Sarah comer, sandra gilfillan, malcom grant, sarah barrett and lawrie anderson



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Species Beard 

Veg 

Assoc 

Species Recovery 

Plan 

General Recovery Plans 

Prioritise for 

Subregion

1

 

Orthrosanthus muelleri 

967 


IRP 

Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the 

Albany District; South Coast Regional  

Management Plan. 

iii 

Pleurophascum occidentale 

14,994 


No 

Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the 

Albany District; South Coast Regional 

Management Plan. 

iv 

Thelymitra psammophila 

47 


No 

Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the 

Albany District; South Coast Regional 

Management Plan. 

iii 

Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp australis 

 

No 



Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the 

Albany District; South Coast Regional 

Management Plan. 

iv 


Verticordia helichrysantha 

48 


No 

Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the 

Albany District; South Coast Regional 

Management Plan. 

iii 

1

Appendix C, rank 6. 



 

Appropriate species recovery actions 

 

Species Recovery 

Actions

1

 

Recovery Descriptions 

Neophoca cinerea 

i, iii, vii, vi, ix, xii, 

xiii, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Feral animal 

control (rabbits); Weed control; Fire management; Research; Capacity building with 

Coast Care; Other – changes to commercial fishing and public education.  



Arctocephalus forsteri 

i, iii, vii, vi, ix, xii, 

xiii, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Feral animal 

control (rabbits); Weed control; Fire management; Research; Capacity building with 

Coast Care; Other – changes to commercial fishing and public education. 



Atrichornis clamosus 

i, ii, iv, ix, x, xii, iii, 

vii, v, vi, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on private land; Regrowth 

retention; Fire management; Translocation; Research; Habitat protection on other state 

lands; Feral animal control (rabbits); Fencing; Weed control; Other - consolidation of 

strategic connectivity between priority areas – e.g. The Macro Corridor priority linkages.  

Leipoa ocellata 

i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, 

viii, ix, xii, xiii, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Regrowth retention; Fencing; Weed control; Feral animal control; Revegetation; 

Fire management; Research; Capacity building; Other - consolidation of strategic 

connectivity between priority areas – e.g. The Macro Corridor priority linkages. 

Calyptorhynchus latirostris 

i, ii, iii, iv, viii, ix, xi, 

xii, xiii, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Regrowth retention; Revegetation; Fire management; Reinstatement of hydrology; 

Research; Capacity building; Other - consolidation of strategic connectivity between 

priority areas – e.g. The Macro Corridor priority linkages.  

Dasyornis longirostris 

ix, xii,  

Fire management; Research – survey and monitoring. 

Pseudocheirus occidentalis 

vii, xii 

Feral animal control; Research – survey and monitoring.  

Morelia spilota imbricata 

i, ii, iii, iv, vii, ix, xii, 

xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 



lands; Regrowth retention; Feral animal control; Fire management; Research; Other - 

public awareness and consolidation of strategic connectivity between priority areas – e.g. 

The Macro Corridor priority linkages.  

Acacia rhamphophylla 

iii 


Habitat protection on other state lands.  

Acacia trulliformis 

ii, ix, xi, 

Habitat protection on private land; Fire management; Reinstatement of hydrology.  

Adenanthos cunninghamii 

i, iii, xii 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Research.  

Andersonia pinaster 

iii, xiv 

Habitat protection on private land; Other - phosphite application.  

Banksia brownii 

i, iii, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Fire 

management; Other - phosphite application.  



Banksia goodii 

i, ii, iii, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Fire management; Other - roadside markers.  



Boronia clavata 

iii, ix, xi, xiv 

Habitat protection on private land; Fire management; Reinstatement of hydrology; Other - 

seed collection.  

 

Species Recovery 

Actions

1

 

Recovery Descriptions 

Caladenia bryceana subsp. bryceana 

i, ii, iii, vi, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Weed control; Fire management; Other - seed collection and public education.  



Caladenia harringtonii 

iii, ix, vi, xiv 

Habitat protection on private land; Fire management; Weed control; Other - seed 

collection.  



Centrolepis caespitosa 

iii 


Habitat protection on private land.  

Conostylis misera 

i, ii, iii, v, vi, vii,  

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Fencing; Weed control; Feral animal control.  



Darwinia meeboldii 

i, ii, ix 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on private land; Fire management.  

