3.1 KEY VALUED ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS IN ZUSP-AF AREA OF INFLUENCE
The identification, appraisal, management and monitoring of environmental and social impacts emanating from implementation of the overall ZUSP-AF project (and subsequent sub-projects) starts with a focussed process to identify the key Valued Environmental Components (VEC) including physical, chemical, biological, social, economic, archaeological and cultural heritage and any other receptors that are likely to interact with project activities. Below is a description of the VEC relevant to ZUSP-AF including aspects likely to have cumulative implications related to waste management and urban infrastructure development and services.
On the legal and at the policy level, the Zanzibar Bureau of Standards is preparing a set of air quality standards that are expected to be operational in the immediate future. The Ministry of Health is also preparing Regulations on Landfill Management that are expected to stress on compliance with the atmospheric emissions limits.
Overall, there are no specific or officially sanctioned quantitative measurements to assess the level of CO, NOx, SOx or even SPM, neither in the Zanzibar Municipality. There are no competent laboratories inside Zanzibar that are dedicated to air quality monitoring while only have managed to only address qualitative analysis of the ambient air in their specific spatial boundaries. There is an urgent need to establish permanent air quality monitoring stations around urban areas. Without such facilities and monitoring instruments, it will be difficult for the project to accurately implement the Environmental Monitoring Protocols with scientific data.
The ambient air quality around the ZMC areas and the whole Unguja island appears to be deteriorating rapidly. Major sources of air pollution include burning of woody biomass, production of charcoal, slash-and-burn practices, quarrying, dust emissions from unpaved roads, and the traffic pollution which is increasing in great proportion. Most of the imported vehicles are used cars which would have almost certainly failed general emission testing criteria from their point of origin. The Zanzibar Bureau of Standards has already adopted the Tanzanian Ambient Air Quality and Stack Emissions Standards but their implementation is yet to be enforced.
The effect on air quality of the increased traffic flow is considered to be significant if no controls are enforced. Under good maintenance schedule, traffic exhaust emissions will be intermittent and atmospheric dispersal of exhaust emissions will maintain the sound ambient air quality. However, concerted effort to check engine performance is needed so as to deter vehicles not road-worth from using the roads. Improved roads and is critical in addressing the air quality situation.
Climate The islands of Zanzibar are characterized by an equatorial Monsoon system (Hot and Wet seasons). The long Masika Rains from March to May come before the onset of the South-West Monsoons also known as the Kusi (which blow from April to November) while the short Vuli Rains (September to November) come before the onset of Northeast Monsoon winds known as the Kaskazi which blow from November to April. The rainfall pattern is bimodal in nature. During Masika contributes to 50% of the annual rainfall rain while Vuli contributes between 25% and 30%. On average, Pemba receives more rainfall (1900mm) than Unguja (1600mm). The distribution of rainfall is such that there is more rainfall in the western halves of each island that in the east.
The hot and humid season is between the months of December to March while the cool and dry season is between the months of June to September. Temperatures range between 25 degrees Celsius to 35 degrees Celsius. But, with higher humidity levels, temperatures can be felt to range above 40 degrees Celsius in some occasions. The relative humidity is high, with a monthly average ranging between 75% to 85%.
Table : Annual climate patterns on Unguja Island
Climate Change Zanzibar’s economy is very dependent on climate but recent studies have confirmed that the islands’ climate is changing negatively1. Recent decades have seen rising temperature, increased rainfall variability, higher wind speeds, rising sea levels, and extreme weather events. Currently Zanzibar has been experiencing droughts and municipal floods which have had economic costs in terms of GDP. In this case, Zanzibar is not yet adequately adapted to the current climate change impact and the Government needs to address adaptation deficit to lead to immediate benefit as well as providing resilience to future climate change.
As a least developed country, or part of the contracting party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Zanzibar produces negligible carbon emissions that do not necessarily or directly impact the global effects of the carbon emissions. According to the study on Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Zanzibar (2012), the total CO2 emissions for Zanzibar in 2010 was 763 Gq CO2 equivalent or 0.6 tCO2 Emissions per Capita Equivalent. Wastes take up a small share of total CO2 emissions (4%). Energy sector is the leading source of CO2 emissions (39%) followed by Agriculture (28%), and LULUCF (29%). The projected CO2 emissions by 2030 in Zanzibar are expected to climb to 2200 Gg CO2 equivalent with LULUCF, Agriculture and Transport sectors leading in these emissions.
