Pumping insulin at school ada safe at School Campaign



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PUMPING INSULIN AT SCHOOL

  • ADA Safe at School Campaign:

  • Your Child, Your School, and

  • Your Rights

  • Crystal Jackson, Manager, Legal Advocacy

  • American Diabetes Association

  • Government Affairs & Legal Advocacy

  • Spring 2007


TO PREVENT AND CURE DIABETES

  • TO PREVENT AND CURE DIABETES

  • AND TO IMPROVE THE LIVES OF ALL

  • PEOPLE AFFECTED BY DIABETES







All school staff members need to have a basic knowledge of diabetes and know who to contact for help.

  • All school staff members need to have a basic knowledge of diabetes and know who to contact for help.



American Academy of Pediatrics American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists American Association of Diabetes Educators American Diabetes Association American Dietetic Association Children With Diabetes Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society

  • American Academy of Pediatrics American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists American Association of Diabetes Educators American Diabetes Association American Dietetic Association Children With Diabetes Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society



Goals for School Diabetes Care

  • Schools must provide a medically safe environment for students with diabetes.

  • Students with diabetes must have the same access to educational opportunities and school-related activities as their peers.



TEAM APPROACH TO ACHIEVE

  • Parent

  • Student

  • Student’s health care provider

  • School nurse as facilitator and coordinator of care

  • School administrator

  • Teachers

  • Other school personnel



Legal Protection of Students with Diabetes: Federal Laws

  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504)

  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)



What’s The Difference?

  • Section 504: students attending public and private school receiving federal funds covered; the major life activity substantially limited does not need to be learning.

  • ADA: same as 504, except covers daycares and camps; does not cover religious affiliated schools/programs unless federal funds received.

  • IDEA: special ed law; must demonstrate that diabetes or another disability adversely impacts ability to learn and to progress academically.



Section 504

  • A civil rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability.

  • Who is covered? Child with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one of more of major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

  • What schools? All public schools and private schools that receive federal financial assistance.



What Does This Mean?

  • Schools must:

  • Identify students with disabilities

  • Provide needed services and aids

  • Educate with other children

  • Allow parental participation in decisions

  • Equal access to participation

  • Treat students with fairness

  • No retaliation



Substantially Limits …

  • Unable to perform (at all)

  • Significantly restricts ability to perform



Major Life Activities

  • Caring for one’s self

  • Performing manual tasks

  • Eating

  • Walking



Evaluation Required

  • Schools must conduct an evaluation if

  • suspected in need of special education or related services or if requested by parent.



Section 504 Requires Evaluation Meeting

  • Evaluation must be made by a group of

  • persons who are:

  • Knowledgeable about your child

  • Knowledgeable about the evaluation data

  • Knowledgeable about services options

  • Upon determination of 504 eligibility,a Section 504 Plan is developed by school team



A written document where the parents and school agree on the services and modifications that the student needs.

  • A written document where the parents and school agree on the services and modifications that the student needs.



Possible 504 Plan Contents Related To Pumping

  • Identify trained school personnel

  • Training contents and when trained

  • Child independent or need assistance?

  • Allow to bolus on the spot if independent

  • Allow to keep insulin and supplies with student

  • Privacy if desired

  • Safe-keeping and storage if pump is disconnected (P.E.)



DMMP

  • Document developed and signed by your child’s health care provider.

  • Sets out your child’s school diabetes care regimen.

  • Used as a basis for development of Section 504 Plan or other written education plan.

  • Should be updated annually or if your child’s regimen, level of self-management, or school circumstances change.



Pump Specifics

  • Type of pump

  • Type of insulin

  • Basal rates

  • Type of infusion set

  • Level of self-care

  • Identify when assistance will be needed

  • Identify circumstances in which infusion set should be changed

  • Other insulin delivery method if pump is inoperable



DMMP Insulin Regimen

  • Type of insulin

  • Administration time

  • Insulin to carb ratio

  • Correction factor

  • Bolus calculator and/or sliding scale

  • Authorization for parent to adjust doses without hcp approval

  • Level of self-care



Assistance Needed?

  • Carb counting

  • Calculate bolus for carbs and correction

  • Calculate and set basal rates (incl. temporary)

  • Push buttons – especially for younger children

  • Disconnect/reconnect/suspend/resume pump

  • Prepare reservoir and tubing

  • Insert infusion set

  • Troubleshoot alarms and malfunctions



Supplies Provided by Parent

  • Blood glucose meter, strips, lancet with lancet device

  • Blood/urine ketone strips

  • Insulin syringes/insulin pen

  • Insulin – vial, cartridge

  • Pump cartridge, reservoir

  • Pump infusion sets and inserter if used

  • Pump batteries

  • Glucagon emergency kit

  • Quick-acting form of carb such as fruit juice, glucose tabs

  • Snacks

  • Pump resources such as manual, DVD, alarm card



A Word About CGMS

  • Agreement on response to alarms

  • Confirm blood glucose results with fingerstick before taking any action

  • Receiver is not a pager or cell phone-needs to be kept close by or on student

  • Educate personnel about CGMS and what they can expect

  • Write into DMMP and 504 plan



Implementation of DMMP

  • Implement through written education plan – usually a Section 504 Plan, but sometimes an Individualized Education Program (IEP), or other written plan.



