Recovery plan



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Short-Petalled Beyeria 



 

(Beyeria lepidopetala) 

 

RECOVERY PLAN 

 

 

 



 

                  

 

 

 



 

Department of Environment and Conservation 

201 Foreshore Drive, Geraldton, WA 6530 

 

 



 

 

 



 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

 

FOREWORD 

 

Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in Department of Conservation and Land 



Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos. 44 and 50. Note: the Department of CALM formally became the 

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) in July 2006. DEC will continue to adhere to these Policy Statements 

until they are revised and reissued. 

 

 



IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes most affecting the 

ongoing survival of threatened taxa or threatened ecological communities, and begin the recovery process. 

 

DEC is committed to ensuring that threatened taxa and threatened ecological communities are conserved through the 



preparation and implementation of Recovery Plans (RPs) or IRPs, and by ensuring that conservation action commences as 

soon as possible and, in the case of Critically Endangered (CR) taxa and communities, always within one year of 

endorsement of that rank by the Minister. 

 

This IRP will operate from April 2008 to March 2013 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. It is intended 



that, if the species is still ranked as Vulnerable or its status deteriorates to Endangered or Critically Endangered, this IRP 

will be reviewed after five years and the need for a full Recovery Plan will be assessed. 

 

This IRP was approved by the Director of Nature Conservation on the 30 April 2008. The allocation of staff time and 



provision of funds identified in this IRP is dependent on budgetary and other constraints affecting DEC, as well as the need 

to address other priorities. 

 

Information in this IRP was accurate at April 2008.  



 

This IRP was prepared with financial support from the Australian Government to be adopted as a National Recovery Plan 

under the provisions of the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). 

 

IRP PREPARATION 

 

This Interim Recovery Plan was prepared by Alanna Chant¹ and Andrew Brown². 



 

¹ Flora Conservation Officer, DEC’s Geraldton District, PO Box 72 Geraldton, WA 6530. 

² Threatened Flora Coordinator, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre. 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

 

The following people have provided assistance and advice in the preparation of this Interim Recovery Plan: 



 

Andrew Crawford 

Technical Officer, Threatened Flora Seed Centre, WA Herbarium, DEC, Kensington 

Anthony Desmond  

Program Leader Nature Conservation, Midwest Region, DEC, Geraldton 

Michael Jones 

Horticulturalist, Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority, Perth 

Sue Patrick 

Formerly, Senior Research Scientist, WA Herbarium, DEC, Kensington 

Kelly Poultney 

Technical Officer, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Kensington 

John Riley 

Admin Officer, Flora, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Kensington 

 

Gillian Stack 



Project Officer, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Kensington 

Robyn Luu 

Project Officer, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Kensington 

 

Thanks also to the staff of the W.A. Herbarium for providing access to Herbarium databases and specimen information, and 



DEC's Species and Communities Branch for assistance. 

 

Cover photograph by Alanna Chant. 



 

CITATION 

Department of Environment and Conservation (2009) Short-petalled Beyeria (Beyeria lepidopetala) Recovery Plan . 

Commonwealth Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.

2

 



 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

SUMMARY 

 

Scientific Name: 



Beyeria lepidopetala 

Common Name: 

Short-petalled Beyeria 



Family: 

Euphorbiaceae 



Flowering Period: 

July - August 



DEC Region: 

Midwest 


DEC District: 

Geraldton 



Shire: 

Northampton 



Recovery Team: 

Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team 

 

Illustrations and/or further information: Atkins, K. (2008) Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. 

Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia; Bentham, G. (1873) 



Flora Australiensis: a description 

of the plants of the Australian territory. Volume VI, Thymeleae to Dioscorideae. Reeve, London

; Brown, A., Thomson-

Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora, Department of Conservation and Land 

Management, Perth, Western Australia; Western Australian Herbarium FloraBase 2 – Information on the Western 



Australian Flora (2006)  http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/. Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, 

Western Australia; Hopper, S.D. et al. (1990) Western Australia’s Endangered Flora. Department of Conservation and 

Land Management, Perth, Western Australia; Leigh, J., Boden, R. and Briggs, J. (1984) Extinct and Endangered Plants of 

Australia. Macmillan, Victoria; Marchant, N. and Keighery, G. (1979) Poorly collected and presumably rare vascular 

plants in W.A. Kings Park Research Notes 5:55; Mueller, F. (1859) Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 1(5):230. 

 

Current status: Beyeria lepidopetala was declared as Rare Flora under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 

1950 in May 1991 and was listed as presumed extinct at that time. Following its rediscovery in 1994 and further 

populations being found between 2003 and 2006, the species was ranked as Vulnerable (VU) under World Conservation 

Union (IUCN 2001) Red List Criterion D2 due to populations having a restricted area of occupancy (less than 20 km²) and 

the low number of locations (less than five) such that it is prone to the effects of human activities or stochastic events 

within a very short period of time. The main threats include clearing, inappropriate fire regimes, track and firebreak 

maintenance, weeds, rabbits and feral pigs. B. lepidopetala is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment 



Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). 

 

Description: Beyeria lepidopetala is an erect, open shrub between 25 cm and 1.7 m tall, with stellate hairs on the branches. 

The leaves, which are presented on a short petiole and are up to 15 cm long, are glabrous above with distinctive white 

stellate hairs on the underside and are narrowly oblong in shape with the margins distinctly rolled under. The flowers are 

green in colour, with both male and female flowers on slender pedicels to ca. 12 mm long. The pedicel of the female flower 

thickens upwards after flowering. The five calyx segments of the male flower are almost circular in outline, ca. 2 mm in 

diameter and overlapping. Those of the female flower are narrower and more rigid. The petals are broad, hairy on the 

inside, fringed, and shorter than the calyx lobes. There are numerous stamens and each anther cell has a small terminal 

appendage. The stigma is three-lobed and the fruit is a three-celled ovoid globular capsule, which is three seeded and ca. 6 

mm long. At one population the male and female flowers appeared on different plants but occur on one plant in the type 

specimen (Patrick 2001).  

