National Tropical Botanical Garden, 3530 Papalina Road, Kalaheo,
eleven possible new extinctions are reported for the Hawaiian flora, in addition to 5 island
records, 3 range rediscoveries, 1 rediscovery, and 1 new naturalized record. the remark-
able range rediscoveries of Ctenitis squamigera (Dryopteridaceae) and Lysimachia filifo-
as endangered and were undocumented on Kaua‘i for ca 100 years. Yet there is great con-
cern over numerous possible plant extinctions in Hawai‘i. two extinctions were recently
reported from Kaua‘i (i.e., Dubautia kenwoodii and Cyanea kuhihewa) (Wood 2007), and
an additional 11 are now reported to have no known living individuals in the wild. Species
abundance will naturally fluctuate, yet for very rare taxa there is little room for decline.
the ongoing decline of native pollinators (Kearns et al. 1998) and seed dispersers (Mil -
berg & tyrberg 1993), in combination with other primary extrinsic factors such as inva-
sive nonnative plants, predation by introduced vertebrates, loss and fragmentation of nat-
ural habitats, and devastation by severe storms, are leading to an increase in extinctions
throughout the islands of oceania (Sakai et al. 2002; Wood 2007; Kingsford et al. 2009).
the assertion of extinction is potentially fallible and can only be inferred from absence of
sighting or collection records (Solow & Roberts 2003). Although extensive field surveys
have failed to produce evidence that these possibly extinct taxa still occur in the wild,
there is still suitable habitat and future field surveys are being planned and funded.
Because of the enormity of Hawai‘i’s conservation dilemma, it is urgent that we have the
most current information possible (Wagner et al. 1999). this paper is a call for biologists
and conservation agencies to make concerted efforts to familiarize, re-find, and attempt to
acquire conservation collections of these elusive species, many of which are hard to rec-
ognize, especially when they are not in flower or fruit.
subsp. maxima Lammers
Lammers (1991) described Clermontia grandiflora subsp. maxima from a single collec-
tion made in 1973 on the windward slopes of Haleakalā in montane cloud forest (i.e.,
Gagné & Montgomery 386), with no other collections reported since then. Lammers notes
the new taxon differs from all other specimens of C. grandiflora by its much larger flow-
ers and he indicates that C. grandiflora has seldom been collected above 1275 m.
Collections that fit Lammers diagnosis of C. grandiflora subsp. maxima, especially fila-
ments 8.0–8.6 cm long, were made at ca. 1700 m elev. in Hanawī, just west of the
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Edited by
Neal L. Evenhuis & Lucius G. Eldredge. Bishop Museum
Occasional Papers 113: 91–102 (2012)
1. Contribution no. 2012-014 to the Hawaii Biological Survey.
2. Research Associate, Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
floral structures that range in their linear measurements to fit both C. grandiflora subsp.
to better understand the quantitative differences that may separate these two taxa.
headwaters, Metrosideros-Cheirodendron montane wet forest associated with Kadua axillaris,
tour trail, 3 m tall, moderately branched, in flower and fruit, observed with C. arborescens and C.
5 oct 1997, Wood 6799 (NY, PtBG).
Harold St. John (1987) originally described this species as a Delissea, and Lammers
(1992) subsequently transferred it over to Cyanea. Wagner et al. (1999) noted this species
to be endangered and the USFWS (2010) has recently listed it as endangered. only known
from Wainiha Valley, Kaua‘i, where Charles Christensen made the holotype collection, no
living individuals of this species are currently known.
‘ele‘ele, shaded gulch in wet forest, 700 ft elev., 19 Jul 1977, Christensen 261 (holotype, BISH).
originally placed in Delissea by Harold St. John (1987), and later transferred to Cyanea
by Lammers (1992), Cyanea kolekoleensis has always been considered rare and restrict-
ed to the Wahiawa Mountains of southern Kaua‘i where biologists monitored four sites
totaling less than ten individuals. Last observed in a gulch to the northeast of Hulua peak
in 1996, there are currently no living individuals known of this Kaua‘i endemic.
berries and seeds were unknown. three additional herbarium collections deposited at
PtBG after Lammers (1992) made the new combination allow for a more expanded cir-
cumscription. Seed size and non-rugose testa morphology support its placement within
765 m, 23 Sep 1979, S. Perlman 498 (holotype, BISH; isotypes, BISH — 2 sheets).