Daviesia megacalyx 

iii, ix, xiv 

Habitat protection on other state lands; Fire management; Other - seed collection. 

Drakaea confluens 

i, ii, vii, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on private land; Feral animal 

control; Fire management; Other - public education. 



Dryandra ionthocarpa 

iii, vi, ix, x, i, xii 

Habitat protection on other state lands; Weed control; Fire management; Translocation; 


Esperance 1 

A Biodiversity Audit of Western Australia’s 53 Biogeographical Subregions in 2002 

203 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves; Research.  



Eremophila veneta 

ii, v, xi 

Habitat protection on private land; Fencing; Reinstatement of hydrology.  

Eucalyptus bennettiae 

i, iii, xiii 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Capacity 

building.  



Grevillea maxwellii 

ii, iii, v, vi, ix, xii, xiv 

Habitat protection on private land and on other state lands; Fencing; Weed control; Fire 

management; Research; Other - public education.  



Isopogon uncinatus 

i, iii, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Fire 

management; Other - phosphite application.  



Kunzea pauciflora 

i, iii, ix 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Fire 

management.  



Lambertia orbifolia 

i, ii, iii, v, vi, ix, x, 

xiii 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 



lands; Fencing; Weed control; Fire management; Translocation; Capacity building.  

Laxmannia jamesii 

i, iii 


Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; 

Lepidium aschersonii 

 

Recovery actions not known 



Marianthus villosus 

iii, ix 


Habitat protection on other state lands; Fire management.  

Meziella trifida 

 

Recovery actions not known 



Myoporum cordifolium 

i, ii, iii, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Fire management; Other - roadside markers.  



Orthrosanthus muelleri 

ii, iii, vi, ix, xi, xiv 

Habitat retention and on private land and on other state lands; Weed control; Fire 

management; Reinstatement of hydrology; Other - roadside markers.  



Pleurophascum occidentale 

i, ii, iii, ix 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Fire management.  



Thelymitra psammophila 

i, ii, iii, vi, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves, on private land and on other state 

lands; Weed control; Fire management; Other - public education and roadside markers.  



Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp australis 

 

Recovery actions not known 



Verticordia helichrysantha 

i, iii, ix, xiv 

Habitat retention and protection through reserves and on other state lands; Fire 

management; Other - management of access.  

1

Appendix B, key h. 



 

All terrestrial mammals and most of the birds listed as 

being species at risk in this subregion are found within 

current Department of CALM estate and there are few if 

any recent records outside reserves. However, many of 

these species do have relevant recovery or interim 

recovery plans: 

• 

Chuditch (Dasyurus geoffroii) (Orell and Morris 



1994)  

• 

Numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus) (Friend 1994 



(unpublished)) 

• 

Dibbler (Parantechinus apicalis) (Start 1998) 



• 

Western Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus 



flaviventris) (Burbidge et al. 1997) 

• 

Giant Andersonia (Andersonia axilliflora) (Evans et 



al. 1999) 

• 

Maroon-flowered Daviesia (Daviesia glossosema



(Phillimore and Brown 2001) 

• 

Stirling Range Daviesia (Daviesia pseudaphylla



(Phillimore and Brown 2001) 

• 

Cactus Dryandra (Dryandra anatona) (Phillimore 



and Brown 2001) 

• 

Stirling Range Dryandra (Dryandra montana



(Kershaw et al. 1997) 

• 

Round-leafed Honeysuckle (Lambertia orbifolia 



subsp. orbifolia ms) (Phillimore and Brown 2002) 

• 

Stirling Range Beard Heath (Leucopogon 



gnaphalioides) (Phillimore and Brown 2001) 

• 

Small-flowered Snottygobble (Persoonia 



micranthera) (Evans et al. 1999) 

• 

Gillham's Bell (Darwinia oxylepis) (Phillimore et al. 



2001) 

• 

South Stirling Morning Iris (Orthrosanthus muelleri



(Phillimore et al. 2001) 

• 

Mountain Paper Heath (Sphenotoma drummondii



(Holland 1999) 

• 

Grey Nurse Shark (Carcharias taurus



(Environment Australia 2002a) 

• 

Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias



(Environment Australia 2002b) 

 

In addition to these recovery or interim recovery that 



apply in to individual species, there are a number of 

action plans that are applicable for birds (Garnett and 

Crowley 2000), marsupials and monotremes (Maxwell et 

al. 1996), reptiles (Cogger et al. 1993), rodents (Lee 

1995), seals (Shaugnessy 1999), albatrosses and petrels 

(Environment Australia 2001) and Declared Rare and 

poorly known flora of the Albany region (Robinson and 

Coates 1995).  