 

Habitat requirements: Beyeria lepidopetala is currently recorded over a range of approximately 60 km, from the south 

west corner of Kalbarri National Park (Population 1) to the north-east corner of Kalbarri National Park and adjacent 

Pastoral lease (Populations 2, 3 and 4). Although there are currently no living plants in the south western population, the 

habitat is recorded as being yellow sandy clay in a gully containing open mallee heath and low heath on a limestone ridge 

above the gully. Both areas are regenerating following fire. At the north eastern locations B. lepidopetala is found on 

yellow sand with Banksia sceptrum,  Eucalyptus beardiana, Beaufortia squarrosa, Thryptomene sp., Verticordia oculata, 



Calothamnus blepharospermus and Diplopeltis huegelii.  

 

Habitat critical to the survival of the species and important populations: The habitat critical to the survival of Beyeria 



lepidopetala comprises the area of occupancy of the know populations, and similar habitat near the known populations and 

additional occurrences of similar habitat (yellow sandy clay soil in open mallee woodland, low heath on limestone ridges 

and yellow sandplain with Eucalyptus beardiana and Banksia sceptrum) that do not currently contain the species but may 

have done so in the past and may be suitable for translocations.  

 

Given that the species is currently known from just three extant populations and one presumed extinct population, it is 



considered that all known habitat for wild and possible future translocated populations is habitat critical to the species’ 

survival, and all populations, including translocated populations, are important populations. 

 

Benefits to other species or ecological communities: Recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of 

habitat of Beyeria lepidopetala will also assist in protecting other Rare and Priority Flora that occur in association with it. 



Caladenia bryceana subsp. cracens, which is ranked as Endangered by DEC  and Vulnerable under the Commonwealth 

EPBC Act, and B. cygnorum and Anthocercis intricata, which are listed as Priority 3 by DEC, occur in association with 

Population 1, while Eucalyptus beardiana, which is listed as Endangered by DEC  and Vulnerable under the 

Commonwealth EPBC Act, occurs in association with Populations 2 and 3.

 

 

 

 

3

 



 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

International obligations: This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on 

Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under 

that Convention. However, as Beyeria lepidopetala is not specifically listed under any international agreement, the 

implementation of other international environmental responsibilities is not affected by this plan. 



 

Role and interests of Indigenous people: According to the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites 

Register, no sites of Aboriginal significance are known at or near populations of the species covered by this recovery plan. 

However, the local organization representing the Indigenous community, the Yamatji Land and Sea Council, was consulted 

in order to identify any possible Indigenous interest in recovery of Beyeria lepidopetala and a representative from that 

group has been invited to become a member of the Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team. This will enable 

ongoing liaison with the Indigenous community and involvement in flora recovery where they have an interest. Continued 

liaison between DEC and the Indigenous community will identify areas in which collaboration will assist implementation 

of recovery actions. 

 

Social and economic impact: Two extant populations of Beyeria lepidopetala occur on a pastoral property that has 

recently been purchased through the Australian Bush Heritage Fund for the purpose of conservation. Part of one of these 

populations (Subpopulation 2b) extends into the adjacent Kalbarri National Park. Two other populations (one currently 

presumed extinct) are also found within Kalbarri National Park. The implementation of this recovery plan is therefore 

unlikely to have any social or economic impact.  

 

Affected interests: Stakeholders potentially affected by the implementation of this plan include DEC and the leaseholders 

of the pastoral property. 

 

Evaluation of the plan’s performance: DEC will evaluate the performance of this recovery plan in conjunction with the 

Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (GDTFRT). In addition to annual reporting on progress with listed 

actions and comparison against the criteria for success and failure, the plan is to be reviewed within five years of its 

implementation.  

 

Completed Recovery Actions 

 

1.



 

Relevant land managers have been made aware of the location and threatened status of the species and staff from 

DEC’s Geraldton District are maintaining contact with them. 

2.

 



Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers are in place at populations that may be under threat from track or fire break 

maintenance activities.  

3.

 

Rabbit control has been conducted on the pastoral lease that contains Populations 2 and 3. 



4.

 

Staff from DEC’s Geraldton District and members of the GDTFRT have undertaken surveys in areas that appear to be 



suitable habitat for this species.  

5.

 



Members of the WA Wildflower Society collected the species in two locations (Populations 2 and 3) while 

undertaking flora surveys on a pastoral property north east of Kalbarri. 

6.

 

The pastoral lease where Populations 2 and 3 occur has been purchased through the Australian Bush Heritage Fund. 



Managers have been employed to undertake management actions to protect the areas’ conservation values.  

7.

 



DEC’s Geraldton District is undertaking protective fire management strategies within the National Park where 

Populations 1 and 3 occur.  

 

Ongoing and future recovery actions 

 

8.



 

Staff from DEC’s Geraldton District regularly monitor populations of the species. 

9.

 

The GDTFRT is overseeing the implementation of this recovery plan and will include information on progress in 



annual reports to DEC's Corporate Executive and funding bodies.  

 

Recovery plan objective: The objective of this recovery plan is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ 

populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild. 

  

Recovery criteria 

Criteria for success: The number of populations has increased and/or the number of mature individuals within the known 

populations has increased by ten percent or more over the term of the plan. 