Shrub, single stemmed or few branched, 1.5–2 m tall, glabrous. Lamina narrowly elliptic,
15.5–30 cm long, 2.7–5.7 cm wide, upper surface green, glabrous, lower surface greenish white,
glabrous or the midrib minutely and sparsely pubescent, margin minutely serrulate, apex acuminate,
base cuneate, petiole terete, 3.5–10 cm long, 4 mm diam., glabrous. Inflorescence 4–8-flowered,
glabrous, peduncle deflexed, 10.5–20 cm long, 2–4 mm diam., rachis 3–6.5 cm long, pedicels sharply
recurved, 18–27 mm long, reduced in length toward apex of rachis; hypanthium obconic or obovoid,
6–13 mm long, 6–11 mm diam., densely short-pubescent; calyx lobes narrowly triangular or deltoid,
1.5–3 mm long, 1.5–3.5 mm wide, the apex acute; corolla bilabiate, white shading to purple on the
lobes, 50–52 mm long, densely short-pubescent, tube curved, 30–39 mm long, 5.5–9 mm diam., cleft
dorsally for ½ its length, dorsal lobes linear, 13–19 mm long, 1.5–3 mm wide, acute at apex; ventral
lobes linear, 10–15 mm long, 1.5–3 mm wide, acute at apex; staminal column exserted; filaments
3.7–4.9 cm long, purple, glabrous; anther tube dark purple, 9–11 mm long, 2.5–4.0 mm diam., the
lower 2 anthers with tufts of white hairs at apex. Berry (slightly immature) globose, 7 mm long, yel-
low-green with persistent calyx lobes. Seeds (immature), testa tan-brown, striate-verruculate, 0.5–0.7
mm long × 0.3–0.5 mm diam.
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 113, 2012
Bog, along tributary of Wahiawa Stream, northwest of stream and southeast of Hulua, wet forest domi-
nated by Metrosideros, Antidesma, Cyrtandra spp., and Athyrium, with Diplazium and Deparia, single
stemmed shrub of 5 ft, along edge of stream, leaves dark, semi-glossy green above with whitish-green
midrib, below silvery, whitish-green with yellow-green midrib, inflorescence pendulous, fruit erect,
650–730 m elev., 7 Dec 1988, Flynn & Wood 3229 (PtBG); Wahiawa, south of Kapalaoa, below and
along west ridge, Metrosideros wet forest with Psychotria hexandra, Kadua affinis, Perrottetia sand-
wicensis, Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium glaucum, Diplazium sandwichianum, Diplopterygium, Psidium
cattleianum, Rubus rosifolius, Pritchardia flynnii, Labordia lydgatei, Myrsine linearifolia, Dubautia
imbricata, Cyrtandra pickeringii, Platydesma rostrata, 2 meter tall, branching 2–3 times, leaves dull
green above, pale below, petiole and costa yellow-green, peduncle light green, corolla white with purple
stripes, 805 m elev., 8 Sep 1998, Wood et al. 7470 (PtBG); Wahiawa drainage, side drainage below rope
trail, Metrosideros-Dicranopteris lowland wet forest with Cheirodendron, Kadua affinis, Broussaisia,
include pigs, Rubus rosifolius, Psidium cattleianum, 3 clumps multi-trunked, up first side gulch north of
main stream, east side of gulch. 760 m elev., 26 Mar 1993, Wood 2119 (PtBG); Wahiawa Mts., north-
east of Hulua, near Waimea-Kōloa District boundary, Metrosideros-Cheirodendron spp. lowland wet
forest with Broussaisia, Melicope, Kadua, Freycinetia, Pritchardia, Antidesma, Psychotria, Elapho -
glossum, Viola helenae, Cyrtandra, Hesperomannia, Dubautia imbricata, Dicranopteris, 1 plant ob -
served in gulch with 2 seedlings, plant 6 ft, with flowers, 2420 ft elev., 6 Sep 1991, Perlman et al. 12235
(F, PtBG, US); Wahiawa Mts., Kapalaoa Peak, gulch south of peak, Metrosideros- Dicranopteris lin-
earis wet forest with Cheirodendron, Broussaisia, Machaerina angustifolia, Dubautia laxa, Polyscias,
Embelia, Myrsine, Scaevola, Psychotria, Labordia waialealae, Syzygium sandwicensis, Sadleria, Rubus
rosifolius, Dubautia imbricata, Perrottetia, 2440 ft. elev., 4 oct 1996, Perlman et al. 15606 (PtBG).
two species of Merremia were recorded by Wagner et al. (1990: 563) as being natural-
ized in the Hawaiian Islands, namely M. aegyptia (L.) Urb. and M. tuberosa (L.) Rendle.