Noise Emissions No official ambient or occupational noise pollution data for Zanzibar is available. It is more likely that there hasn’t been any organized collection of regular or periodic data for ambient or occupational noise levels. Abstract analysis of noise levels indicate that ambient noise levels exceed human threshold during day time especially around the municipal zone and arterial roads exceeding 90 to 120 dB. The Zanzibar Bureau of Standards has already adopted ambient and occupational noise standards whose implementation and enforcement is yet to be activated. Community consultations have indicated a rising scale of public nuisance caused by increased garbage trucks traffic flow through the locality. Such a highly audible flow needs a regulated standard procedure in order to avoid environmental and public health challenges
Overall, and in the context of the Zanzibar Municipality, major sources of noise pollution in Zanzibar and typically around the zone of influence include motor vehicles which have proven to be a big source of noise pollution. Increasing traffic has given rise to traffic jams in congested areas where the repeated hooting of horns by impatient drivers pierce the ears of all road users. Moreover, noise from airplanes using the Zanzibar International Airport has been affecting a portion of the municipality situated in the vicinity of the Kisauni Airport. Public Address System and the use of loud speakers contributes heavily in its own way towards noise pollution while other miscellaneous sources such as automobile repair shops, construction-works, stone crushing etc. are other sources of noise pollution that are worth considering in preparing environmental monitoring protocols.
Noise assessment, i.e. more in situ measurements are required to develop a monitoring baseline. The significant issue is the frequency of garbage trucks passing through residents areas. Another point of interest in addressing the sensitivity of fauna to noise levels.
Surface Fresh Water Quantity and Quality Overall Assessment
According to the Zanzibar Water Authority (ZAWA) Strategic Plan 2013-2018, natural resources for drinking water in Zanzibar are restricted to groundwater, which is considered to be in abundance, whereas surface water resources are modest. Past studies of available groundwater resources have tended to agree on a possible upper abstraction limit of 339 million cubic meters annually (Mm3/a), as shown in the table below. The present actual abstraction is estimated to be 71 Mm3/a, while ZAWA abstraction is estimated to be 33 Mm3/a. The data and forecasts prepared by Halcrow in 1994 and projected forward to 2015, arrive at a water inflows and resources for each island (in million cubic meters per annum, Mm3/a) as follows:
Table : Annual water budget in Unguja and Pemba
Average annual Rainfall
Estimated groundwater recharge
Acceptable aquifer yield
Estimated actual abstraction
Estimated ZAWA abstraction
Irrigation & private wells
In the 2008 – 2013 estimated abstraction by ZAWA is 33 M m3/year has been mentioned, but without bulk water meters this figure cannot be confirmed. Attempts to estimate a correlating figure by using power consumption records from the electricity meters and the pump rating have been unsuccessful so far. This is partly due to lack of on-going records and partly due to the application of substantial meter reading factors by ZECO all of which are not known.
Surface Water Terrain and Morphology on Unguja
According to KOICA Feasibility Study on Zanzibar Irrigation Master Plan (2010), almost all surface water streams in Unguja have several flooding outputs with peak discharge in a short time in rainy season, but have low or no discharge in the dry season. These streams are divided into those that reach the sea and those that do not. The four systems flow to the sea in the northwest sector of island, and there are smaller streams along the western coast, such as at Bububu and Mtoni, but they do not represent a significant economic resource, apart from channeling heavy flow of rain water downstream and into the sea during the heavy rainy seasons.
A number of other streams disappear into the coral rag limestone or sink holes known locally as Pokezi or Kibonde. Three examples of such streams are the Kinyasini, Pangeni, and Mwera. While the project site is not known to have any surface water body in the vicinity, the characteristics of these surface runoffs in Unguja between during annual period and heavy rainy season are given in the following table:
Table : Features in River Flow in Unguja During Annual Period
Annual Specific Discharge
End of outflow
Table Features in River Flow in Unguja During Masika Season
Record Length (2010)
Average Daily Folw
20 Apr to 8 Jun
30 to 40%
31 Mar to 9 Jun
30 to 50%
30 Mar to 9 Jun
40 to 55%
30 Mar to 8 Jun
30 to 40%
24 Apr to 8 Jun
40 to 55%
30 Mar to 12 May
45 to 60%
25 Apr to 7 Jun
40 to 50%
22 Apr to 12 May
40 to 50%
Recent Studies on Water Quality in the Zone of Influence ZAWA does not keep regular track of the baseline data on the percentage (%) of Water Samples Passing Bacteriological Quality Tests or the percentage (%) of Samples of Supplied Water Passing Physical Chemical Quality (Turbidity) Test. There are series of external peer reviewed studies from various locations of the island that provide an indicative picture of the state of fresh water quality.
