Revolutionary government of zanzibar


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Rationale for ZUSP

The Zanzibar Urban Services Project (ZUSP), effective in 2011, was prepared in a response to a request from the RGoZ to assist with the financing of an investment operation that would provide finance for critical infrastructure in key urban areas of the Zanzibar Mucicipal Council (ZMC) and Pemba Towns and support for improved management capacity for urban development and management. ZUSP recognizes the strategic importance of Zanzibar urban centers as the engines for the country’s structural transformation, economic growth and nationwide improvements in welfare. Zanzibar Municipal Council has strategic importance to Zanzibar Island and the country in terms of its physical location, importance for local and international trade and tourism, demographic weight and contribution to the national economy.

Project Objectives and Outcomes

The Development Objective: is to improve the quality of and access to basic urban services in the ZMC and PTCs.

The Purpose: rehabilitation and expansion of urban infrastructure and institutional strengthening activities aimed at improving the fiscal and management capacities of the Participating LGAs.

Project Outcomes: the ZUSP will improve the welfare and capacities of the ZMC and PTCs to identify their key problems, determine the appropriate solutions in the form of sub-projects, plan their implementation and assume full responsibility for their maintenance and management.

ZUSP Components

The current ZUSP activities are under three main components with several sub-components.

Component 1: Institutional Strengthening and Infrastructure Development in the Zanzibar Municipal Council Area (US$31.2 million): Component 1 focuses on the ZMC on Unguja Island through six subcomponents which include: (i) institutional strengthening of the management and operational capacity of the Zanzibar Municipal Council (ZMC), (ii) preparation of a diagrammatic indicative structure plan for the ZMC and its immediate periphery, (iii) construction of storm water drainage in the ZMC urban periphery to reduce flooding, (iv) design and installation of street lighting in the ZMC, (v) solid waste collection and transport, including construction of waste collection points and equipment, (vi) construction of the Mizingani sea wall and promenade in Stone Town to restore the remaining segment of the historic sea front.
Component 2: Support to Town Councils on Pemba Island (US$3.8 million): Component 2 assists the three Town Councils on Pemba Island (Chake Chake, Mkoani and Wete) with: (i) institutional strengthening through technical assistance and equipment and vehicle procurement, and (ii) investment projects, including small-scale civil works and equipment.
Component 3: Project Management (US$3.0 million): Component 3 provides support to the ZUSP Project Management Team (PMT) located within Ministry of Finance for project management, supervision of environmental and social safeguards, project monitoring, and reporting. It also facilitates other implementing ministries and departments responsible for specific subcomponents to implement and coordinate their activities.

Current Status: Completed and On-going Works

ZUSP is currently strengthening the institutional capacity of ZMC coupled with developing infrastructure in 3 main sub-sectors: waste management; urban upgrading; and support for cultural heritage investments in the World Heritage City location of Stone Town. Activities have involved improvement or development of selected infrastructure sub-projects at various locations within the ZMC and three Pemba TCs aimed to improve the environmental quality of the urban areas. Most of the infrastructure on the list of the first batch of prioritized subprojects are on-going or in final stages or complete and in use. ZUSP contains a set of other interventions designed to meet the management and institutional needs of the participating urban local governments and communities within as well.

Waste management in ZMC
The solid waste management subcomponent is implemented by ZMC’s Division of Sewerage, Drainage and Solid Waste. The current project’s support has enabled the department to substantially improve collection and transportation of solid waste through infrastructure improvements coupled with Institutional support. Activities achieved or ongoing include construction of new or improvement of existing solid waste collection centres including concrete slabs where waste is deposited and stored temporarily: 193 in total out of which 56 skip pads are complete and in operation. ZUSP has made improvement of the existing disposal site at Kibele, now operated on an interim basis as a managed solid waste disposal site.
Institutional support coupled with infrastructure development involving:

  • Procurement of new collection equipment including push carts (75), skip containers (193), Dust bin (1000), skip trucks with skip loaders (5), open tipper trucks and compactor trucks (2);

  • Implementation of an Equipment Operations and Maintenance Strategy and;

  • Improvement of enforcement of municipal solid waste regulations and by-laws related to municipal solid waste.

