Revolutionary government of zanzibar


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In this ESMF, environment is broadly defined to include natural environment (air, water and land) and human wellbeing, health and safety. The section below presents ZUSP-AF activities likely to cause environmental and social impacts albeit of varying degrees at different locations as well as the adverse and positive impacts that have to be explicitly managed when the specific subprojects and their location are known.

When, during the screening process undertaken by the ZUSP PMT (see Annex B) it is determined that a sub-project is likely to cause, and subsequently manage, potential adverse environmental and social effects, the ZMC Project Team/ EIA Consultants will use ESMF checklist and resources and participation sheets to support environmental planning and management. The Project Team (see Section 1.3) will screen each subproject and determine components / activities likely to cause impacts by filling in the “No” or “Yes” part of the ESMF checklist. This screening process will help to scope the ESIA and gain an initial picture of subproject impacts and safeguards triggered.


The key activities under ZUSP-AF will include development of single or clusters of subprojects constituting infrastructure covering all elements of the solid waste and septic sludge management systems: collection, primary transportation, material recovery, pre-treatment, transfer, bulk transportation, potential centralized composting and bio-gas to energy as well as developing a sanitary land fill and sludge treatment facility. Urban upgrading infrastructure will cover roads and associated structures drainage, street lighting, landscaping etc.
Land Acquisition
Rerouting into new land

While all new projects would be implemented in existing rights-of-way, small amounts of land may be required for example to improve roadside drains or improve pedestrian connectivity, or avoid avoid sensitive / important natural or social / cultural or economic features.

Acquisition of additional land

Construction of some structures (i.e. roads and drainage channels) may require acquisition of additional land for expansion of diameters or extension of lengths of existing infrastructure or to achieve required construction standards. The necessity for increase the size of the way leave may extend into nearby land uses.

Acquisition of new land

Few ZUSP subprojects are “green field” developments but in some areas, landtake may be needed for establishment of new infrastructure or facility. Examples of subprojects falling into this category include transfer station development at Maruhubi as well as landfill and septic sludge facilities to be built at Kibele. It is confirmed that these facilities are on public land therefore there is no land acquisition.

Mobilization of Resources

Delivery of resources: construction materials (sand, gravels, stones and water), industrial supplies (cement, metals/steel, plastics, chemicals, etc.), equipment/machinery and crew/staff happens throughout the life of a project with activity level tending to be high prior to construction phase and wane off and become routine during operation/maintenance phase. Mobilization extends the impact area to include offsite locations – i.e. transportation routes and sources of materials. Activities likely to cause impacts include (but is not limited to) extraction of materials and water, transportation, stock/piling and storage etc.

Construction Activities

Construction entails the erection or laying down of structures on the project site – involving both new and maintenance / rehabilitation / upgrading /expansion works. Activities known to cause impacts include (but is not limited to) vegetation clearing, installation of the temporary support structures (i.e. fence, site office and materials storage yard), earth works (removal of structure remnants and top soils, digging and trenching, filling, trimming, leveling/grading and compacting, and draining), civil works (concrete, block/brick and steel/metal), installations works (plumbing, safety equipment, security system, electricity and communication services as well as landscaping services), operations of construction equipment and machinery, and finally demobilization (demolition and dismantling of temporary structures; general cleaning, construction waste collection and disposal; site rehabilitation and restoration, detainment of working tools, equipment and facilities) .

Infrastructure Operations and Maintenance

These are long term activities related to the use of the developed infrastructure. Sources of impacts are commonly associated with deficiencies in management and monitoring procedures including inadequacies in waste management (collection, transportation and disposal) for some subprojects, inadequacies in supply of services and consumables, improper use of infrastructures, lack of resources for maintenance (equipments, inputs, manpower) and associated internal and external hazards and risks.


At the end of its life or rehabilitation or up-grading an infrastructure or its component may involve demolition/dismantling of structures and demobilization and site restoration. Activities known to cause impacts include disposal of demolition wastes and scrap building materials; termination of employment etc.