For example, Abdul A.J. Mohammed et al (2013)2assessed the level of total hardness and heavy metals (hexavalent chromium and copper) in springs and underground water sources in some areas of Zanzibar. Levels of copper, hexavalent chromium and total hardness in the studied samples ranged between 1.38 - 11.0 mg/L, 0.05 - 0.4 mg/L and 32.02 - 1009 (as mg/L CaCO3), respectively. About 77% of all samples had total hardness values higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, while the proportion of samples with dangerous concentrations of copper and hexavalent chromium were 70% and 96.6%, respectively. The levels of most of the studied parameters in the drinking water samples exceeded the permissible limits of the WHO drinking water quality guidelines. The results show the urgent need to take immediate mitigation measures and continue the water quality monitoring in Zanzibar, as well as establishing drinking water treatment plants.
Another recent peer-reviewed physical-chemical and microbial analysis study by Abdul A.J. Mohammed et al (2014) reveals the effect of rainfall on pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of Zanzibar groundwater sources3. In June 2012, thirty water samples were collected from spring and underground water sources for fecal coliforms (FC), total coliforms (TC), alkalinity, phosphate (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) analysis. The levels of PO4-P, NH4-N, and alkalinity in water samples were in the range of 0.08-5.15 mg/L, 0.03-6.71 mg/L and 47- 430 (as mg L CaCO3) respectively.
During dry period, the lowest and the highest EC levels were 181.02 µS/cm and 6180. µS cm respectively, while 167.36 µS/cm and 7985.03 µS/cm were the respective lowest and highest EC levels measured during wet period. The variation of pH levels during dry and rainy period were in the range of 6.31- 8.30, and 7.13 - 8.44, respectively. During dry and wet period, 40% and 17% of the samples respectively had EC level beyond the guideline recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). FC and TC contaminated 43% and 67% of the water sources respectively. The presence of FC, TC and elevated levels of EC in some of water samples show how groundwater quality has been deteriorating with the physical growth of the municipality. Ground water quality at Kibele, the laboratory tests carried by ZAWA in July 2015 shows excessive levels of Calcium, Manganese, Phosphates, and contamination by Fecal and Total Coliforms4.
Groundwater Quantity and Quality In recent years there has been a major increase in private well drilling as demand exceeded supply from the ZAWA networks, and as expansion of agricultural irrigation abstraction continued. So far there is no data to give an estimate for these abstractions. ZAWA states that this will be subject of potentially future research. Although there is no immediate risk of depleting the groundwater aquifer, certain areas, particularly in the Eastern areas of Unguja around tourist resorts, have experiencing intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, reportedly due to excessive abstraction of groundwater. This has affected supply in adjacent villages – both in quantity and quality.
Other areas experiencing constraints and possible saline intrusion include the Urban West part of Unguja. Due to the increasing variability of rainfall made worse by climate change as well as normal drought cycles, raises the level of risk of saline intrusion as the aquifer limit is approached. On the other hand, pollution of water resources from human settlements with ineffective pollution control measures and from human encroachment in the rainwater catchment areas is imminent. If bacteriological contamination becomes established this will raise ZAWA’s cost of treatment of groundwater.
The annual rainfall in the South Region, where Kibele is located, is 392 M m3/year while the annual recharge is 130 M m3/year. The annual acceptable yield is 92 M m3/year while the amount of ground water flow to the sea is 38 M m3/year5.
Geology and Morphology Unguja’s geological profile is composed of Miocene sediments as considered country rock, overlain by Quaternary sediments derived from Miocene rock. The Miocene sediments are divided as three Miocene (M) layers which are classified as M1, M2 and M3, respectively, from bottom to top. Quaternary sediments also are divided as Q1, Q2 and Q3 due to record periods of higher sea level, marine erosion with wave-cut cliffs and platforms, reworked marine and fluviatile sediments.
The M3 strata consist of poorly consolidated but well-bedded calcareous sandstones, detrital limestones, clayey sands and sandy clays. The limestones are soft, chalky, and marl rocks with irregularly calcified hard patches. They are generally pale colored, with buff and light brown colors predominant at the surface, passing down into blues and blue-grey, below the weathering to bright red and reddish brown colors.
The M2 strata consist of sands and sandstones, forming distinct characteristic horizons throughout the Miocene in the corridor or channel system. The sands are coarse clean and siliceous, distinctly angular and sometimes sugary, white, opaline, glassy and pearly grey. They are friable usually lacking any cementing material. Though they form distinct stratigraphic horizons, they are rather more likely to occur as lenses or deltaic sandbanks and levees. Their average thickness is from 10 to 15 meters, and within the outcrop expression of the M3, they produce distinct landforms of locally open elongated treeless, grassy and water logged depressions.
The sandstones have a similar lithology of sands, but calcite and siliceous cements occur irregularly. Some siliceous bands are extremely hard and difficult or impossible to drill with small weights of drilling tools. Most deep M2 intersections occur on eastern side of the island from Cheju through to Upenja, Kibokwa, Chaani and Matemwe. Surface outcrop and shallow intersections are confined to the western side of Zanzibar.