Challenges and gaps identified

Facilities for solid waste and septic sludge remain inadequate, and there is no formal site for waste disposal. Solid waste and septic sludge has always been indiscriminately dumped at informal dumping areas wherever space is available in the municipality including environmentally and socially sensitive sites such as wetlands, sites in close proximity to residential areas, significant cultural heritage areas, and mangrove forests. Inadequately managed collection and disposal points have resulted in community complaints and severe environmental degradation and health risks. The Kibele site though now is being operated on an interim basis as a managed solid waste disposal site, (an improvement over open dumping but still inadequate), but the current practice remain unsustainable as a long-term solution for waste management on the island. Septic sludge to date is still disposed informally in a mangrove area near a protected heritage site.

Urban upgrading in ZMC
The urban upgrading activities are implemented by Department of Urban and Rural Planning (DURP). Works has involved construction of storm water drainage systems at location prone to flooding. The current support for infrastructure improvement has involved:
Drainage canals construction:

Table : Current ZUSP drainage works


System name

Name of street/Shehias

Drainage Lengths



Amani, Nyerere, Sebleni, Kwa-mabata, Mwantenga, Kwamtipura, Shaurimoyo, Saateni, Mianzini




Muungano, Mwembenjugu, Magomeni, Sogea, Kidongochekundu




Jangombe, Botanical garden, Migombani, Kilimani, Kiungani, Binti Amrani, Mpendae, Meya




Mnazimmoja playground




Kwa-mzushi, Darajabovu, Karakana, Mtopepo



Kwa-mtipura - Saateni

Street lighting for Shangani area, Kiponda area, Victoria garden, Jamuhuri garden, African house garden, Kaunda road (0.5km), Mwembeladu-Amani road (1.9km), Amani-Mwanakwerekwe road (1.3km), Mwanakwerekwe-Kariakoo road (2.7) and Mapinduzi road (0.69km).
Rehabilitation of 340 meters of Mzingani sea wall. This involve backfill and foundation work; refurbishment of underground infrastructure (water, sewer, storm sewer and electrical and telecommunication lines below the roadbed); resurfacing of the road and introduction of traffic calming measures; and creation of a pedestrian promenade such as landscaping, street lighting and street furniture along the sea side.
Challenges and gaps identified

Roadside drainage ditches or underground drains are absent; therefore the roads themselves become drains during rains which clearly reduces the economic attractiveness of these road corridors and the buildings along them.

Capacity building and infrastructure development in Pemba Island.
Infrastructure works in Pemba have been small scale in existing sites. This has included improvement of movements to/through low-income areas by rehabilitating existing footpaths and neighborhood drains, town council facilities such upgrading a small market and rehabilitation of existing Town Council office buildings. These subprojects have posed no significant environmental and social impacts. The main challenges have been due to rehabilitation of older buildings and needed design improvements of footpaths.
Specifically infrastructure at the 3 TCs are: Chake-Chake: 3 selected subprojects are (a) improvement/construction of footpaths (b) rehabilitation of the slaughterhouse (abattoir), and (c) improvement of the TC office building; Wete: 3 selected subprojects are (a) rehabilitation of the market, (b) rehabilitation of the bus stand, and (c) improvement of the TC office building; and Mkoani: 3 selected subprojects consist of (a) footpath improvements, (b) drainage improvements, and (c) rehabilitation of the TC office.
Environmental and Social Safeguards for On-Going ZUSP

The ongoing ZUSP has triggered the following World Bank safeguard policies: OP 4.01 on environmental assessment; OP 4.11 on physical cultural resources, and OP 4.12 on involuntary resettlement. At the commencement of the ZUSP in 2011 there was no Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) and Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) prepared for the original project. In order to manage impacts emanating from project activities, the on-going implementation of the ZUSP had in place for ZMC and the Pemba TCs Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) reports (including Environmental and Social Management Plans) for the sea wall, urban upgrading and Pemba works, and one Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan (ARAP) for the drainage subproject. All ESIAs, ESMPs and the ARAP were cleared by the World Bank and disclosed in Zanzibar and the World Bank InfoShop prior to project appraisal.

Over the life of the project, the ZUSP Project Management Team (PMT) has used these reports in supervising construction works and implementation of ESMPs.


ZUSP-AF Project Description

The AF would primarily be used to scale up Project activities in four areas: (i) developing a sanitary landfill and small sludge treatment facility, with equipment and training, (ii) urban upgrading and cultural heritage conservation, (iii) scaling up investments for small-scale infrastructure in Pemba, and (iv) support to Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives and developing a Local Government Revenue Collection and Information system (LGRCIS).