 

Criteria for failure: The number of populations has decreased and/or the number of mature individuals within the known 

populations has decreased by ten percent or more over the term of the plan.

  

 

Recovery actions 



1.

 

Coordinate recovery actions 



8.

 

Undertake trials to stimulate recruitment 



2.

 

Map habitat critical to the survival of Beyeria lepidopetala 9.



 

Develop and implement a fire management strategy 

3.

 

Liaise with relevant land managers 



10.

 

Obtain biological and ecological information 



4.

 

Monitor populations 



11.

 

Conduct further surveys 



5.

 

Implement rabbit control if necessary  



12.

 

Collect seed 



6.

 

Implement weed control if necessary 



13.

 

Promote awareness 



7.

 

Implement feral pig control if necessary 



14.

 

Review the recovery plan and assess the need for further 



4

 


 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

recovery actions  



5

 


 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

1.  

BACKGROUND 

 

History 



 

Beyeria lepidopetala was described by Ferdinand von Mueller in 1859 from specimens collected in a rocky 

location near the Murchison River by Augustus Oldfield. 

 

The species was known from the type collection only until rediscovered in Kalbarri National Park by R. 



Cranfield in 1994 (Population 1). Cranfield stated that the species was ‘frequent’, however only one plant was 

found during a survey conducted in 1995 and despite intensive surveys between 1997 and 2004 no plants could 

be located at the site. It is possible that either the initial locality may not have been correctly recorded, or the 

population may have experienced a rapid decline. A further three populations of Beyeria lepidopetala were 

discovered during Wildflower Society flora surveys conducted between 2003 and 2006. These were located on a 

pastoral lease adjacent to the north-eastern edge of Kalbarri National Park (Populations 2 and 3) with Population 

3 extending into the park and Population 4 contained within the park. A total of 2173 mature individuals are 

now known over a range of several kilometres. 

 

Description 

 

Beyeria lepidopetala is an erect, open shrub to between 25 cm and 1.7 m tall with stellate hairs on the branches 

and narrowly oblong leaves to 15 cm long on a short petiole. The leaves are glabrous above with distinctive 

white stellate hairs on the underside and have margins that are distinctly rolled under. The flowers are green in 

colour, with both male and female flowers on slender pedicels to ca. 12 mm long. The pedicel of the female 

flower thickens upwards after flowering. The five calyx segments of the male flower are almost circular in 

outline, ca. 2 mm in diameter and overlapping. Those of the female flower are narrower and more rigid. The 

petals are broad, hairy on the inside, fringed, and shorter than the calyx lobes. There are numerous stamens and 

each anther cell has a small terminal appendage. The stigma is three-lobed and the fruit is a three-celled ovoid 

globular capsule, which is three seeded and ca. 6 mm long (Patrick 2001). 

 

Beyeria lepidopetala is distinguished by the rolled margins to the leaves, the stellate hairs on the stems and 

underside of the leaves and the solitary male and female flowers that are most commonly found on separate 

plants but can also occur on the same plant. The species is distinguished from other Beyeria species in having 

stellate hairs, a three seeded capsule, linear leaves and short globular anthers on a bifid connective (Grieve 

1998). 


 

Distribution and habitat 

 

Beyeria lepidopetala is endemic to Western Australia where it appears to be confined to the Kalbarri- 

Murchison area. The species is currently recorded in two locations some 60 km apart, the first (Population 1) in 

the south west corner of Kalbarri National Park and the second (Populations 2, 3 and 4) in the north east corner 

of Kalbarri National Park and adjacent pastoral lease. The type specimen is believed to have been collected 

between these two locations near the Murchison River. 

 

At the south western location (Population 1) Beyeria lepidopetala grew in a gully on yellow sandy clay in 



mallee heath that was regenerating after fire. Associated species include Beyeria cygnorum,  Melaleuca 

lanceolata, Hibbertia hypericoides, Grevillea sp. and Lasiopetalum sp. At the north-eastern location 

(Populations 2, 3and 4), the species is found on yellow sand with Banksia sceptrum, Eucalyptus beardiana, 



Beaufortia squarrosa,  Thryptomene  sp., Acacia sp.,  Pileanthus vernicosa, Verticordia oculata, Calothamnus 

blepharospermus  and Diplopeltis huegelii. The type specimen was collected from a rocky area near the 

Murchison River. 

6

 


 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

 

Table 1. - Summary of land vesting, purpose and management 



 

Pop. No. & Location 

DEC District 

Shire 

Vesting 

Purpose 

Manager 

1. S of Kalbarri 

Geraldton Northampton 

Conservation 

Commission of 

Western Australia 

National Park 

DEC 

2. NE of Kalbarri 

Geraldton Northampton 

Unallocated 

Crown Land 

Pastoral Lease 

Australian Bush Heritage Fund 



3. NE of Kalbarri 

Geraldton Northampton 

Unallocated 

Crown Land 

Pastoral Lease 

Australian Bush Heritage Fund

 

4. NE of Kalbarri 

Geraldton Northampton 

Conservation 

Commission of 

Western Australia 

National Park 

DEC 

Populations in bold text are considered to be important populations. 



 

Biology and ecology 

 

The genus Beyeria contains approximately fifteen species, ten of which occur in the south west of Western 



Australia.  Beyeria species are all shrubs with sticky undivided leaves and insignificant unisexual flowers that 

are either monoecious or dioecious. The genus is closely related to Bertya, with one of the main differences 

being the presence of petals in Beyeria. The specific name lepidopetala is from the Greek lepis (scale) and 

petalon (petal), referring to the minute petals, which are reduced to scales (Leigh et al. 1984). 