Imada et al. (2000: 11) report a third species, M. umbellata (L.) Hallier f. as being fully
naturalized on windward o‘ahu and Merremia peltata (L.) Merr. is now recorded for the
first time as being naturalized in the archipelago. the four Merremia species in Hawai‘i
can be separated by characters given in the following key.
Key to Merremia in the Hawaiian Islands
1. Leaves palmately lobed to palmately compound (2).
1. Leaves neither palmately lobed nor compound (3).
2(1). Leaves palmately compound; plants usually reddish hirsute … M. aegyptia
2. Leaves palmately lobed but not compound; plants glabrous … M. tuberosa
3(1). Leaves peltate (except rarely on distal leaves), rounded at base … M. peltata
3. Leaves not peltate, truncate to cordate or hastate at base … M. umbellata
Merremia peltata (L.) Merr.
New naturalized record
this twining vine with broadly ovate-orbicular, peltately attached leaves has not been pre-
viously recorded as naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands. It is currently reported in two
locations ½ mile apart in Wainiha Valley, Kaua‘i, where it is a rampant climber covering
numerous acres and quickly smothering vegetation. Fosberg & Sachet (1977) describe its
distribution as Indo-Pacific, from Africa to tahiti [Society Islands]. My observation of
this species in Micronesia leads me to believe that Merremia peltata is a very serious inva-
sive species that should be closely watched and managed here in Hawai‘i.
HBS Records for 2011 — Part II: Plants
Maunahina, sterile, 152 m elev., 27 oct 1999, Keith Robinson s.n. (BISH, PtBG).
Maui (HBMP 2011), but considered possibly extinct on Kaua‘i (Palmer 2003: 102). Amos
Heller made the only collection on Kaua‘i in 1896 above Waimea at 2000 ft elev. He notes
that the plant was on the face of a perpendicular rock in gulch and exposed directly to the
afternoon sun. Heller also indicates that C. squamigera was not observed in other loca-
tions during his research on Kaua‘i (Heller 1897). After 115 years of not being observed
on Kaua‘i, recent field research within mesophytic forests of Kōke‘e has unveiled two
new locations for this federally listed endangered fern, namely Nu‘ololo and Awa‘awa-
puhi Valleys. the following collections represent this exciting rediscovery.
Material examined. KAUA‘I: Nu‘ololo, north facing slopes above drainage, Metrosideros-Acacia
montane mesic forest, 70–80% canopy cover, ca. 80% understory, 35–40 degree slope, 40 degree north
aspect, up to 20 m tall canopy, with Pouteria, Xylosma hawaiiensis, Claoxylon, Wikstroemia furcata,
Dodonaea, Kadua affinis, Melicope ovata, Pleomele, Polyscias kavaiensis, Psychotria greenwelliae & P.