Potential direct environmental and social impacts will be a result of interactions between the ZUSP-AF activities with the relevant valued environmental and social receptors (physical, chemical, biological, built or human) outlined above (Chapter 3). Impacts may emanate from any of the Subproject infrastructure type funded by ZUSP – AF . About 20 impact areas have been identified associated with ZUSP-AF project including environmental impacts; resettlement impacts and consequent losses; socio-economic and cultural impacts including positive impacts; and risks and hazards existing in the environment that may affect project structures, cause disruption of operations or exacerbate maintenance costs. The mitigation measures below should be considered for subproject Environmental and Social Management Plans as relevant for specific subprojects.

Since many ZUSP-AF subprojects will entail small civil works with typical construction impacts, some of these measures have been compiled into general guidelines for contractors and the Project Teams, included as Annex D.


Loss or degradation of remnants of natural areas and vegetation

Some subproject funded under ZUSP – AF may affect natural areas particularly in peri-urban parts of the ZMC including land and water areas. Construction works may necessitate clearance of natural vegetation and storm water drainage over construction site loaded with wastes, oils, sediments etc. which may lead directly or indirectly into or cut across natural areas. Two broad direct impacts on such natural areas are possible: damage of natural vegetation; disturbance of contained fauna and direct pollution /contamination of the natural areas all subsequently causing loss or outmigration of affected species. However, such natural areas within boundaries or in near vicinity of ZMC occur albeit as small groves of natural vegetation or wetlands but whose ecological functions have already been essentially modified by human activities. Furthermore none of ZUSP activities are likely to involve total clearance of natural vegetation as they mostly involve improvements of existing structures and may constitute small land take extending into neighboring areas.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP/Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in the ESMF checklist (to be adopted in subproject ESMPs) aim to minimize vegetation loss through i.e. avoidance strategies such as circumventing natural areas and implementation of pollution prevention measures. Proposed management actions for ZMC to minimize cumulative impacts are to establish / enforce land use plans taking into consideration the conservation of important natural areas within the Municipal boundaries.

Degradation of water resources and management

Water resources in ZMC constitute fresh surface water found in natural water bodies (rivers, wetlands, ponds), man-made water retention structures in Bwawani Hotel, underground aquifers and the salt oceanic water. The temporary dams and ponds are mostly found in areas where there was illegal sand mines or where natural water ways have been obstructed, Such areas include, Uwanja wa Farassi, mwanakwerekwe, Kwa Biti Amrani and Sebleni. Some subproject supported under ZUSP-AF may be located close to or lead into natural water sources and likely to cause impacts on local fresh water resources. (i) Eroded soils from construction activities may obstruct natural drainage systems causing effects on the integrity of watercourses, drainage, and sedimentation regime; (ii) Paving of surfaces of some types of infrastructure such parking areas/stand etc.) could increase rain water catchment and exacerbating storm water management of an area; (iii) Construction activities requirement for water inputs e.g. for mixing, cleaning, dust dousing etc. and water for cleaning and ablution purposes for construction crew have potential to deplete water resources if obtained from a source under water stress.

On the positive side, ZUSP-AF infrastructure development is designed in many respects to improve water management of affected areas and reduction of associated risks i.e. flooding due to poor drainage systems.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in the ESMF checklist (to be adopted in subproject ESMP) include integration of infrastructures to balance the water flow regime, design for adequate drainage, channelling surface water from paved areas to storage troughs; adopt measures to prevent / manage deposition of eroded soils into water bodies (i.e. cut-off drains, silt traps, silt fencing, gabion structures, etc.); determination of water needs before extraction to determine available quantities (especially if involve underground water resources); adoption of alternative strategies to avoid/minimize extraction from natural water bodies such as sourcing water for any subproject purpose from authorized Municipal/community water supply systems.