 

There is little information available on the biology and ecology of Beyeria lepidopetala. At the site where it was 



recorded by R. Cranfield in 1994 (Population 1) the habitat was regenerating after a recent fire and the species 

was recorded as ‘frequent’. The population then appeared to decline rapidly and subsequent surveys failed to 

locate the species suggesting it may be a short-lived disturbance opportunist. At Population 2 plants were 

recorded as appearing to have regenerated after a fire that is believed to have occurred within the last ten years. 

These plants appeared quite young. However, plants in Populations 3 and 4 do not appear to be regenerating 

after a recent fire and are recorded as appearing older and larger than those in Population 2. No obvious decline 

has been recorded since these three populations were discovered between 2003 and 2006. Many species that 

occur in fire-prone environments have dormancy-breaking cues related to fire as there is an advantage in linking 

seedling emergence to the immediate post-fire environment (Gill 1981). 

 

Beyeria species are generally insect pollinated however, the morphological characters of B. lepidopetala suggest 

that it is possibly wind pollinated. This evidence includes the imperfect, small colourless flowers, numerous 

stamens and the extended flower presentation (S. Patrick

1

 personal communication). 



 

Threats 

 

Beyeria lepidopetala was declared as Rare Flora in May 1991 under the Western Australian Wildlife 

Conservation Act 1950 and was listed as presumed extinct at that time. Following its rediscovery in 1994 and 

further populations being found in 2003 the species was ranked as Vulnerable (VU) under World Conservation 

Union (IUCN 2001) Red List Criterion D2 as it has a very restricted area of occupancy and may be prone to the 

effects of human activities or stochastic events within a short period of time. Beyeria lepidopetala is listed as 

Endangered (EN) under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation  Act 1999 

(EPBC Act).  

 

Population 1 appears to have declined rapidly to presumed extinction and, as there is no information available 



on the likely cause, other populations may be at risk of similar decline. There is very little known about the 

appropriate fire interval for this species, however populations occur in a fire prone environment and it is likely 

that altered or inappropriate fire regimes are a possible threat. Gaining information on the species’ biology and 

ecology, including appropriate fire interval and dormancy breaking cues will contribute to the health of 

populations. Threats include:  

 

                                                      



1

 

Sue Patrick, Formerly, Senior Research Scientist, DEC, Kensington 



 

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Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 



 



Inappropriate fire regimes during the reproductive phase of Beyeria lepidopetala (i.e. flowering, 

pollination, seed growth and seed dispersal) may result in low/nil seed production, and fire should not occur 

in populations until regenerating or seedling plants are sufficiently large to produce flowers. High fire 

frequency may also lead to the degradation of the habitat of B. lepidopetala due to a depletion of the soil 

seed bank and a temporary increase in the availability of nutrients for weed establishment (Panetta and 

Hopkins 1991). Appropriate infrequent summer fire may be an important part of the life cycle of this species 

and be necessary for regeneration. 

 



Rapid population decline has been recorded in Population 1 of Beyeria lepidopetala. The species was 

recorded as being frequent at the site in 1994 but by 1997 no individuals could be located. It is possible that 



B. lepidopetala is either a short-lived disturbance opportunist, or the population has declined due to an 

unknown threat. A lack of information regarding the species and its longevity makes it difficult to determine 

appropriate management actions for extant populations. 

 



Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa)  have been recorded in Population 1. Feral pigs can introduce weed seeds and 

nutrients. They can also damage flora and their habitat by digging large areas of soil in search of food. Such 

soil disturbance encourages establishment of weeds.  

 



Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are present at Population 1 where Beyeria lepidopetala has been recorded 

in the past and are also high in number at Populations 2 and 3 (M. Quick

2

, personal communication). 



Although no grazing of B. lepidopetala plants has been observed, rabbits may impact on recruitment by 

grazing seedlings, causing extensive soil disturbance and introducing weed seed and nutrients.  

 

Weed infestations are not currently impacting Beyeria lepidopetala populations. However, due to plants 



being located in areas that are adjacent to tracks and fire breaks, weeds could become a threat in the future. 

Where weed infestation becomes severe B. lepidopetala may be affected by direct competition, a decrease in 

habitat diversity and an increased fuel load. 

 



 

Track and fire break maintenance has the potential to threaten Beyeria lepidopetala plants in areas where 

populations occur adjacent to tracks and firebreaks. This threat is not considered imminent as populations 

occur on land managed for conservation and liaison is being maintained with the land managers to ensure 

that protective planning is undertaken. 

 

Table 2. - Summary of population information and threats 

 

Pop. No. & Location 



Year  No. plants 

Condition 

Threats 

1.

 



S of Kalbarri 

1994 ‘Frequent’ 

1995 1 

1996 1 


1999 0 

2000 0 


2003 0 

2005 0 


Healthy 

Moderate 

Moderate 

Not located 

Not located 

Not located 

Not located 

Feral pigs, rabbits, unexplained decline, track and fire 

break maintenance, weeds

 

2.



 

NE of Kalbarri 

2004  


20 

2005  


20 

2006 600 

Healthy 

Healthy 


Healthy 

Inappropriate fire regimes, rabbits, track and fire break 

maintenance, weeds 

3.

 



NE of Kalbarri 

2004  


200 

2005  


200 

2006 73 


Healthy 

Healthy 


Healthy 

Inappropriate fire regimes, rabbits, track and fire break 

maintenance, weeds 

4.