mariniana, Zanthoxylum dipetalum, Nestegis, Diplazium, immediate area has 20% Myrsine lanaiensis,
5% Pittosporum kauaiensis, some Alphitonia ponderosa, Carex meyenii, Dianella sandwicensis, threat-
ened by deer, rats, 10% cover of Lantana camara, with Rubus argutus, Hedychium gardnerianum,
Kalanchoë pinnata, Sphaeropteris cooperi, Adiantum hispidulum, Psidium cattleianum, rhizome terrestri-
al sub-erect with abundant stamineous scales which continue up stipe and rachis, 5 fronds, protected on
steep slope with boulder outcrops, adjacent Dryopteris sandwicensis, Doodia, Microlepia strigosa, single
plant, 1006 m (3300 ft),19 Feb 2011, Wood & Query 14524 (BISH, PtBG); Awa‘awapuhi, north facing
slopes, Metrosideros-Acacia montane mesic forest, with Pouteria, Xylosma hawaiiensis, Antidesma,
Diospyros sandwicensis, Wikstroemia furcata, Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Kadua affinis, Melicope ovata,
M. barbigera, Euphorbia atrococca, Pleomele, Polyscias kavaiensis, Psychotria greenwelliae,
Zanthoxylum dipetalum, Nestegis, rhizome terrestrial, 4 cm wide × 7 cm long, 7 healthy fronds with skirt
of old fronds, under 90% forest cover, with Microlepia strigosa, Hillebrandia sandwicensis, Lepidium
pockets, large 12 m tall Alphitonia ponderosa near-by, with adjacent Psychotria mariniana, Dodonaea vis-
Previously recorded on Midway, Kaua‘i, o‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Maui, Kaho‘olawe,
and the Big Island of Hawai‘i (Wagner, Herbst et al. 1999; Hughes 1995), the prostrate
spurge is now documented on Ni‘ihau’s offshore islet of Lehua.
the ground being exposed barren tuff along with many hundreds of naturally hallowed burrows,
decumbent stems pink or green-purple, leaves green or green-red, cyathial gland white, uncommon,
island record, 30 m elev., 2 May 2009, Wood 13714 (BISH, PtBG, US).
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 113, 2012
Previously known only from the type collection made in the woods of Waimea (Knudsen
rediscovered May 1993 (Lorence et al. 1995) in Koai‘e Canyon and subsequently found
in upper Kawai Iki Valley on 25 Sep 2001. Unfortunately, both wild populations have
since died, and there are no cultivated plants of this Kaua‘i endemic mint.
ft) above stream, north-facing slope, 692 m (2270 ft) elev., 24 May 1993, Wood & Perlman 2583
(PtBG); loc. cit., 31 Aug 1994, Perlman & Wood 14365 (PtBG); Kawai Iki, upper drainage above
twin falls of Koai‘e Canyon, Metrosideros polymorpha mixed mesic forest with Gahnia beecheyi,
observed in general area, 330 deg aspect, 20 deg slope, in side-gulch bottom near main drainage,
1015 m elev. (3330 ft), 25 Sep 2001, Wood 9115 (PtBG).
Huperzia filiformis (Sw.) Holub
New island record
this delicately pendulous fern is considered indigenous to Hawai‘i and Central and South
America to Bolivia (Mickel & Smith 2004). In Hawai‘i Huperzia filiformis was previ-
ously thought to be restricted to o‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Palmer
2003). Further field research now indicates that H. filiformis is also present on Kaua‘i, yet
quite rare, within the headwater drainages of Wainiha and Wailua.
southwest of Mahinakehau Ridge, lowland wet forest with Metrosideros polymorpha dominant, also
pendulous, light green, very rare, a single plant seen at 825 m elev., 30 Jan 1993, Lorence et al. 7346
(PtBG); Blue Hole, headwaters of Wailua River, below Wai‘ale‘ale and Kawaikini, near south fac-
ing cliffs below Blue Hole proper, ridge running 300 degrees down to stream, Metrosideros lowland
wet forest with Psychotria mariniana, Antidesma platyphyllum var. hillebrandii, Dianella sand-
wicensis, Polyscias oahuensis, Freycinetia arborea, Diplazium sandwichianum, Microlepia strigosa,
and Sadleria pallida, threatened by pigs, Rubus rosifolius, Psidium guajava, Paspalum urvillei, and
green, sporangia yellow-white, rare, 610 m elev., 10 Dec 1998, Wood 7631 (PtBG).
W.L. Wagner (Fig. 1)
Four shrubs of Hibiscadelphus woodii were discovered in March 1991 clustered on a ver-
tical cliff in Kalalau Valley, Kaua‘i, increasing the total number of species for the endem-
ic Hibiscadelphus to seven (Wood 1992; Lorence & Wagner 1995). Subsequent efforts to
propagate H. woodii by air layering, cuttings, and grafting trials onto con-generic culti-
vated individuals had failed. tests for H. woodii pollen viability proved negative, and
cross pollination trials from H. distans showed no success. Micropropagation attempts at
in vitro protocol development for apical and lateral meristem culture, callus culture uti-
HBS Records for 2011 — Part II: Plants
failed. Although no fruit set was ever observed, flowering was documented during the
months of March, April, July, and September. Flower visitations by birds include the
native ‘amakihi (Hemignathus virens). Introduced Japanese white eye (Zosterops japoni-
tar. three individuals of H. woodii were apparently crushed by a large fallen boulder and
died between 1995 and 1998. on 17 August 2011, the last remaining H. woodii was
observed dead. Previously, the final wild H. hualalaiensis died on the Big Island in 1992
(Wood & Perlman, pers. observ.). A total of six species of Hibiscadelphus are now extinct
in the wild, two of which are maintained through cultivation (i.e., H. giffardianus and H.