There are three limestones in M1: 1) crystalline limestone which is mainly found in the south east area, 2) sandy limestones and reef limestones which are mainly formed as fringing reefs of the east coast, 3) detrital limestones, which being colluvial in origin and crushed in part by wave action, are a re-cemented rock of calcic clays, broken limestone with crushed shell, corals and shark’s teeth. Typically, all the Zanzibar limestones are somewhat detrital, sandy and of marl characteristics. They are regarded as being of a shallow marine origin. The interstratified lenses and continuous limestone horizon are found as subordinate strata in the M3 sediment material, on the north western parts of the island with the main Miocene sequence and in the Makunduchi regions6.
Soils The soils of Zanzibar fall under three main groups depending on the geological feature of parent rocks; 1) sandy soils, 2) calcareous red soils, 3) clay soils. The sand soil group derived from non-calcareous sediments, the sandy group varies from very deep sandy to rather heavy reddish through brown, yellowish grey, to grey shallower types. The calcareous red soils are the free draining soils derived from limestone. The clay soils derived from clays and mudstone. There are five main soil categories called Mchanga, Kinongo, Uwanda, Maweni and Kinamo in Unguja.
Maweni soil is located in the coral rag limestone that forms the extensive eastern and southern portion of the island. This soil covers more than 40% of arable land and supports traditional shifting cultivation. Mchanga soil is found on the western part of the island covering 20% of land area. This soil is suitable for both tree and annual crops. Uwanda soil forms the interface between the plantation area and coral rag zones covering 17% of the area. This soil is generally open grass area for unimproved grazing. Kinongo soil is the most fertile in the island and provides high potential for food crop production. Kinamo soil covers only 5% of the land area and is found in the north and small patches in central and south zones. This soil is suitable for rice cultivation.
The following table shows Zanzibar soils comparing to the FAO classification of soil:
Secondary Grassland covers various opportunistic grass species which are frequently cleared or slashed. The common grass species seen throughout include Heteropogon contortus, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium geminatum, Digitalia ciliaris, Eleusine corocana and Hyparrhenia filipendula. Secondary Bushland covers an assemblage of woody shrubs and dwarf trees exposed to constant clearing and pruning. Dominant small trees throughout the island include Blighia unjugata, Albizia lebbeck, Annona senegalensis, Ziziphus mucronata, Balanites aegyptics, Flueggea virosa, Millingtonia hortensis, Trema orientalis, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Suregada zanzibariensis, Dryopteris natalensis, Syzygium cumini, Antidesma venosum, and Mallotus oppositifolia. Dominant herb climbers include Acalypha claoxyloides and Perquetina nigrescens
Cultivated Lands with Settlements covers various agricultural crops such as Plantains, Cassava, Yams, Coconut, Mangoes, Oranges, Papaya, Almonds, Bread fruit, and other vegetables, etc.
Restoration vegetation include Acacia and Casuarina Trees.
The project area survey shows the presence of the following wild species:
Kikwayakwaya (Stachytarpheta indica)
Mchongoma (Flacourtia indica)
Mjenga ua (Gliricidia spp)
Mkeshia (Acacia auriculiformis)
Mkwamba (Flueggea virosa),
Msina (Leucaena leucocephala)
Mtopetope (Annona senegalensis)
Mvinje (Casuarina equisetofolia)
Mwarobaini (Azadirachta indica)
Land Use Land Cover
An analysis conducted by SMOLE project 2004, indicates that, current landuses is rapid ongoing expansion of the city, sprawling and intruding into agricultural lands; rapid decline of unoccupied open space with large tracts either being developed or brought under cultivation. Indeed if the trend continues it is reasonable to expect that very large tracts will become peri-urban over the coming generation. The vast bulk of the landmass in the Urban district remains undeveloped although combined built areas now extend slightly over 100 km2 or some 36% of the landmass. Residential uses, including local services, infrastructure and public space, account for fully 81% of the built areas with public services and limited public space (combined 9%), economic (4.7%) and infrastructural uses (>5%), accounting for the balance.
In Zanzibar Town today there are over 840 ha. dedicated to public services, and 54 ha. dedicated to public open space. Combined these are equivalent to 9% of the built area and <3% of the SA. Of these, approximately 200 ha. in total are located in the Inner City.
Biodiversity A detailed inventory of terrestrial ecosystems and Zanzibar’s biodiversity is included in Annex A. The islands include diverse flora and fauna, with notable endangered and threatened plant and animal species. This includes 276 bird species, endangered and threatened mammal and amphibian species, and coral reefs in surrounding waters. Protective measures for ecosystems and biodiversity include a network of Marine Protected Areas and forest reserves. Many of these assets are under threat, for example due to deforestation to fuel charcoal consumption and poor water quality due to pollution discharges into waterways.