        1. Land / soil degradation and depletion

Depending on type of subproject and nature of locality, construction works may involve some degree of land disturbance and/or movement of soils or export of soils and thus expose the soils to erosion by the elements (wind, rain) and lead to land degradation at construction sites and offsite quarry sites. Main manifestation of degradation of land and soils – is the formation of gullies and reduction of soil quality in terms of nutrients, water retention and physical properties etc. below acceptable levels. Requirement of construction inputs, fill materials, cover materials for landfill management etc. may cause depletion of soils and mineral resources. Soils on hilly and undulating areas when exposed are more susceptible to erosion. Construction of new drainage systems, new bridges, waste disposal facilities, and recreational facilities may require more works and for longer periods. However, many of the additional infrastructure e.g. extensions of roads are very short length (less than 1km), road furniture and local structures require small to medium sized sheds or concrete buildings envisaged not to require extensive construction works and limited land disturbances. Secondary impacts at points of extraction of the construction materials may include depletion of local construction materials e.g. stones/aggregates, sand, gravel, cobblestones, and fill materials.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures focus in this ESMF checklist is on the need for prior planning by authorities and Contractor to undertake proper need assessment and to identify sustainable sources of materials required for the project. These measures should be coupled with sustainable materials usage procedures. Instructions to the Contractors shall include soil erosion control and land rehabilitation measures; supervision and monitoring during and after sub-project implementation. Contractor shall identify erosion prone areas, identify permanent erosion control measures (applicable for a particular site) and plan construction works and sites to limit quantity of material likely to be eroded and transported from the site.

Proposed management actions for ZMC are to: procure and use Contractors with requisite experience of land management and soil erosion control; develop management plans for existing quarry sites, and new sources of construction materials

Degradation of receiving media by discharged wastes
ZUSP-AF component for improvement of waste collection and disposal infrastructure in the ZMC aim to increase wastes collection efforts in all areas; to increase the load destined to municipal disposal sites; and improve management of disposal sites in an environmentally suitable and socially acceptable manner.

Inadequacies in the waste management practices during construction and operation of infrastructure causing discharge of oil and lubricants from vehicle repairs and filling at car parking areas, discharges of eroded soils, seepages of leachate from the landfill, partially treated effluents from septic sludge treatment facilities, littering during waste collection, transportation and disposal, soils and wastes clogging drainage systems may lead to planned or accidental discharging of various types and quantities of solid and liquid wastes, spillage / leakages of materials directly into natural habitats and inhabited areas.

Haphazardly disposed wastes may impair qualities of receiving medium thereby altering the physical, chemical and biological characteristics: i.e. changing the pH of the receiving media, increase the organic matter content (BOD, COD) of surface water bodies and underground water sources and contaminate and reduce quality of land areas or soils. The effects will tend to be severe if discharged wastes are hazardous and/or will contaminate water sources used for domestic purposes or arable land. Discharges in a water habitat tend to reach further due to dispersion, but severity of contamination is reduced by dilution. The effects on land will tend to be concentrated and localized, not dispersed or diluted (unless by rain).

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in this ESMF checklist hinge on development and implementation of subproject – specific Waste Management Procedure / Plan that (i) identify what type of solid or liquid wastes and categories of wastes the subproject will generate or handle (biodegradable / organic wastes; packaging materials; non-biodegradable (metallic, plastic), construction wastes, and hazardous wastes i.e. medical wastes, fuels, oils, lubricants, vehicle / machinery fluids etc);(ii) identify ways to reduce the volume of waste by reusing or recycling initiatives; (iii) use best available mechanisms, practices and technologies for waste collection, storage transportation, treatment and final disposal. The management measures are coupled with implementation of monitoring plan which set targets based on standards to ensure that proposed mitigation measures are correctly implemented or that adjustments are made to accommodate changes.