 

NE of Kalbarri 

2006 


1500 

Healthy 


Inappropriate fire regimes, track and fire break 

maintenance 



 

Guide for decision-makers 

 

Table 2 provides details of current and possible future threats. Developments in the immediate vicinity of the 



populations or within the defined habitat critical to the survival of Beyeria lepidopetala require assessment for 

the potential for a significant level of impact. 

 

 

                                                      



2

 Margaret Quick, former owner Eurardy Station 

8

 


 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

Habitat critical to the survival of the species and important populations 

 

The habitat critical to the survival of Beyeria lepidopetala comprises the area of occupancy of know populations 



and similar habitat near known populations (yellow sandy clay soil in open mallee woodland, low heath on 

limestone ridges and yellow sandplain with Eucalyptus beardiana and Banksia sceptrum) that do not currently 

contain the species but may have done so in the past and may be suitable for translocations.  

 

Given that the species is currently known from just three extant populations and one presumed extinct 



population, it is considered that all known habitat for wild and possible future translocated populations is habitat 

critical to the species’ survival, and all populations, including translocated populations, are important 

populations. 

 

Benefits to other species or ecological communities 

 

Recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of habitat of Beyeria lepidopetala will also 



assist in protecting other Rare and Priority Flora that occur in association with it.  Caladenia bryceana subsp

cracens, which is ranked as Endangered in WA and Vulnerable under the Commonwealth EPBC Act, and two 

Priority 3 species, Beyeria cygnorum and Anthocercis intricata,  occur in the area of Population 1 and 



Eucalyptus beardiana, which is ranked as Endangered in Western Australian and Vulnerable under the 

Commonwealth EPBC Act, occurs in association with Populations 2 and 3.

 

 

International obligations 



 

This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 

ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that 

Convention. However, as Beyeria lepidopetala is not specifically listed under any international agreement, the 

implementation of other international environmental responsibilities is not affected by this plan. 

 

Role and interests of Indigenous people 



 

 

According to the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register, no sites of Aboriginal 



significance are known at or near populations of the species covered by this recovery plan. However, the local 

organization representing the Indigenous community, the Yamatji Land and Sea Council, was consulted in order 

to identify any possible Indigenous interest in recovery of Beyeria lepidopetala and a representative from that 

group has been invited to become a member of the Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team. This 

will enable ongoing liaison with the Indigenous community and involvement in flora recovery where they have 

an interest. Continued liaison between DEC and the Indigenous community will identify areas in which 

collaboration will assist implementation of recovery actions. 

 

Social and economic impacts 

 

Two extant populations of Beyeria lepidopetala occur on a pastoral property that has recently been purchased 



through the Australian Bush Heritage Fund for the purpose of conservation. Part of one of these populations 

(Subpopulation 2b) extends into Kalbarri National Park and Population 4 occurs wholly in the park. Population 

1 (currently presumed extinct) was also located within Kalbarri National Park. The implementation of this 

recovery plan is therefore unlikely to have any social or economic impact.  



 

Affected interests 

 

Stakeholders potentially affected by the implementation of this plan include DEC and the pastoral property 



leaseholders. 

 

Evaluation of the plan’s performance 

 

DEC will evaluate the performance of this recovery plan in conjunction with the Geraldton District Threatened 



Flora Recovery Team. In addition to annual reporting on progress and evaluation against the criteria for success 

and failure, the plan will be reviewed following five years of implementation. 

9

 


 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

 

2. 



RECOVERY OBJECTIVE AND CRITERIA  

 

Objectives 

 

The objective of this recovery plan is to abate identified threats and



 

maintain or enhance in situ populations to 

ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild. 

 

Criteria for success: The number of populations has increased and/or the number of individuals within the 

known populations has increased by ten percent or more over the term of the plan. 

 

 



Criteria for failure: The number of populations has decreased and/or the number of individuals within the 

known populations has decreased by ten percent or more over the term of the plan.

  

 

3. RECOVERY 



ACTIONS 

 

Completed recovery actions 

 

Managers of the pastoral lease that contains Populations 2 and 3 have been informed of the presence of DRF on 



land under their management. The notification details the Declared Rare status of Beyeria lepidopetala and 

associated legal obligations. There has been on-site liaison with regard to conservation of the species between 

DEC’s Geraldton District Flora Conservation Officer and DEC’s National Park staff (Populations 1 and 4). 

Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at all populations that occur near tracks and fire breaks. 

These markers alert track maintenance workers to the presence of each population, and enable them to take 

appropriate care.  

The previous pastoral lease holders conducted ongoing and opportunistic rabbit control until their lease was sold 

in 2005. Rabbit activity and the impact on vegetation was monitored and communicated to DEC’s Geraldton 

District Flora Conservation Officer. 

Staff from DEC’s Geraldton District, Species and Communities Branch (SCB) and WA Herbarium have 

undertaken intensive surveys of suitable habitat for this species. 

Members of the WA Wildflower Society collected the species in two locations (Populations 2 and 3) while 

undertaking flora surveys on a pastoral property north east of Kalbarri. 

The lease on the pastoral property where Populations 2 and 3 occur has been purchased for conservation through 

the Australian Bush Heritage Fund. Reserve managers have been appointed to undertake management actions to 

protect the areas’ conservation values. 

During surveys in 2006, DEC’s Geraldton District Flora Conservation Officer located a new population 

(Population 4) containing 1500 plants. 

DEC’s Geraldton District implements fire management strategies within Kalbarri National Park where 

Population 1 occurs. 



Ongoing and future recovery actions 

 

Staff from DEC’s Geraldton District regularly monitor all populations of this species and maintain liaison with 



relevant land managers. 

The GDTFRT are overseeing the implementation of this recovery plan and will include information on progress 

in its annual report to DEC’s Corporate Executive and funding bodies.  