 

Ecosystems, existing recovery plans and 



appropriate recovery actions 

 

There are no off-park conservation actions required for 



Ecosystems at Risk. An Interim Recovery Plan is available 

for East Stirling Range Montane Heath and Thicket 

(Barrett 2000), but this TEC is currently in Department 

of CALM reserve. The Department’s South Coast 

Regional Management Plan (1992) is also relevant to 

ecosystems and species at risk in the subregion.  

 

Subregion priority for off reserve conservation 



 

Most species in the above table have been assigned 

separate priorities.  

 

Conservation actions as an integral part 



of NRM 

 

Existing NRM actions



 

 

Incentives:

 May include fencing subsidies for protection 

of remnant vegetation which are moderately effective; 

private land conservation covenants; Land for Wildlife. 

 

Legislation:

 Some aspects of State Government 

legislation is not enforced, e.g. Soil Land Conservation 

Act other legislation e.g. Wildlife Conservation Act is 


Esperance 1 

204

 

Department of Conservation and Land Management 

outdated and requires replacement with comprehensive 

biodiversity protection legislation. 

 

Threat Abatement Planning:

 Western Shield fox 

control programme very successful on some Crown lands 

in assisting the recovery of fauna numbers; Rabbit Calici 

Virus also maintaining some effect against rabbit 

numbers; Australian Locust control programme also 

moderately effective as a control; Phytophthora controlled 

in small areas using phosphite; Weed control occurs in 

some areas.  

 

Industry Codes of Practice:

 Mining and environmental 

protection and revegetation in Ravensthorpe area; 

Kangaroo shooters are required to adhere to a code of 

practice to ensure treatment and killing of animals.  

 

Environmental Management Systems & Ecologically 

Sustainable Product Marketing

: Introduction of 

Sandalwood plantations on private land for essential oil 

production on private land; Limited application of 

organic agriculture.  

 

Capacity Building

: For example, South Coast Regional 

Initiative Planning Team (SCRIPT); the Macro Corridor 

project is used as a tool to be used to identify strategic 

landscape level connectivity. 

 

Other Planning Opportunities:

 Including: local 

government planning; National Action Plan for Water 

Quality and Salinity – Salinity Action Plan and Ribbons 

of Blue projects successfully in place; Southern Prospects, 

Southern Shores.  

 

Integration with Property Management Planning, 

Catchment Planning and Landcare:

 Landcare District 

Committees active in most areas of the Subregion 

providing opportunities for public participation in 

conservation projects. eg revegetation. 

 

Feasible opportunities for NRM 



 

Incentives:

 Have a lot of potential as channels for people 

to use to protect biodiversity on their land. Examples 

include expansion of the Land for Wildlife scheme and 

other government run conservation programmes.  

 

Legislative

: Revision is required eg Wildlife Conservation 

Act. 


 

Institutional Reform:

 Rural reconstruction and new 

management systems which further incorporate 

opportunities for renewable resources, rural resources 

such as agroforestry, oil mallees and other specialty crops 

to make better use of cleared land and relieve commercial 

pressure on native flora. 

protect remnant vegetation on private land e.g. taxation 

incentives or benefits a rural land rating  

 

Valuing Ecosystem Services and Tradable Rights:

 

Greater incentives are necessary to incentives for remnant 



vegetation protection. 

 

Threat Abatement Planning:

 Further research and 

control measures are necessary into potential 

environmental weeds and those already causing impacts; 

Research needs to be continued to improve feral cat 

control; Local governments need to be involved for 

management of threats in road and shire reserves; Further 

development of rabbit control techniques needs to occur. 

 

Environmental Management Systems:

 Greater 

coordination is needed in planning and management of 

feral animals and weeds across all land tenure; Organic 

farming has the potential to be much more widely 

applied.  