Proposed activities under each area include:

  1. Sanitary landfill and sludge treatment facility: The ZMC has identified an interim disposal site at the Kibele (a former quarry) that is the best available option to use as an interim solution and upgrade to a sanitary landfill. Relevant authorities for environmental and waste management have approved the site, and it has been accepting waste as a managed dumpsite since early 2014. Site options for a small sludge treatment facility – able to accommodate waste from trucks - would be assessed as part of AF appraisal. The design of these facilities would not be completed by appraisal.

In addition to infrastructure, the AF would take a comprehensive approach to waste management and support strengthening policy frameworks, provide intensive technical assistance and training, equipment, assess the potential for material recovery and recycling, and promote community-level engagement and awareness raising. As part of AF appraisal, options will be assessed to either prepare a feasibility study for the complete solid waste management system (collection, transfer station cum materials recovery facility, transport, and landfill) and sludge treatment facility or an initial design build for only the landfill.

  1. Urban upgrading and cultural heritage conservation: The RGoZ has outlined several priorities for urban upgrading that will promote economic development and promote conservation of Zanzibar’s urban cultural heritage. The ZMC Development Strategy and Structure Plan identifies the Michenzani area (in the buffer zone of the Stone Town UNESCO site) as a new mixed-use corridor given its strategic location, wide road network, housing density, historic sites, and opportunity for economic development. The Department of Urban and Rural Planning is creating an area development plan and is proposing low-impact urban upgrading (including improvements to existing roads, drainage, pedestrian amenities, landscaping and open space, market area improvements etc.) along the existing central road corridor.

Other potential sub-projects include roadside drainage improvements, implementation of the Stone Town traffic management plan, improved pedestrian connectivity, upgrading public spaces, and updating the Zanzibar Stone Town Conservation Master Plan. These options, along with other institutional strengthening and technical assistance activities, will be appraised as part of the AF preparation, and include environmental and sociocultural considerations consistent with the ESMF and RPF.

  1. Scale up small-scale infrastructure investments in Pemba: Pemba’s small infrastructure investments have yielded positive benefits to communities in a short amount a time. Footpaths and stairs on steep slopes in Chake Chake and Mkoani have significantly increased mobility and accessibility for communities for example. The three Town Councils have requested scaling up pedestrian facilities and installation of street lighting similar to the investments in the ZMC.

  1. Public Private Partnerships (PPP): Strengthening capacity for developing PPPs underlies scale-up activities in waste management and economic development, as well as other sectors. The objective would be to ensure that the waste management system is financially sustainable and that private sector investment, skills and organizational capacity support ongoing operations. These activities would also support the operationalization of the PPP Department for key priority investments in Zanzibar. The feasibility studies will include due diligence requirements for the Safeguards.

Revenue collection: The MoF and RGoZ have requested the AF to develop a Local Government Revenue Collection and Information System (LGRCIS) for ZMC and the three town councils in Pemba, modeled after the system piloted under the Tanzania Strategic Cities Project.

Coordination and Implementation Arrangements For ZUSP-AF

The implementation of ZUSP-AF will continue to use existing staff structures and government systems. The key implementers will be Ministry of Finance through the ZUSP PMU and the ZMC and PTCs.

Ministry of Finance will continue to be responsible for the overall management of Programme activities, providing overall coordination and technical support to ZMC and PTCs. The Ministry of Finance has established a dedicated Project Management Team consisting of its own personnel for the implementation of all World Bank supported projects under ZUSP.

Participating local governments and Beneficiary Institutions: ZMC, PTCs and the Department of Urban and Rural Planning (DoURP) will take the primary responsibility of implementing own sub-projects including fiduciary, environmental and social safeguards, and reporting requirements. The ZMC has bestowed responsibility for coordinating project funded by ZUSP under Division of Sewerage, Drainage and Solid Waste (DSDSW). The DSDSW will continue to work with other experts within or outside the ZMC. Similarly in PTCs, subproject related to waste management are under the TCs Sanitation Department. The Department of Urban and Rural Planning (DoURP) will continue to take responsibility of planning and overseeing implementation of prioritized and approved urban upgrading infrastructure. Collaborating institutions include ZEMA, Ministry of Land and Department of Forestry. Specific roles and responsibilities in implementing the ZUSP-AF include:

  • Overall responsibility

  • ZUSP-AF planning and budgeting: including overseeing development of sub-project concept, sub-project design, sub-projects ESIA, RAP preparation.

  • Review of plans and budgets

  • Approval of plans and budgets

  • Procurement of services of Contractors/ Consultants

  • Project implementation

  • Supervise of implementation, monitoring and reporting

  • Review of project implementation reports

  • Reporting to MoF

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