Reduced Air Quality and Climate Change
Emissions emanate from fuel powered equipment i.e. vehicles engines and construction equipment etc. exhaust contain pollutants notably carbon-dioxide (CO2) plus small quantities of noxious gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxides (SOx), hydrocarbons and particulate matters (PM). Operation of the sanitary landfill and anaerobic septic sludge facility will also release methane and CO2 gases. These Green House Gases (GHGs) are known to interfere with temperature regime and cause climate change effects. Clearance of vegetation reduces vegetation cover thus reducing sink for carbon-dioxide and consequent climate change effects. On the other hand odours from putrefaction of organic matter in the landfill will also reduce air quality. Increase of air pollution from dust, odours, noise, etc. cause modifications to air quality.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in this ESMF and later adopted in subproject ESMP for managing air and noise pollution from transportation and working equipment hinge on avoidance strategies; transportation and training requirement, equipment operations and maintenance measures that minimize emissions of substances into the atmosphere. The measures also bank on establishment of gas collection and recovery systems from point sources such as landfill and anaerobic facilities. Proposed management actions for ZMC are requirement and instructions to designers of facilities such as landfill and anaerobic sludge treatment facilities to incorporate gas collection and recovery systems; and to Contractors and facility operators to institute procedures for preventive maintenance of equipment.


Change or modification of existing buildings, infrastructure, services and access
Taking land for linear developments (roads and drainage) will create new or extend existing Corridors of Impact (CoI). Infrastructure development, upgrade or rehabilitation aim at improving access and services during operation. However, construction works or infrastructure physical presence could cause physical damage or change of access to existing infrastructure & buildings/facilities. Damages or restricted access or delayed access to existing infrastructure (albeit temporarily) may affect existing roads, electrical installations (below ground and overhead lines), water intake and supply systems, homes, business and service institutions and other natural sites causing disturbances to local residents and users. Infrastructure being located in already developed areas invariably will operate using existing support facilities and associated services i.e. water supply system. Connection to existing utility facilities without considerations of available resource would increase pressure on the system depending on their carrying capacity.

The involuntary taking of land and other assets (permanent or temporary acquisition) owned and/or used by both individuals and by communities may result in a number of direct social and economic impacts of varying severity and consequences.

  • Modification on residential areas, modifications in the access to buildings, fragmentation of property

  • Expropriation of buildings

  • Damage of homes

  • Disruption of social sensitive areas (burial sites etc.) and institutional areas

  • Direct encroachment causing loss, partial replacement or damage of indigenous vegetation and contained biodiversity.

  • Disruption of business and trade and local income generating activities. Because urban agriculture and livestock keeping are widely practised affected land could also be agricultural land or grazing ground.

Four types of losses due to land acquisition are identified in this ESMF:

  1. Loss of shelter / relocation of shelter and consequent displacement or relocation of people, assets and property

  2. Loss of Assets or Access to Assets including loss of Land Rights

  3. Loss of income sources or means of livelihood of persons using the land or assets

Involuntary restrictions of / delayed access to resources, property or asset and consequent disturbance and nuisance and conflicts related to restricted access
The ZUSP-AF on the overall is expected to have minimal resettlement impacts – greenfield developments have little encroachment, and all urban upgrading works will be in existing rights-of-way or rehabilitating existing infrastructure. See the RPF for additional details on potential resettlement impacts.

  • Proposed management actions for ZMC

The ZUSP already has measures to minimize resettlement by focusing on rehabilitation and upgrading existing infrastructure that do not require taking of new land. The design Engineers will take further measures to minimise resettlement in accordance to best practices and recommendations from the ESIA process:

  • Avoidance strategies such as circumventing settled areas, sensitive / important natural or social / cultural or economic features in order to avoid /minimize extensive resettlement

  • Use of existing undeveloped areas available in the ZMC landuse plans

  • Relax the required construction standards: in some cases expansion of diameters or extension of lengths of existing roads and drainage channels etc.

  • Undertake construction / site clearance after harvest

  • Add structures to design (e.g. walking slabs, culverst etc) meant to facilitate access and crossing over linear infrastructures such as roads and drainage channels

  • Signage, filling pits and restoration of hazardous and disturbed areas.

The ZUSP-AF Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) will guide preparation of Resettlement Action Plans, where determined necessary during the ESIA screening process. Please refer to the RPF for details.