Relevant for the project is the Jozani Forest Reserve - located about 35 km south of Zanzibar town in the island of Unguja, Jozani is the largest forest reserve in Zanzibar. The potential environmental sanitation activities would take place in the buffer zone of the forest reserve. Two IUCN listed species, the Black and Rufus Elephant Shrew (vulnerable) and the red colobus monkey (endangered) are found in the Jozani forest. While in the forest reserve, it is unclear if these species are found in the buffer zone and the Kibele site specifically. This will be examined in the subproject Environmental and Social Impact Assessment.
3.2 SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, CULTURAL CONDITIONS
Population and Demographics
Urban community’s characteristics in Zanzibar
The project Appraisal Document for ZUSP (2010) highlighted that by 2002, population in ZMC was 206,292 persons and West District had 13,611 persons. The Zanzibar urban communities bear most of the important features found in other urban of the developing world. It is a cosmopolitan society made of multicultural and multi-ethnic originated from as far as India, Middle-east, Mainland Tanzania and other areas around the coat of Indian Ocean. However, despite its social heterogeneity, Zanzibar urban have less problem of homelessness as compare to other cities in the world. Many middle and low income people have (though insufficient) accommodation. In addition, Zanzibar urban is also a home for extremes cases, i.e. the richest as well as the poorest people; The best and the worst forms of ethical behaviour; Superior creativeness and chronic unemployment all are found in urban Zanzibar. However, the insanitation, high population and congestion, pollution and unhealthy environment that affect the health of the inhabitants is almost everywhere in Zanzibar urban.
Local labour force: employment opportunities; health and safety of workers According to the Integrated Labour Force Survey (ILFS, 2006), the employment to population ratio in Zanzibar at 78.4% (84.8%for males and 73.3% for female). In urban areas the employment ratio was below national average which is only 68% i.e. (78.1% for males and 58.9% for female). The MKUZA II targeted to reduce youth unemployment rate to 11.4% by 2015 which was to be achieved through creation of enabling environment including imparting entrepreneurship skills and provision of Labour Market Information to youth. Petty trade, hand craft, construction sector and fishing are the largest employers in urban areas. Most of these activities are carried out informally and uncoordinated. The uncoordinated activities not add little in national wealth because they are not adequately captured in national accounts but also a threat to environment.
With respect to formal employment, the public sector dominates the formal employment in Zanzibar Town with 20% in public administration, 19% in education, over 5% in health and 2% in electricity7. While, Communications (14%) and Accommodation and Food including tourism (13%) are the largest employer among the private sectors in this area. Wages in Zanzibar are low averaging only $850 p.a in 2011.
Urban facilities and services
Potable Water. The supply and distribution of portable water in Zanzibar is done by the Zanzibar Water Authority (ZAWA). Any development project that will use water during establishment and or operation should be approved by ZAWA. For instance part seven, section 84 (1) of Zanzibar Water Regulation 2007 state that:
“No water supply project or part of it shall be undertaken until (a) Surveying of the proposed project area, (2) Drawings,(3) Bill of Quantity, and (4)Project write-up are done and approved by the Authority”:- While Section 84 (2) state that: “No person or institution shall initiate water project and or supply equipment and or materials for water supply project without the technical recommendation and corporation of the Authority in advance” However, very often the water supply lines get damaged leading to leakage of water which does not only reduce community access to this important resource but also (and more importantly) may be contaminated by waste water drain from houses, overflow storm water and blocked drainages system thereby increases the risk of Gastrointestinal infectionsthat cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. It is not clear yet about the actual demand of portable water in urban district but what is clear is the district have not been adequately supplied with this service. Expanding the coverage is also a big challenge given the increasing population and business establishments in stone town and peri-urban areas that require water and other services.The current is challenges in supply of potable water is the ongoing degradation of surface and ground water resources is ongoing due to encroachment into water retention areas, deforestation of the catchment zones, sewage contamination and climate changes,(SMOLE, 2012)
Access roads The network of access roads of in the Urban District was (as of December 2013) made up of 68km of urban roads of which 55km are paved and 12 km are unpaved. Among the paved roads, 29km were in very good conditions, 14 km were good, 7km fair, 3 km were poor and 2km were in very poor condition. Zanzibar Town’s main and most important road is Creek Rd. This four-lane road with bi-directional sidewalks is surrounded by commercial activity and major institutions such as: Darajani Market, Central Dala-Dala Terminus, city council and schools, etc. The narrow streets of the Stone town makes most part of the town in accessible by cars. The ZMC cleaning staff use push carts to take solid waste to the areas that can be taken by trucks for disposal to the dumping sites. Though the current road network in Zanzibar Town may seem sufficient to support current traffic volumes, but with the increasing population and motorization growth rates, in the near future it will not be enough. The in-adequate repair and cleaning of drainages leads to spilling of waste water around access roads and streets. In order to improve and sustain clean environment there is a need to construct more drainages, regular removal of sand and other solid wastes so as to allow easy flow of storm water.