mesic cliffs, 990–1020 m, 3 March 1991, Wood, Query & Montgomery 629 (holotype, PtBG, a
flower also in spirit collection; isotypes, BISH, K, Mo, NY, US).
Peperomia subpetiolata Yunck.
Peperomia subpetiolata is an east Maui narrow endemic species known only from around
the Kula Pipeline of lower Waikamoi (Yuncker 1933; Wagner et al. 1990). In the early
1990s it was estimated that around 40 individuals occurred in that region, both above and
below the road. A putative hybrid between P. subpetiolata and P. cookiana was also doc-
umented in that area. the dense invasion of Hedychium gardnerianum below a nonnative
forest canopy of Eucalyptus has left little open soil for herbaceous terrestrial species such
as P. subpetiolata to survive. Recent field research has failed to locate any individuals of
Figure 1. Hibiscedelphus woodii. Kalalau cliffs, Kaua‘i. Photo: K.R. Wood.
oppenheimer & Perlman pers. observ.).
Clark & Gould
Gon (1994) describes a true bog on o‘ahu where several island plant records were ob served
(Kennedy et al. 2010: 21), including two endemic species of Dichanthelium, both of which
were documented during the discovery of the bog in February 1993. Dichanthelium cynodon
was previously recorded from Kaua‘i, Moloka‘i, and Maui (Wagner et al. 1990), and now
reported on o‘ahu in association with D. hillebrandianum.
Pe‘ahināi‘a and south of Castle trail, Metrosideros-Rhynchospora lowland bog with Lobelia gau-
C.A. Clark & Gould
and Hawai‘i (Wagner et al. 1990) and is now documented on o‘ahu.
and south of Castle trail, Metrosideros-Rhynchospora lowland bog with Dichanthelium hillebrandi-
Previously recorded on o‘ahu and Kaua‘i, yet not seen on Kaua‘i since 1912 when
Lydgate made the holotype collection in upper olokele below the Kawaikini summit
(Wagner et al. 1990; Marr & Bohm 1997), Lysimachia filifolia was recently rediscovered
below Kamanu ridge, eastern Kaua‘i, in the headwater region of Waikoko. Plants of this
federally listed endangered species are being cultivated by the National tropical Botanical
Garden (NtBG). Wagner et al. (1990) report collections of L. filifolia from the Blue Hole
region of Wailua, Kaua‘i, but these plants were subsequently described as a new species
(i.e., L. pendens Marr). Lysimachia filifolia can be distinguished from L. pendens by its
narrower leaves and non-tomentose stems, pedicels, and leaves (Marr & Bohm 1997). It
is worth noting that plants of L. filifolia on Kaua‘i can be erect up to 1.5 m tall as com-
pared to the o‘ahu plants which are smaller, more delicate, and only known to be pendu-
lous. Further studies are needed to better understand their relationship.
Material examined. KAUA‘I: upper olokele Valley, Jan 1912, Lydgate 2 (holotype, BISH);
Waikoko headwaters, below Kamanu ridge, S of Wailua River and above Wailua ditch, associated
with Cheirodendron, Pipturus spp., Dubautia, Cyrtandra, Kadua centranthoides, K. elatior, K. fog-
giana, Psychotria, Melicope, Machaerina, Isachne, with ferns of Microlepia, Asplenium, Cyclosorus,
Deparia, terrestrial in Diplazium with Boehmeria grandis, 1.5 m tall with erect stems brown-red,
pendent corolla light purple, terrestrial near land slide and on wet cliff, ca 30 plants, threats include
pigs, landslides, Buddleia asiatica, Erigeron karvinskianus, 732 m elev., 12 Jan 2008, Wood 12774
mit of Mt Wai‘ale‘ale. this species was not observed again until 1911 when Joseph Rock
also made a collection around Mt. Wai‘ale‘ale summit. In 1991 a small branch represent-
ing this taxon was found after a storm at the bottom of a 1000 m tall cliff (i.e., Blue Hole,
below Wai‘ale‘ale, at the headwaters of Wailua River), with no indication of where the liv-
ing plant might be located. Lysimachia venosa is presently considered possibly extinct
since no living individuals are known.