 

Capacity Building:

 Greater acknowledgement of the 

intrinsic environmental values of uncleared lands through 

public awareness education and property management 

planning – promoted through the South Coast Regional 

Initiative Planning Team (SCRIPT) – an interagency 

environmental and conservation planning approach or 

Landcare groups. There is further scope for the Macro 

Corridor project is used as a tool to be used to identify 

strategic landscape level connectivity. 

 

Codes of Practice:

 These are needed for the agricultural 

industry (particularly for the issues of weeds, pesticides 

and insecticides), local governments and road reserves.  

 

Other Planning Opportunities:

 The agricultural 

industry needs to aim for greater sustainability in farming 

practices.  

 

Integration with Property Management Planning, 



Catchment Planning and Landcare:

 Needs to occur 

across all land tenures.  

 

Impediments or constraints to opportunities 



 

Outdated legislation represents an impediment to 

biodiversity conservation as do operational constraints 

arising from limited financial and human resources 

available for many ideas, initiatives and public education 

programmes. The Macro Corridor concept is a useful 

tool to raise awareness of biodiversity issues, however, 

existing land use conflicts have implication for natural 

land management. In general there is a lack of 

appreciation of complex biodiversity issues by the 

community. The terms of Native Title agreements (and 

future settlements) are likely to have profound 

implications for NRM actions in the future and the legal 

and administration issues are likely to be complex.  

 

Subregions where specific NRM actions are a 



priority to pursue 

 

Major constraints exist to implement effective NRM 



actions to achieve biodiversity outcomes in Jerramungup 

and Kent Shires in the ESP1 subregion due to past land 

clearing practices and current land management practices. 

Some NRM instruments are in place elsewhere, with 

some achieved biodiversity outcomes, giving an overall 

NRM rank of (ii) (see Appendix C, rank 7).  

 

Data gaps 



 

Gaps in data needed for the Identification of 

biodiversity values and management responses 


Esperance 1 

A Biodiversity Audit of Western Australia’s 53 Biogeographical Subregions in 2002 

205 

 

Vegetation and & Regional Ecosystem Mapping:

 No 

regolith mapping available. Vegetation map resolution is 



1:250,000 at best. Fitzgerald River National Park has 

1:100,000 vegetation mapping.  

 

Systematic Fauna Survey:

 No systematic quadrat-based 

fauna survey information available for existing 

conservation reserves, except for the Fitzgerald River 

National Park (1: 100,000). No systematic quadrat-based 

fauna survey information available for off conservation 

reserves either. Data is confined to bird atlas, specific 

threatened bird distributions (ie Western Bristlebird, 

Western Ground Parrot, Noisy Scrub-bird), Fitzgerald 

River National Park surveys and six Western Shield 

monitoring sites for mammals. No funding for ongoing 

monitoring of stratified set of LTERM quadrats currently 

being sampled across the subregion. Most reserves don’t 

have long-term survey data on species presence or 

absence even for vertebrates. 

 

Flora Survey:

 No systematic quadrat-based flora survey, 

except for the Fitzgerald River Nature Park. Most 

reserves don’t have long-term survey data on species 

presence/absence; data is confined to specific threatened 

flora, and a few large reserves. No funding for ongoing 

monitoring of stratified set of LTERM quadrats currently 

being sampled across the subregion. 

 

Ecological and Life History Data:

 There is little data 

available on habitat requirements of virtually all 

invertebrate species, most ephemeral plants (except some 

DRF), persisting and translocated CWR mammals 

(except dibbler, chuditch, tammar, numbat, phascogale), 

persisting E/V birds (except Noisy Scrub-bird, 

Whipbirds, Bristle Birds, Ground Parrots, Malleefowl), 

and uncommon vertebrate- and plant-species. There is no 

data to provide a regional context on life-history 

(including population-trend) of most species, including 

foxes, except baseline information on CWR mammals on 

Stirling Range National Park and Fitzgerald River 

National Park (data collected during Western Shield 

Monitoring). 

 

Other priority data gaps include: 

• 

No quantitative data on the effect of Phytophthora 



sp. on flora and fauna, exotic predators, weed 

colonisation, fragmentation & farm clean-up, fire.  

• 

No data on effect of mining (exploration) on 



greenstone communities in Ravensthorpe Range.  

• 

Effect of rising water table on species composition of 



communities remaining within the agricultural 

landscape.  

• 

Impact of reduced rainfall on vegetation.  



• 

No comprehensive biological survey of island biota. 

 

 

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