Urban transportation The concentration of social services in the Stone Ttown area resulted into increased traffic movement in this part of the Urban District. All essential services such as hospital, high court, birth and death registration offices, banks, Zanzibar Port, warehouses, main fish lending site and actions, Government ministries and departments, tourism hotels and restaurants are available in Stone Town. There are also more shops that attract more customers than any other area in Zanzibar. The Stone Town Conservation Authority is controlling (though without success) the movement of vehicles inside Stone Town by limiting the weight of car that can be allowed in this area. The increasing number of vehicles entering Stone Town is a big threat to not only the life of buildings but also to the environment and serenity of the Stone Town. The largest volume of bus pre-load area is located along the main roads at the entrances to Zanzibar Town. Malawi and Karume roads are the main PT corridors. Usually of the commuter buses start in five main routes (Kinanzini, Magomeni Amani and Kilimani) and thereafter spliting into variousroots in the West District. Minibuses (15-20 passenger seats), Haiss (popularly known as Chai Maharage) of 20 seat capacity and Ford Convoys with 17 seats are the most common commuter bases for public transportation service in Zanzibar.
Waste disposal sites
With increasing population and peoples’ incomes in many cities, local governments are hard-pressed to collect and dispose wastes that could cause higher methane emissions. Globally, landfills and dumpsites are the third largest sources of methane (World Bank 2016). In Philippines example given in the above report about 60 percent of greenhouse gases from waste are generated by towns and cities. The rest is from municipal wastewater (14%), industrial wastewater (13%), and human sewage waste 13 percent (World Bank 2016).
The Zanzibar Municipal Council is responsible for collection and disposal of waste from the Urban District. Currently the council is expected to generate around 220 tons of solid waste per day; however, its current collection capacity is only 100 tons per day which is about of the total waste generated in the district per day (ZUSP PAD, 2010). The remaining 65 percent of the waste is not properly collected and therefore accumulated and haphazardly dumped in various places near people’s houses. The old Stone Town area as well as the western part of Zanzibar Town is given priority in waste collection services by the Municipal Council by allocating about 80 percent in this areas of workforce due to its importance for the tourism.
The case in almost akin to solid waste management in which stagnant water ponds covering more than 173 hectors are very common and directly affect around 3,645 households (ZOSP PAD, 2010)
Within the ZMC area, the sewer network is concentrated in and adjacent to the old Stone Town areas, covering a total area of 96 Ha. The sewer network is also available to a limited extent in some parts of some of the surroundings of Stone Town, including Michenzani Flats, the Police Barrack, and beyond Creek Road in areas as Mchangani and Mlandege (POFEDP 2013).Domestic wastewater often combines with storm water and gets disposed into the seasince Zanzibar has no wastewater treatment plant. The rest of Zanzibar Town has no sewerage system and therefore liquid waste discharged haphazardly into the immediate environment. The above report also indicated that, the direct exposure to raw sewage, particularly during the rainy season make the healthof presidents inStone Town (includingof visitors) endangered. The area often suffer from sewer odours, negatively impacting upon living conditions and the tourism experience. According to Zanzibar Sanitation and Drainage Program 1 (2005), all landfills in Zanzibar are of open dumping types in which, waste is disposed with sorting and without meaningful consideration of health standards.
There have been some community initiatives in waste collection and management. For instance, the CBO known as Labayka was operating waste collection points within their communities to avoid crude dumping within the settlements. There are also some private individuals who collect waste from some hotels outside the Zanzibar Municipal Council. These private companies usually use open trucks to collect and dispose waste somewhere in the forest or farms. Similarly, Vikokotoni Environment Society in Zanzibar Town close to the main market was engaging in cleaning up the streets every morning before they go to work. The Zanzibar Scrapers Environment Association (ZASEA) is a registered NGO in Zanzibar Town established in 2008 to handle recyclable waste fractions. The organization is recognized by the Department of Environment as registered association with around 100 members.
However, the sustainability of this activity is questionable, as the organizations are relying on external aids for financial resources while the ZMC itself is ill equipped to promote and support this kind of community initiatives.
Economic Activities and Livelihoods Urban Agriculture, Urban District is by far the most important urban centre in Zanzibar. The district receives an average annual precipitation of between 1,500 to 2000mm mostly from two main rain seasons. i.e. Masika (long rain season) which rain from March to May and Vuli (short rain season) from October to December). Urban agriculture is a practiced in open places and fairly low density areas in town owned by private individuals or public institutions such as military camps. Such are found in Migombani, Bomani, Maruhubi and Mpandae.