Material examined. KAUA‘I: Summit of Mt Wai‘ale‘ale, 1600 m elev., Mar 1870, Wawra 2165
(holotype, W; isotypes, W, BISH); Summit of Mt Wai‘ale‘ale, 1911, Rock 8881 (BISH, GH); Wailua
headwaters, north fork, Blue Hole, small branch found after storm at bottom of 1000 m tall cliff, 600
m elev., 7 May 1991, Wood 784 (PtBG).
After not being observed since 1957 a single plant of Acaena exigua was rediscovered in
a West Maui bog in 1997 (Meidell et al. 1998; oppenheimer et al. 2002; Wood 2005).
During the period of 1997 to 2000, attempts at propagation failed and in early 2000 the
only known plant died. Historically, A. exigua occurred in bogs on West Maui where its
Hawaiian name is liliwai, and also on the island of Kaua‘i where it was known as nani
Wai‘ale‘ale. Numerous surveys have since been conducted around the West Maui bogs
and throughout most of the summit bogs of Alaka‘i and Nāmolokama, Kaua‘i, yet no
other individuals of A. exigua have been documented (Wood 2006). Heinrich Wawra was
the last one to observe it on Kaua‘i in 1870. the extremely small size of A. exigua, with
stems 1–4 cm long (Wagner et al. 1990) make it extremely difficult to locate. Although
there is excellent bog habitat being protected on the summits of Kaua‘i and West Maui
indicating that there could be more individuals waiting to be discovered, A. exigua is now
considered possibly extinct with no known living plants extant.
mixed ‘ōhi‘a montane bog, 19 Mar 1997, Meidell & Oppenheimer 194 (BISH).
Recently described and known only from a single location on the north side of Mt Ha‘upu,
Kaua‘i, Kadua haupuensis was last observed in the wild when discovered in 1998
(Lorence et al. 2010). Plants from the holotype region of the mountain were evidently
destroyed by a small rock slide and numerous attempts to locate additional plants of this
species have failed. With no known wild individuals remaining, K. haupuensis is now
considered possibly extinct. the quality of its habitat is rapidly declining due to animal
disturbance such as rats, pigs, and goats, and invasive alien plant species including Cae -
covery, seeds were collected and plants are being cultivated at the NtBG.
and along cliffs w of summit, 366 m, 23 Sep 1998, Wood 7492 (BISH, Mo, NY, PtBG, US).
& B.C. Stone
A Kaua‘i endemic, Melicope macropus was historically known from the Kahōluamano
Most recently it was observed in Kalalau in 1987, Honopū in 1991, and the upper Nu‘ololo
stream region in 1995. this taxon is poorly understood (Wagner et al. 1990) and the type
designated by Hillebrand (i.e., Knudsen 189) was destroyed in Berlin (Stone 1969). Wagner
differs in its puberulent exocarp, less overall pubescence and predominantly smaller leaves
(Stone 1969). No living individuals of this species are known at this time.
Material examined. KAUA‘I: Hanalei Distr, Nā Pali-Kōna Forest Reserve, Kalalau Valley,
steep, southwest slope between Kalalau and Pu‘u o Kila lookouts, diverse forest of Metrosideros,
Kalalau lookout, by stream on west side of road, Metrosideros diverse montane mesic forest with
and vigorous, threatened by pigs, Rubus rosifolius, Hedychium gardnerianum, 1200 m elev., 29 Aug
1991, Wood & Perlman 1182 (PtBG, US); Waimea Distr, upper Nu‘ololo Stream, north branch,
Acacia-Metrosideros montane mesic forest with Psychotria grandiflora, Xylosma crenatum, Poa
siphonoglossa & P. sandvicensis, Myrsine knudsenii, Nothocestrum peltatum, Dubautia latifolia,
Bobea brevipes, Melicope macropus, Lobelia yuccoides, Alyxia stellata, threats include pigs, deer,
Rubus argutus, Hedychium gardnerianum, Kalanchoë pinnata, 3700–3800 ft, 1 m tall, diffusely
branched shrub, sprawling stems 1 m long, stems dark-brown, petiole brown, leaves shiny, dark-
green above, paler below, peduncle yellow-green, immature flower brown-red, branches with tan or
white pubescence at apical tips, det. W.L. Wagner, 23 Nov 1995, Wood & Davis 4806 (PtBG).