Common School Diabetes Care Challenges

  • Lack of trained back-up personnel

  • Lack of knowledge by school nurse and other school staff

  • “Old school” thinking about diabetes care

  • Refusal to administer insulin, glucagon, bgm

  • Fear of newer technology such as the pump

  • Lack of coverage for field trips and extracurricular activities

  • Refusal to permit student self-care on the spot

  • Sending child to “diabetes school”

  • Refusal to enroll child



ADA MANTRA

  • Accomplish through education, negotiation, litigation, legislation.

  • Educate school personnel about diabetes and legal obligations.

  • Negotiate using resources such as NDEP school guide, ADA resources, and pump companies.

  • Litigate if necessary – OCR, due process, state court, federal court.

  • Legislate if all else fails and clear legal barriers exist.



  • Diabetes Basics



Insulin Pump Challenges: Educate to Overcome

  • Fear and ignorance

  • Perception that pumping is complicated

  • Perception of increased responsibility and workload for school nurse and other school personnel

  • Fear of damaging pump

  • Resistance to learning about operation of equipment

  • Concern that younger children will push buttons and accidentally dose









ADA Education discrimination packets and individual help at 1-800-DIABETES for your patients

  • ADA Education discrimination packets and individual help at 1-800-DIABETES for your patients

  • ADA Discrimination Web Page: www.diabetes.org/discrimination click on “school”

  • Your School & Your Rights Overview of how to protect students with diabetes against discrimination by schools and day care centers.

  • Education Discrimination Materials Collection of school advocacy materials to assist families in securing appropriate diabetes care at school.

  • School Legislative Efforts State school diabetes care laws to protect students with diabetes.

  • School Discrimination Resources

  • Organizations and agencies that can provide assistance to families in securing appropriate school diabetes care.



Scientific Support

  • Darby, Wendy, CRNP, PhD: The Experiences of School Nurses Caring for Students Receiving Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Therapy: Journal of School Nursing: Vol. 22, Issue 6, Pages 336-344.

  • School nurse fear of pumping can be overcome with education, resources, and hands-on experience.



Sci-Support – Acute Complications

  • Arleta Rewer, MD, et al (Barbara Davis Ctr): Predictors of Complications of Children withType 1 Diabetes: JAMA, Vol. 287, No. 19, 5/15/02.

  • Ketoacidosis – 8 per 100

  • Severe hypoglycemia – 19 per 100



More Scientific Support

  • Helms, MA, Clarke WL.: Safe at School: A Virginia Experience: Diabetes Care, March 10, 2007 (Epub).

  • Safe care can be delivered by trained medical and non-medical personnel.



Use ADA’s, pump company’s, and other resources to negotiate with school administrators

  • Use ADA’s, pump company’s, and other resources to negotiate with school administrators



Overcoming School Pumping Challenges: Negotiate

  • Work with your child’s diabetes health care team to develop Diabetes Medical Management Plan (DMMP) or physician’s orders before school begins.

  • Set up meeting with school personnel before school begins so everyone understands your child’s diabetes needs and how needs will be met.

  • Address insulin pump protocols and concerns in a Section 504 plan or other written education plan.

  • Provide school with supplies, snacks, and current emergency contact information.

  • Work with your school nurse to arrange for pump company to provide training to school personnel.



How to Litigate?

  • File complaint with U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights.

  • School district or state due process/grievance procedure/hearing.

  • File complaint in state court.

  • File complaint in federal court.



Litigate: Office Of Civil Rights (OCR)

  • Division of U.S. Department of Education responsible for enforcing Section 504

  • Complaint must be filed within 180 days of alleged discrimination to initiate process

  • OCR will investigate

  • Settlement agreement – Commitment to Resolve

  • Henderson, NC CTR required school to train personnel on pump



Legislate

  • Legislate after attempts to educate, negotiate, and litigate have not been successful.

  • Consider changing state law if current laws and policies do not provide students with diabetes the protection they need.

  • Realize that systems change slowly. Patience and perseverance required.



School Policies, State Laws and Regulations

  • Vary from state to state, district to district, school to school.

  • Sometimes sets out who can perform medical tasks.

  • Regardless, there must be compliance with federal laws.

  • Some states have passed school diabetes care legislation.



State Laws

  • California

  • Colorado (BON regulatory change)

  • Connecticut

  • Hawaii

  • Kentucky

  • Massachusetts

  • Montana

  • Nebraska

  • Nevada (BON regulatory change)





CALIFORNIA

  • Law passed in 2003

  • Trained volunteers may administer glucagon

  • Student self-care anywhere, anytime permitted

  • Development of glucagon training guidelines by CADPCP



CALIFORNIA RESOURCES

  • California Department of Social Services Policy Bulletin for glucagon administration in child care setting

  • http://www.diabetes.org/uedocuments/cacbulletinglucagon.pdf

  • Glucagon Training Standards for School Personnel: Providing Emergency Medical Assistance to Pupils with Diabetes

  • http://web.diabetes.org/Advocacy/school/glucagon.pdf



SAS Campaign

  • WE NEED YOU!

  • Impact local policy

  • Help other parents

  • Create awareness in your community

  • Register to become a SAS advocate at http://advocacy.diabetes.org



Pump Manufacturers

  • Animas Corporation

  • 1-877-YES-PUMP (937-7867)

  • www.animascorp.com

  • Medtronic MiniMed, Inc.

  • 1-800-MINIMED (646-4633)

  • www.minimed.com

  • Dana Diabecare USA

  • 1-866-326-2832

  • www.theinsulinpump.com



ADA Youth Initiatives

  • Safe at School Campaign

  • National Youth Advocate

  • Camp

  • Family Resource Network (SD mtg on 4/21)

  • WIZDOM

  • SWFD



Safety + Access = School Success




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