Review Sheet Exercise 42 Anatomy of the Reproductive System



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Review Sheet

Exercise 42

Anatomy of the Reproductive System

Name

Lab Time/Date

Gross Anatomy of the Human Male Reproductive System

1. List the two principal functions of the testis. Sperm production


and testosterone production

2. Identify all indicated structures or portions of structures on the diagrammatic view of the male reproductive system below.



3. A common part of any physical examination of the male is palpation of the prostate. How is this accomplished?

(Think!) Through the anterior wall of the rectum

4. How might enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male?



Constriction of the urethra at that point may prevent passage of urine or semen.

5. Why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity? Testes are located in the scrotum to provide a slightly cooler temperature necessary for sperm production.

6. Match the terms in column B to the descriptive statements in column A.


Column A  

e; penis 1. copulatory organ/penetrating device

b; ductus (vas) deferens 2.  muscular passageway conveying sperm to the
ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord

k; spongy urethra 3. transports both sperm and urine

c; epididymis 4. sperm maturation site

i; scrotum 5. location of the testis in adult males

f; prepuce 6.  loose fold of skin encircling the glans penis

d. intermediate part of the urethra 7.  portion of the urethra between the
prostate and the penis

g; prostate 8.  empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra

a; bulbo-urethral glands 9.  empties a secretion into the intermediate part of the urethra


Column B

a. bulbo-urethral glands

b. ductus (vas) deferens

c. epididymis

d. intermediate part of the urethra

e. penis


f. prepuce

g. prostate

h. prostatic urethra

i. scrotum

j. seminal gland

k. spongy urethra

7. Describe the composition of semen, and name all structures contributing to its formation. Sperm and the secretions of the prostate, the seminal glands (also containing fructose), and the bulbo-urethral glands

8. Of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline? It buffers the sperm against the acidic environment of the female reproductive tract.

9. What structures compose the spermatic cord? Connective tissue sheath (extension of abdominal fascia), ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels

Where is it located? Passes from the scrotal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity



10. Using the following terms, trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra: rete testis, epididymis, seminiferous tubule, ductus deferens.

seminiferous tubule   rete testis epididymis   ductus deferens

Gross Anatomy of the Human Female Reproductive System

11. Name the structures composing the external genitalia, or vulva, of the female. Mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vaginal and urethral openings, hymen, and greater vestibular glands


12. On the diagram below of a frontal section of a portion of the female reproductive system, identify all indicated structures.



13. Identify the female reproductive system structures described below.

uterus  1. site of fetal development

vagina  2. copulatory canal

uterine tube  3. egg typically fertilized here

clitoris  4. becomes erect during sexual excitement

uterine tube  5. duct extending from ovaries to the uterus

hymen  6. partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane

ovary  7. produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone

fimbriae  8. fingerlike ends of the uterine tube

14. Do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? Why or why not? Yes. The uterine tube opens to the pelvic cavity.


15. What is an ectopic pregnancy, and how can it happen? Implantation of the embryo in a site other than the uterus. It most often occurs in a uterine tube, especially if the tube is partially blocked; it may also occur in the peritoneal cavity if an egg is fertilized there.

16. Put the following vestibular-perineal structures in their proper order from the anterior to the posterior aspect: vaginal orifice, anus, external urethral opening, and clitoris.

Anterior limit: clitorisurethral opening  vaginal orifice  anus



17. Assume a couple has just consummated the sex act and the sperm have been deposited in the vagina. Trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract.

vagina  cervix  uterus  uterine tube  peritoneal cavity

18. Define ovulation. Ejection of an egg (actually an oocyte) from the ovary

Microscopic Anatomy of Selected Male and Female Reproductive Organs

19. The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. Each of these lobes
contains one to four seminiferous tubules                 , which converge to empty sperm into another set of tubules called the
rete testis                 .

20. What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the penis? This tissue can become engorged with blood, thus making the penis stiff and more effective as a penetrating device.

21. Name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out.

endometrium       , myometrium       , perimetrium

Which of these is sloughed during menses? Endometrium

Which contracts during childbirth? Myometrium

22. Describe the epithelium found in the uterine tube. A ciliated secretory epithelium lines the uterine tube.

23. Describe the arrangement of the layers of smooth muscle in the seminal gland. Two layers of smooth muscle surround the seminal gland, an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer.

24. What is the function of the stereocilia exhibited by the epithelial cells of the mucosa of the epididymis? They absorb excess fluid and provide nutrients to the maturing sperm.

25. On the diagram showing the sagittal section of the human testis, correctly identify all structures provided with leader lines.



The Mammary Glands

26. Match the key term with the correct description.

a; alveoli glands that produce milk during lactation

e; lobule subdivision of mammary lobes that contains alveoli

d; lactiferous sinus enlarged storage chamber for milk

c; lactiferous duct duct connecting alveoli to the storage chambers

b; areola pigmented area surrounding the nipple

f; nipple releases milk to the outside

Key:

a. alveoli

b. areola

c. lactiferous duct

d. lactiferous sinus

e. lobule

f. nipple

27. Using the key terms, correctly identify breast structures.

Key: a. adipose tissue

b. areola

c. lactiferous duct

d. lactiferous sinus

e. lobule containing alveoli

f. nipple





28. Describe the procedure for self-examination of the breasts. (Men are not exempt from breast cancer, you know!)

While lying down, place one arm behind your head and with the three middle fingers of the other arm palpate the breast in a circular motion, pressing first lightly, then with increasing pressure. Check the entire breast systematically using a vertical pattern from superior lateral to inferior medial regions.

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