Induced developments and settlements

Indirect negative impacts relate to improvements in infrastructure i.e. roads and associated social and economic services are induced settlements (that habitually sprout along new or improved infrastructure) and increased illegal developments due to new or improved access. Improved urban conditions inevitably attract new comers and/or new economic migrants (seeking employment, services provision, traders etc.) which may lead to impacts such as additional pressure and demands to local on local social services and resources (increase water users); and social / health hazards due to interactions among new comers and with locals.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Proposed management actions for ZMC to minimize cumulative impacts are to establish and enforce landuse plans for all categories of land within the its boundaries.

Public Health and Safety risks and hazards
Users of land abutting or neighboring the project site and public safety and road/facility users in particular are exposed to and likely to be affected by sub-project activities specifically accidents during construction (open pits filled with water) and operation phases (speeding cars on improved roads) due to lack of appropriate /sufficient signage at construction sites and timely notification. Infrastructure located at public places or used by general or specific segment of population i.e. bus stands are associated with congregates of people. Several causes of hazards to public relate to design of infrastructure such as toilets without / inadequate water supply are predisposed to poor sanitation and hygiene; buildings without provisions for fire prevention or enough ventilation are risks to users. Lack of periodic maintenance of drains creates breeding grounds for water-borne vectors of diseases such as malaria mosquitoes and birhazhia snails and water-borne infections. The effects will be worse, especially at the waste management infrastructures (landfill and transfer stations), when local people engage informally engage themselves in picking recyclables materials out of the waste without any protective equipment. The health hazards for waste pickers are obvious: injuries caused by accidents with haulage trucks and compactor; injuries caused by sharp waste components; infections by direct ingestion of food waste; infections caused by insects and rats; poisoning by polluted water and gas, etc.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures: the design and implementation process take into consideration traffic management, best construction site and operation practices and institute prevention measures that curb health risks that are prevalent in the project area (e.g. guinea worm, malaria, meningitis, cholera etc.).

Workers (Occupational) Health and Safety Risks and Hazards

Table presents some potential risks for labourers caused by exposure or negligence during subproject implementation.

Table Summary of potential risks to workers

Sub-project aspect / activity

Potential Risk

Exposure to dust, noise

Disturbances / nuisance and discomfort

Using sharp objects, falling objects, working in high structures

Serious injuries

Exposure to water-borne infections from food, drinking water

Poisoning, loss of life

Exposure to sun/heat

Sickness and ill-health (reduced manpower)

Negligence due to fatigue / loss of morale

Loss of production time

Loss of property

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in the ESMF and later adopted in subproject ESMP include measures for managing air and noise pollution; and safety measures and procedures are adequate and correctly implemented, particularly with regards to work procedures, supply of services, equipment, and materials and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

Landscape Degradation and Reduction/loss of Visual Amenity

Project aspects likely to affect landscape and visual quality are activities that cause modifications in the quality of the landscape features or erection of structures that do not blend with the natural setting of an area. These include land clearance that leaves bare areas or eroded areas in otherwise green surroundings. Haphazardly disposed wastes are an eye sore and result in loss of visual amenity of affected area. The effects will be more felt at areas designated as tourist destination.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in this ESMF and later adopted in subproject ESMP for managing landscape and visual amenity include avoidance and minimizing strategies merged with design considerations, specifications and provisions. Proposed management actions for ZMC establish: standards on shapes, height, color etc. of buildings and structures erected at scenic areas especially of touristic values.

Physical damage, removal, demolition, restricting access to physical cultural resources
In this ESMF the term “physical cultural resources” includes sites having archaeological (prehistoric), paleontological, historical, religious, and heritage buildings and unique natural values.

Zanzibar specifically ZMC areas are endowed with ruins, ancient/historical structures, archaeological sites and “sacred” forests and graveyards. Impacts of the construction activities on the cultural and natural heritage include physical damage, removal, demolition, restricting access by civil works.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

When during screening (ESMF checklist – Annex B) it is determined that there is a possibility that subproject construction or other activities may result in damage to cultural resources; the following are procedures for avoiding such damage:

  • Consultations with the appropriate national and local authorities (Stone Town Conservation & Development Authority (STCDA), section at ZMC dealing with culture and local inhabitants to identify known or possible sites during subproject planning;

  • Siting of subprojects to avoid identified sites; and

  • Construction contract procedures for dealing with “chance finds”. These procedures should include cessation of work until the significance of a “find” has been determined by the appropriate authorities and local inhabitants, and until fitting treatment of the site has been determined and carried out.