Collectively, there are about 360 acres of different short term crop in Urban District (Conversation with Urban District Agricultural Officer). Leafy vegetables particularly spinach and Matembele occupying larger part of the agricultural land in this district. The crops that are grown in negligible quantity are; tomato, sweet peeper, Chinese cabbage, okra, eggplant, onion, cassava and rice.
In most cases farmers rely on tap water from ZAWA supply lines or produce rain-fed conditions. The main challenges with this agricultural land is that some of these areas have become important storm water drains which may flood the area, pollute and contaminate the farm with waste chemicals and harmful microbes and eventually make the harvests unsafe for human consumption. In addition, the existing weak enforcement of laws to control air, water and soil pollution, sewage that discharged untreated into land and is the main concern of urban agriculture in Zanzibar. In addition, the land for agricultural production has been declining because of increasing urbanisation, through horizontal expansion of buildings.
Livestock keeping and business activities Currently there is no official statistic on the amount and types of animal kept in urban district. However, the biggest beef and chicken markets in Zanzibar are found at Darajani in this district. On average about 19,606 cattle and 3,329 sheep & goats (table xxx) are being slaughtered annually at Kisakasaka in urban west region most of this meats are sent to Central Meat Market at Darajani for wholesaling and retailing. There is no specialised abattoir for chicken in Zanzibar. Chicken are mostly slaughtered at Darajani and Mwanakwerekwe Markets. The challenge here is a lack of appropriate infrastructures and regular maintenance services of the market place. For instance, Darajani market drain its waste to the Central sewage system of the Stone Town, but very often the market lack potable water, inadequate cleaning leading to the blockage of the drainage to create unhygienic condition in the market.
Cattle, sheep&Goat and Chicken slaughtered annually (2011- 2014)
Sources: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (no date)
Unfortunately both agricultural Sector Policy (2002) and Livestock Policy of 2011 are silent on the vital issues pertaining to urban agriculture and livestock keeping in urban respectively; and the land for such production activities.
Fishing and Fisheries activities Like all other districts in Zanzibar fishery is an important economic activity in Urban District. The district houses the largest fish landing sites and auctions at Malindi, Darajani, and Maruhubi andKizingo. Malindi, Darajaniare also the largest retail markets for fish in Zanzibar. There are also small but formal fish markets (such as Kwa Haji Tumbo and Mikunguni). Some informal market exist in Magomeni, Jangombe, Saateni and Makadara.
These activities and functions are performed by different actors including; Fishers (2,129) who do the actual fish catching, 84 foot fishers (they fish without using vessels), 324 fish mongers and138 gear repairs. (Table ): There is high risk of fish contamination with chemical and biological agents discharged from households and industries at various stages of value chain starting from the surrounding sea, landing sites, at auction and retailing sites.
Table Key Actors in Fisheries Value Chain in Urban District and types of service
Sources: Frame Survey 2010.
The existing markets generally lack essential infrastructures required for proper maintenance for hygiene and food safety. The insufficient water supply, poor drainage system can be seen vividly in virtually all fish markets in the district. The waste water in Darajani market is directed to the Central Drainage System of Stone town. But very often the get blocked by solid waste and sand deposits. Whereas, in Market that are close to the sea such Malindi and Maruhubi the drain is directed to the sea. Sometime, wastes in these markets stay longer and produce smell leading to air pollution.
Fishing is not only provides a good source of protein but also a good source of employment and income. The previous Frame Survey (2010) indicated that about 3097 individual were directly employed in the fisheries subsector in urban district (Table ). Out of this, 392 were vessels owners, 2,129 fishers, 84 foot fishers, 324 fisher mongers, 238 gear repair and 20 fish fries who fry fish within landing sites. The sustainability of fishing industry require among other things maintenance healthy environment of both in shore and offshore water.
Table Fisheries as a source of Employment in Urban District
Types of employment
Source: Extracted from Frame survey (2010)
Despite the contribution of petty trade to the employment and income in Zanzibar, petty traders themselves have become a nuisance to motorists and pedestrians. They are obstructing the walking pavements along the famous streets in Stone Town such as Mchngani, Darajani, Kiponda and Gizenga Street. Large part of these streets have been occupied by the traders causing unnecessary jam to vehicles and pedestrians. They claim that they have no alternative livelihood or place to do their businesses.
Several attempts have been made to remove petty traders popularly known as 'Machingas' or Jua kali, from Zanzibar, Darajani area. The RGoZ established Machinga Complex at Mpigaduri (popularly known as Pinda Mgongo) but most of them decided to continue business as usual. All of these attempts have hit a snag due to boldness of the petty traders. This is evidenced by the statement made by State Minister Dr. Mwinyihaji Haji Makame said in the House of representative "Our Municipal council staff are beaten and threatened by stubborn hawkers. We need to educate the traders so that they can shift to new place put aside for them," (13 October 2012 Daily News)
These traders drop huge litter of solid waste every day. They sometime throw in solid waste into the drainage system and cause blockage. They don’t even provide adequate space and time for ZMC staff to clean up the area properly.
