$500 


$500 

Design and implement a program for flora monitoring 





Liaise with current owners, land managers and other 

interested groups  

$1,000 $1,100 

1,220 


Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives 

and mechanisms for conserving the community 

$Nil $Nil 

$Nil 


Design and implement weed control strategy 



Design and apply appropriate fire management plans 





Acquire occurrences for the conservation estate 

CALM to negotiate based on market value

* Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team to calculate costs 

 

 



14

Document Outline

  • FOREWORD
    • 1BACKGROUND
    • History, defining characteristics of ecological community, and conservation significance
            • Lepidobolus densus
    • Extent and location of occurrences
    • Critical Habitat
    • Biological and ecological characteristics
    • Threatening processes
    • Guide for decision-makers
    • Current status
    • Recovery strategy
  • 2RECOVERY AIM AND CRITERIA
    • Aim
    • Criteria for success
    • Criterion for failure
  • 3RECOVERY ACTIONS
    • 3.1Existing Recovery Action
    • 3.2Essential Recovery Actions
    • 3.2.1Map the components of the community
    • 3.2.2Fence occurrences where appropriate
    • 3.2.3Monitor the extent and boundaries of the community
    • 3.2.4Design and implement a program for flora monitoring
    • 3.2.5Liaise with current owners, land managers and other interested groups
    • 3.2.6Encourage and assist landowners to utilise incentives and mechanisms for conserving the community
    • 3.2.7Design and implement weed control strategy
    • 3.2.8Design and apply appropriate fire management plans
    • 3.2.9Seek to acquire occurrences for the conservation estate
  • 4TERM OF PLAN
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • 6REFERENCES
              • Baxter, J. L. and Lipple, S. L. \(1985\). Pere
              • Beard, J. S. (1976). Vegetation Survey of Western Australia. The Vegetation of the Perenjori Area, Western Australia. 1:250,000 series. Vegmap Publications, Perth.
              • Department of Conservation and Land Management (1999). Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
              • Hobbs, R. J. and Mooney, H. A. (1993). Restoration ecology and invasions. In Nature Conservation 3: Reconstruction of Fragmented Ecosystems. pp 127-133, Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. and Ehrlich, P. R. (eds). Surrey Beatty and Sons: NSW.
              • Register of the National Estate (2000). Australian Heritage Commission Register of the National Estate. http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/heritage/register/site.
              • True, D and O’Callaghan, A. \(1998\). Communit
        • Appendix 1: List of species found in each occurrence of the Billeranga System�(Note: this is not a comprehensive list)
        • Summary of costs for each Recovery Action
    • Fence occurrences where appropriate


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