Positive Economic impacts

Positive economic impacts of the project include reduction in expenditure on infrastructure investment and contribution to ZMC incomes. Other direct and indirect positive effects include increased employment opportunities at all levels; development of new services; improvements that accrue from improved access and management of wastes


Damages / disruption from Physical Natural Factors and Processes

Natural factors and processes on site, in near vicinity or catchment areas could be external factors that pose risks on the developed infrastructure or sub-projects (Table ).

Table Summary of potential risks to project due to natural factors

Natural process / aspect

Potential risk

Extremes of climatic elements: winds, rains, storms, hurricanes, lightening

- Damage of project structures

- Disruption of project operations and schedules

- Injuries and fatalities to project personnel working on the site or visitors.

Topography of the area: steep terrain cause erosion, stone dislodging; low terrain cause flooding.

Surface drainage (streams, rivers) close to or cutting across subproject

  • Damage of project structures

  • Discharges into project site

  • Water stagnation / flooding of project site

Storm water drainage – causing flooding and overflows.

Height of hydro-geological conditions: high water table causing floods

Soil movements (soil erosion)

Damage to project structures

Geology: seismic activities (earthquakes etc.)

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in the ESMF and later adopted in subproject ESMP include risk assessment to determine conformity of sub-project in terms of: compatibility and timing of construction works.

Influx of vermin, birds, pests and other invasive fauna species

The proposed ZUSP-AF component include the development of solid waste landfill and septic sludge treatment facilities for improvement of waste collection and disposal infrastructure in Zanzibar Municipality. Operation of these infrastructures is known to attract vermin, birds, pests and other invasive fauna species on the site and its neighborhood. Most of these are omnivores and scavengers that feed on wastes. Their presence causes problems in terms of nuisance to neighbours, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation measures in this ESMF and later adopted in subproject ESMP for managing influx of invasive fauna species on waste management infrastructures are centred on planning, operations and maintenance measures that minimize exposure of the waste materials including fencing of the infrastructures, provision for small tipping areas, carry out immediate compaction of the solid wastes, immediate application of cover materials, etc. Proposed management actions for ZMC are requirement and instructions to designers of facilities to provide for an appropriate fence of the site, and to operators to institute and implement appropriate operation and maintenance procedures and practices.

Damages / disruption from neighbouring anthropogenic activities

These are anthropogenic activities and other external socio-economic factors on project site, in near vicinity that might affect the subproject (Table ).

Table Summary of potential risks to project due to neighbouring socio-economic factors

Socio-economic aspect / activity

Potential Risk to Project

Land disturbances vibrations due to bulldozing during road construction

Destruction of infrastructure or subproject area

Conflicts related to restricted access

Occupation, economic and social status of nearby residences

Theft of materials and portable items with ready-made market or for home use.

Unauthorized access to waste management facilities

Environmental health and safety hazards due to scavenging and/or unauthorized burning of waste

Security condition in neighbourhood to the project site

Vandalism of structures / equipment, theft of materials and portable items with ready-made market or for home use.

  • Mitigation measures for the ESMP /Proposed management actions for ZMC

Mitigation actions in the ESMF and later adopted in subproject ESMP include risk assessment to determine conformity of sub-project in terms of: compatibility / co-existence of project within the neighbouring community and general public.

Most of the subprojects appear to pose no significant problem of technical nature or regarding safeguards management. However, new subprojects or rehabilitation of existing structures involving the relocation of the affected land-users or subproject causing degradation or pollution of receiving air, water or land such as landfill and septic sludge development, existing markets, new drainage systems cutting across settled areas will require more intensive preparations.

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