Business and trade
With the exception of agriculture, Zanzibar Town is a centre of all other activities: commercial, administration, social and cultural. The presence of harbour, central fish market, and fish landing, referral hospital, tourist of tourist hotels and restaurants make the Urban District as the business centre for Zanzibar. The area contains the main harbour in Zanzibar for importing and exporting passengers and Cargo. There are also a number warehouses around port and Saateni areas. Some street of stone is full of shops, tours operators and airline; office banks and the likes. Tourism
Tourism in Urban Zanzibar is mostly done in Stone Town area which is categorised in Tourism Zoning, as Zone 1 (The Zanzibar Commission for Tourism (as cited by RGoZ (2009c). Most of the visitors to the island spend one or two nights in Stone town before or after staying at the beaches in north or east coasts of the Island. According to the Zanzibar Commission for Tourism, there are about 140 tourist hotels in Stone Town that provide accommodations to tourists (ZCT, 2010). The main tourist attractions in this zone are the Old Fort, The Palace Museum, the Anglican Cathedral with old slave market and other historic sites and museums. Others are dhow harbour and Forodhani Garden.
Despite the importance of Stone Town as an impotent tourism product in Zanzibar, the hygienic and sanitary requirements to support this sector has not been encouraging. The spread of litters of solid waste and spread of liquid waste in the streets due to blockage of drainages system are the normal occurrences in this area. The effort to developtourism industryin Zanzibar should give moreemphasis on town cleanliness; since mismanagement of solid waste can lead to pests, odor and disease which may dramatically deter tourism.
Zanzibar has many exciting recreation areas to carter for the need of locals and visitors. This includes; Palace Museums, Forodhani park, white sand beach at Forodhani, Ngome Kongwe, Anglican Church Mkunazini, Botanical Gardens, open places for sports and recreation at Maisara, Mnazimmoja, Kariakoo Recreation Park, Mao Zedong and Amani football stadiums. The Challenges is however on to keep these area green and clean, and install and maintaining drainage infrastructures for better management of liquid waste and storm water in these areas.
With respect to historic buildings /structure, the Stone Town of Zanzibar is a typical example of the Swahili coastal trading towns in East Africa. It retains its prominent historical and artistic importance in East Africa, and retains contains many architectural buildings that reflects diverse influences underlying the Swahili culture, with a unique mixture of Moorish, Arab, Persian, Indian and European elements dating back to the 19th century. It occupies the most western edge of the Town of Zanzibar with a total area of 96 hectors and buffer zone area of 84.79 hectors which make about 5.4 % of the total area of Zanzibar Town. The Stone Town was declared as World Heritage Sites by UNESSCO in 2000. Considerable efforts have been taken by both government (Stone Town Conservation Authority) and non–governmental Organization to work with communities within Stone Town in preserving its heritage and culture. The rehabilitation of Forodhani Park in line with the requirement of Stone Conservation regulations and reconstruction of Mzingani Sea Wall as an iconic sea face of the Stone Town is some of the recent example of these efforts.
3.3 EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES
Zanzibar is an Island within the United Republic of Tanzania, but the environmental problems that the islands have are reminiscent of the similar issues faced by other islands. Therefore the urgency to engage regional and international environment related conventions, protocols and agreements and seek support in enforcing the Climate Change, ICZM, environmental and conservation of natural resources; energy, and pollution control and waste minimization in the context of sustainable development has never been more critical.
There is a growing number of environmental and social challenges faced by the Zanzibar Municipality and are affecting the country’s environment, social and economy of the urban inhabitants in the island. Zanzibar finds itself in the midst of emerging environmental and social challenges of the current times, mostly caused by the increase of urban population with less urban infrastructure development. These environmental challenges compelled the Government to institute a new policy of 2015, towards an environmental governance framework that focuses upon the island’s environmental and social protections. The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar recognizes the need for an urgent action to address these challenges in a multi pronged approach for the benefit of present and future generations.
The current environmental pressures affecting the country relate to:
the adverse effects of climate change and sea-level rise;
a surge in intensity and frequency of abnormal weather patterns, drought conditions, strong winds, indecisive rains and floods;
environmental pollution aggravated by inadequate management of solid waste, wastewater.
increasingly depleted fresh water resources, deforestation and destruction of catchments and wetlands.
increased demands in land resources, and combating land degradation and pollution.
inadequate of reliable and alternative of energy supply.
loss of biodiversity and destruction of habitat both from terrestrial and marine environment.