 

Where populations occur on lands other than those managed by DEC, permission has been or will be sought 



from appropriate land managers prior to recovery actions being undertaken. The following recovery actions are 

roughly in order of descending priority, however this should not constrain addressing any of the other priorities 

if funding is available and other opportunities arise. 

10

 



 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

 

1. 

Coordinate recovery actions 

 

The Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team will coordinate recovery actions for Beyeria 



lepidopetala and other Declared Rare Flora in their district. They will include information on progress in their 

annual report to DEC’s Corporate Executive and funding bodies. 



Action: 

Coordinate recovery actions 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 



Cost: 

$1,000 per year  



 

2.  

Map habitat critical to the survival of Beyeria lepidopetala  

 

Although habitat critical to the survival of Beyeria lepidopetala is described in Section 1, the areas have not yet 



been mapped and that will be redressed under this action. If additional populations are located, then habitat 

critical to their survival will also be determined and mapped. 



Action: 

Map critical habitat critical to the survival of Beyeria lepidopetala 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District and SCB) through the GDTFRT  



Cost: 

$1,000 in the second year  

 

3. 

Liaise with relevant land managers 

 

Staff from DEC’s Geraldton District will continue to liaise with relevant  land managers to ensure that 



populations are not accidentally damaged or destroyed. This will include liaison with managers of the Pastoral 

Lease on which Populations 2 and 3 occur and with National Park staff responsible for park management and 

fire management where Populations 1 and 4 occur.  

Action: 

Liaise with relevant land managers 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT  



Cost: $1,000 

per 


year 

 

4. Monitor 



populations 

 

Annual monitoring of factors such as habitat degradation (due to weed invasion, rabbits, feral pigs and plant 



senescence), population stability (expansion or decline), pollinator activity, seed production, recruitment, 

longevity and predation is essential. The visibility of DRF markers will also be monitored to ensure they remain 

effective and have not faded or become covered by vegetation.

 

Any populations burnt during fire will be 



monitored for regeneration, and data recorded to advance the knowledge of the biology of the species.  

Action: 

Monitor populations 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 



Cost: 

$2,000 per year  

 

5. 

Implement rabbit control if necessary 

 

The level of threat posed by rabbits varies from year to year with environmental conditions and rabbit numbers. 



If monitoring ascertains that the threat to populations of Beyeria lepidopetala is high, baiting using 1080 oats 

will be undertaken in summer months when less green feed is available as an alternative food source.  



Action

Implement rabbit control if necessary 



Responsibility

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT; relevant land managers 



Cost: 

$700 in first, third and fifth years

 

 

11

 



 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

 

6.  



Implement weed control if necessary 

 

Although weeds are not currently recorded as having an impact on Beyeria lepidopetala, all populations occur 



near tracks and fire breaks where there is potential for weeds to be introduced. If weeds become established they 

could impact on B. lepidopetala by competing for resources, degrading habitat, exacerbating grazing pressure 

and increasing the risk and severity of fire. Weed control will be undertaken should any new infestations be 

recorded during regular monitoring. All applications of weed control will be followed by a report on the 

method, timing and success of the treatment and any adverse effect on B. lepidopetala and associated native 

plant species. Copies will be retained at the District and provided to Species and Communities Branch.

  

Action

Implement weed control if necessary 



Responsibility

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT and relevant land managers 



Cost

$1,300 per year  

 

7.

 

Implement feral pig control if necessary 

 

Feral pig activity has been recorded at Population 1. Feral pigs can damage threatened flora and their habitat by 



digging large areas of soil in search of food. They can also introduce weed seeds and nutrients and the soil 

disturbance they create encourages establishment of weeds. Should Beyeria lepidopetala be rediscovered in the 

vicinity of this recorded location, feral pig control will be necessary to protect plants. 

Action

 

Implement feral pig control if necessary 



Responsibility

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT  



Cost:  

 

$1,000 per year 



  

8. 

Undertake trials to stimulate recruitment  

 

Disturbance trials will be conducted near Population 1, and possibly Populations 2, 3 and 4, to ascertain which 



methods are most effective in stimulating regeneration. Experimental treatments will include physical soil 

disturbance, smoke treatment and possibly prescribed burning. It is also possible that seasonal changes may 

contribute to dormancy breaking, therefore observation of seasonal influence will be recorded.  

Monitoring of all trials will detail the general response of associated habitat as well as that of Beyeria 



lepidopetala, and will also record any negative impacts such as the level and species of weeds that may invade 

the area following disturbance. Monitoring of regeneration will continue for at least three years, and monitoring 

of  B. lepidopetala recruitment will continue as per other populations. Information regarding post fire 

regeneration and time until seed set will be used in developing future fire management plans. If found to be 

beneficial, disturbance will be implemented periodically to stimulate recruitment.  

Action: 

Undertake trials to stimulate recruitment 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT

 

Cost: 

$1,600 in second, third and fourth years 

 

9. 

Develop and implement a fire management strategy 

It is likely that this species requires occasional hot summer fire (December- April) for recruitment from soil 

stored seed, however, frequent fires during its flowering and seeding phase may be detrimental.  

Fire also promotes the introduction and proliferation of weed species. Fire should therefore be prevented from 

occurring in the habitat of populations until sufficient knowledge has been obtained regarding the appropriate 

fire interval, except where it is being used experimentally as a recovery tool. A fire management strategy will be 

developed in consultation with land managers to determine fire control measures and fire frequency. 

Action: 

Develop and implement a fire management strategy 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT in consultation with relevant land 

managers  

Cost: 

$5,000 in first year, and $1,300 in subsequent years  



 

12

 



 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

10. 