Considered rare by Wagner et al. (1990), Melicope nealae was known from the
Kahōluamano and Kumuwela regions of Kaua‘i. Last observed in 1960 around
Kumuwela, no living individuals are known of this taxon. Melicope nealae differs from
ly obovate leaves (Stone 1969). Wagner et al. (1990) relate it to the M. kavaiensis com-
plex, differing by its combination of puberulent exocarp, glabrous endocarp, and carpels
connate ca. ½ their length.
Kōke‘e Plateau, level forested area north of Kumuwela Lookout, under Psychotria, Zanthoxylum,
and Platydesma, a subscandent low shrub with green pubescent capsules and pubescent leaves, elev.
3500 ft, 12 Apr 1960, B. C. Stone et al. 3359 (BISH, L, US).
e.P. Hume) t.G. Hartley & B.C. Stone
in 1909, and rediscovered in the same general region of Wahiawa in May 1991 (Lorence
in September 1992 (Wood 2009b, 2011). Melicope quadrangularis is easily distinguished
on Kaua‘i by its large 12–14 mm long × 19–22 mm wide, cube-shaped capsules with cen-
tral depression at apex. Numerous surveys in the Wahiawa region have failed to relocate
any living individuals of this species.
Material examined. KAUA‘I: Vicinity of Wahiawa Swamp, Aug 1909, C. N. Forbes 273.K
(holotype, BISH); Līhu‘e Distr, Wahiawa, drainage between Hulua and Kapalaoa, Metrosideros-
single tree in fruit, 13 cm diameter at base, vigorous, east aspect, 20 May 1991, Wood et al. 0858
Cyclosorus pendens (D.D. Palmer) N. Snow
[Syn. Pneumatopteris pendens D.D. Palmer]
Recently described by Palmer (2005), yet historically known from the islands of Kaua‘i,
o‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i, Cyclosorus pendens has been taxonomically con-
fused with C. sandwicensis by numerous collectors and botanists. the genus Pneu -
to 1909 when it was first documented by C. N. Forbes in olokele Valley, Kaua‘i. Palmer
considered C. pendens to be extinct on Kaua‘i and only cited recent collections on o‘ahu,
Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Palmer 2005). the following collection made around the
falls of Hanakāpī‘ai indicates that it is still extant on Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUA‘I: Na Pali coast, Hanakāpī‘ai falls, base of wet cliff, to left of falls
along narrow ledge, growing with Selaginella arbuscula, Deparia petersenii, Blechnum appendicu-
sp. in the area, det. A. Smith, 6 Apr 2007, A. R. Smith 2918 (PtBG, UC).
An Indian perennial herb, semi-wild populations of turmeric (‘ōlena) have been previ-
ously recorded from Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Wagner et al. 1990). Recent research
around the remote headwater region of Wainiha has documented Curcuma longa growing
adjacent to ancient rock walls. Rhizomes have been collected and are being cultivated at
spp, Dubautia spp, Labordia spp, Polyscias kavaiensis, P. oahuensis, rich fern and bryophyte under-
story, 472 m elev., 18 Jun 2008, Wood et al. 13135 (BISH, PtBG).
For their continued support I thank the staff at the National tropical Botanical Garden; the
Bishop Museum; the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; the Hawai‘i State Department of
Land and Natural Resources; the Nature Conservancy of Hawai‘i; the Smithsonian
Institution; the Plant extinction Prevention Program of Hawai‘i (PePP); and the
University Herbarium, UC Berkeley. My respect and gratitude to those who have assist-
ed in field research. Much appreciation is extended to Clyde Imada who helped to
improve this manuscript and to Danielle Frohlich and Alex Lau for sharing their knowl-
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