Obtain biological and ecological information 

Research designed to increase understanding of the biology and ecology of the species will provide a scientific 

basis for management of Beyeria lepidopetala in the wild. Research would ideally include: 

 



Longevity of plants, and time taken to reach maturity 

 



The role of disturbance in regeneration 

 



The size and viability of the soil seed bank 

 



Seed dispersal mechanisms 

 



Factors determining the level of flower and seed viability 

 



Genetic variation within and between populations 

 

Action

 

Obtain biological and ecological information 



Responsibility:  

DEC (Science Division, Geraldton District and SCB) through the GDTFRT 



Cost:   

 

$10,000 per year in years two, three and four  



 

11. 

Conduct further surveys  

 

 

Further surveys by DEC staff and, where possible, community volunteers will be conducted during the 



flowering period of the species. Populations 2 and 3 have not yet been fully surveyed and it is possible that the 

pastoral lease contains further populations. Records of areas surveyed will be sent to SCB and retained at the 

District, regardless of whether Beyeria lepidopetala is located.  

Action: 

Conduct further surveys 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT  



Cost: 

$2,500 per year in the first, third and fifth years 

 

12. 

Collect seed  

 

It is necessary to store germplasm as a genetic resource, ready for use in translocations and as an ex-situ genetic 



‘blueprint’ of the species. The germplasm stored will include seed and tissue culture material. Seed collections 

are required from all populations to maintain adequate representation of the genetic diversity of the species.

  

Action: 

Collect seed  



Responsibility: 

DEC (TFSC and Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 



Cost: 

$2,400 in the first, third and fifth years  

 

 

13. Promote 



awareness 

 

The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for long-term protection of wild populations of 



Beyeria lepidopetala will be promoted to the community through poster displays and the local print and 

electronic media. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will also be encouraged. 

An information sheet will be produced, and will include a description of the plant, its habitat, threats, recovery 

actions and photos. This will be distributed to the public through DEC’s Geraldton District office and at the 

office and library of the Shire of Northampton and the Kalbarri Tourist Information Centre. Such information 

distribution may lead to the discovery of new populations.  



Action: Promote 

awareness 



Responsibility: 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT  



Cost: 

$2,200 in first year, and $1,100 per year in subsequent years 

 

14. 

Review the recovery plan and assess the need for further recovery actions  

 

At the end of its five-year term this recovery plan will be reviewed and the need for further recovery actions 



assessed.  

Action: 

Review the recovery plan and assess the need for further recovery actions  



Responsibility: 

DEC (SCB, Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 

13

 


 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

Cost: 

$1,000 in the fifth year  

 

Table 3.  Summary of recovery actions 

 

Recovery Actions 

Priority 

Responsibility Completion 

date 

Coordinate recovery actions 

High 

DEC (Geraldton District) through GDTRFT 



Ongoing 

Map habitat critical to the survival 

of Beyeria lepidopetala 

High 


DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 

2009 


Develop and implement a fire 

management strategy 

High 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 



Develop by 2009 with 

implementation ongoing 

Liaise with relevant land managers 

High 


DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 

Ongoing 


Monitor populations 

High 


DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 

Ongoing. Annually if 

possible  

Implement rabbit control if 

necessary 

Medium 


DEC (Geraldton Division) through the GDTFRT 

Ongoing 


Implement weed control if 

necessary 

Medium 

DEC (Geraldton Division) through the GDTFRT 



Ongoing 

Implement feral pig control if 

necessary 

Medium 


DEC (Geraldton Division) through the GDTFRT 

Ongoing 


Undertake trials to stimulate 

recruitment 

Medium 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 



2010 

Obtain biological and ecological 

information 

Medium 


DEC (Geraldton District, Science Division) through the 

GDTFRT 


Ongoing 

Conduct further surveys 

Medium 

DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 



Annually 

Collect seed 

Medium 

DEC (Geraldton District, Science Division) through the 



GDTFRT 

2011 


Promote awareness 

Low 


DEC (Geraldton District) through the GDTFRT 

Ongoing  

Review the recovery plan and 

assess the need for further 

recovery actions 

Low 


DEC (Geraldton District, Species and Communities 

Branch) through the GDTFRT 

2011 

 

4. 

TERM OF PLAN 

 

Western Australia 

 

This IRP will operate from April 2008 to March 2013 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. If 



the taxon is still ranked VU (WA) after five years, the need for further recovery actions and an update of this 

IRP will be assessed. 

 

Commonwealth 

 

In accordance with the provisions of the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation 



Act 1999 (EPBC Act) this adopted recovery plan will remain in force until revoked.   

 

The recovery plan must be reviewed at intervals of not longer than 5 years. 



 

5. REFERENCES 

 

Atkins, K. (2008) Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. Department of Conservation 



and Land Management, Western Australia. 

Bentham, G. (1873) 



Flora Australiensis: a description of the plants of the Australian territory. Volume VI, 

Thymeleae to Dioscorideae. Reeve, London.

 

Brown, A.P., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (1998). Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department 



of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia. 

Department of Conservation and Land Management (1992) Policy Statement No. 44 Wildlife Management 



Programs. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

Department of Conservation and Land Management (1994) Policy Statement No. 50 Setting Priorities for the 



Conservation of Western Australia’s Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of Conservation and Land 

Management, Western Australia. 

Department of Environment and Conservation (2008) Threatened Flora Database (DEFL). Department of 

Environment and Conservation, Western Australia.  

14

 


 

Recovery Plan for Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

15

 



Department of Environment and Conservation (2008). Western Australian Herbarium FloraBase 2 – 

Information on the Western Australian Flora.  http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/. Department of 

Environment and Conservation, Western Australia. 

Gill, A.M. (1981) Coping with fire. In The Biology of Australian Plants (eds J.S. Pate and A.J. McComb). 

University of Western Australia Press, Western Australia. 

Grieve, B.J. (1998). How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers, Part II, University of Western Australia 

Press, Western Australia. 

Hopper, S.D., Van Leeuwen, S., Brown, A.P. and Patrick, S. (1990) Western Australia’s Endangered Flora

Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

Leigh, J., Boden, R. and Briggs, J. (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Macmillan, Victoria. 

Marchant, N. and Keighery, G. (1979). Poorly collected and presumably rare vascular plants in W.A. Kings 



Park Research Notes 5: 55. 

Mueller, F. (1859) Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 1(5): 230. 

Panetta, F.D. and Hopkins, A.J.M. (1991) Weeds in Corridors: Invasion and Management. Pp 341 – 351 in 

Nature Conservation 2 The Role of Corridors ed by D.A. Saunders and R.J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons 

Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, NSW. 

Patrick, S. J. (2001) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora of the Geraldton District, Wildlife Management 

Program No 26, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

World Conservation Union (2001) IUCN Red List Categories: Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species 

Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 

 

6. TAXONOMIC 



DESCRIPTION 

 

Bentham, G. and



 Mueller, F.

 (1873) 

 

A viscid shrub of several feet tall, the branches sprinkled with a scabrous stellate pubescence. Leaves on very 



short petioles, oblong or linear, ½ to 1 in long, rather thick, obtuse with revolute margins, glabrous above, 

white-tomentose underneath. Flowers monoecious, both males and females solitary on rather slender pedicels of 

¼ to ½ in., the female pedicel as in most species thickening upwards after flowering. Male calyx-segments 

nearly orbicular, about ¾ line diameter, much imbricate. Petals short, broad hairy inside, alternating with 5 

prominent disk-glands. Stamens numerous; anther cells short, distinct, each with a small terminal appendage. 

Female calyx-segments rather narrower and more rigid than in the males; petals larger and fringed but yet 

shorter than the calyx. Stigma broadly but distinctly 3 lobed. Capsule ovoid-globular, nearly 3 lines long. 

 

Leigh, J., Boden, R. and Briggs, J. (1984) 

 

Shrub to 1.7m high. Leaves are leathery, oblong or oblong-linear, the edges rolled under, 2-2.5 cm long and 



shortly-stalked, smooth and hairless above and densely white-velvety below. Flowers are unisexual and borne 

singly in the leaf axils on sparsely-hairy peduncles that are 1.2 cm long in male flowers and 2.5 cm long in 

female flowers and several times longer than the calyx. Fully developed male flowers have never been seen but 

the immature male flowers have orbicular, overlapping calyx lobes and small petals. Female flowers have 

almost round calyx lobes barely 2 mm long and extremely minute, bearded, heart-shaped petals. The petals in 

both male and female flowers emerge from the calyx recesses only slightly, if at all. Fruit is a capsule which has 

not been seen in the mature state. Flowering time unknown. 

 

Derivation: lepidopetala from the Greek, lepis, scale, and petalon, petal, referring to the minute petals which are 



reduced to scales. 

 

 



 

  

 



 

SUMMARY OF RECOVERY ACTIONS AND COSTS  

 

 



Year 1 

Year 2 

Year 3 

Year 4 

Year 5 

Recovery Action 

DEC 

Other 

Ext. 

DEC 

Other 

Ext. 

DEC Other Ext.  DEC Other Ext.  DEC Other Ext. 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Coordinate 



recovery 

actions  1000 

  

1000   


1000   

1000   


1000   

Map habitat critical to the 

survival of Beyeria lepidopetala 

 

  



200  

800          

Liaise 

with 


land 

managers 

1000 

  

1000   



1000   

1000   


1000   

Monitor 


populations 

1000 


 1000 1000 

 1000 1000 

 1000 1000 

 1000 1000 

 1000 

Implement rabbit control if 



necessary 

400 


300     

400 


300     

400 


300 

  

Implement weed control if 



necessary 

300 


500 500 300 500 500 300 500 500 300 500 500 300  500 500 

Implement feral pig control if 

necessary 

500  


500 

500 


 

500 500 


 500 500 

 

500 500 



 500 

Undertake trials to stimulate 

recruitment 

 

  



1000  

600 


1000  

600 


1000  

600    


Develop and implement a fire 

management strategy 

1000 

1000 


3000 500 500 300 500 500 300 500 500 300 500  500 300 

Obtain biological and ecological 

information  

 

 



 1000 

 9000 1000 

 9000 1000 

 9000 


 

 

 



Conduct further surveys 

1000 


500 

1000 


 

 

 



1000 500 

1000 


 

 

 



1000 500 

1000 


Collect 

seed 


 

1000 


 

1400    


1000  

1400    


1000   

1400 


Promote 

awareness 

1100 

 

1100 



1100   

1100   


1100   

1100   


Review the recovery plan and 

assess the need for further 

recovery actions 

 

           



400 

600  


 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

Total 

8300 


2300 8500 7600 1000 

12700 9800 1800 

14300 7400 1000 

11900 8200 2400 4700 



Yearly 

Total 

19,100 21,300 25,900 20,300 15,300 

Ext. = External funding (funding to be sought), Other = funds contributed by in-kind contribution and BGPA.  

 

Total DEC:



 

300 


 $41,

Total Other: 



$8,500 

Total External Funding: 



$52,100 

Total Costs: 

$101,900 

 



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