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Industrial

 

Crops



 

and


 

Products


 

63

 



(2015)

 

264–268



Contents

 

lists



 

available

 

at

 



ScienceDirect

Industrial

 

Crops


 

and


 

Products


j o

 

u



 

r

 



n

 

a l



 

h o m e p

 

a g e :


 

w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / i n d c r o p

Chemical

 

composition



 

of

 



Melaleuca

 

linarrifolia



 

Sm.


 

from


 

India:


a

 

potential



 

source


 

of

 



1,8-cineole

Rajendra


 

C.

 



Padalia

a

,



,

 



Ram

 

S.



 

Verma


a

,

 



Amit

 

Chauhan



a

,

 



Prakash

 

Goswami



a

,

Sajendra



 

K.

 



Verma

b

,



 

Mahendra


 

P.

 



Darokar

b

a



Department

 

of



 

Natural


 

Products


 

Chemistry,

 

CSIR-Central



 

Institute

 

of

 



Medicinal

 

and



 

Aromatic


 

Plants


 

(CIMAP),


 

Research


 

Centre,


 

Pantnagar,

 

P.O.-Dairy



Farm

 

Nagla,



 

Udham


 

Singh


 

Nagar,


 

Uttarakhand

 

263149,


 

India


b

Molecular

 

Bioprospection



 

Department,

 

CSIR-Central



 

Institute

 

of

 



Medicinal

 

and



 

Aromatic


 

Plants,


 

P.O.


 

CIMAP,


 

Lucknow


 

226015,


 

Uttar


 

Pradesh,


 

India


a

 

r



 

t

 



i

 

c



 

l

 



e

 

i



 

n

 



f

 

o



Article

 

history:



Received

 

14



 

June


 

2014


Received

 

in



 

revised


 

form


 

4

 



September

 

2014



Accepted

 

21



 

September

 

2014


Available

 

online



 

11

 



October

 

2014



Keywords:

Melaleuca

 

linarrifolia



Myrtaceae

Essential

 

oil


GC/MS

1,8-Cineole

Antibacterial

 

activity.



a

 

b



 

s

 



t

 

r



 

a

 



c

 

t



Members

 

of



 

the


 

genus


 

Melaleuca

 

are


 

potential

 

sources


 

of

 



number

 

of



 

commercial

 

essential



 

oils


 

and


 

aroma-


chemicals.

 

In



 

present


 

study,


 

essential

 

oil


 

composition

 

of

 



Melaleuca

 

linarrifolia



 

Sm.


 

from


 

India


 

was


 

analyzed


using

 

gas



 

chromatography

 

(GC-FID)


 

and


 

gas


 

chromatography-mass

 

spectrometry



 

(GC-MS)


 

methods.


 

Alto-


gether

 

44



 

constituents

 

were


 

identified,

 

accounting



 

for


 

98.90%


 

of

 



total

 

composition.



 

The


 

essential

 

oil


 

was


characterized

 

by



 

a

 



higher

 

content



 

of

 



oxygenated

 

monoterpenoids



 

(86.63%)


 

mainly


 

represented

 

by

 



1,8-

cineole


 

(77.40%)


 

and


 

␣-terpineol

 

(7.72%).


 

Results


 

were


 

compared


 

with


 

earlier


 

reported


 

Meleleuca

 

species


in

 

term



 

of

 



major

 

constituents



 

from


 

different

 

geographic



 

regions.


 

Essential

 

oil


 

of

 



M.

 

linarrifolia



 

exhibited

good

 

antibacterial



 

activity


 

against


 

Escherichia

 

coli,


 

Salmonella

 

typhimurium,



 

Bacillus


 

subtilis,

 

and


 

moderate


activity

 

against



 

Staphylococcus

 

epidermidis,



 

S.

 



aureus

 

(MTCC



 

2940),


 

S.

 



aureus

 

(MTCC



 

96),


 

and


 

Streptococcus

mutans.

 

This



 

is

 



for

 

the



 

first


 

time


 

the


 

essential

 

oil


 

composition

 

of

 



M.

 

linarrifolia



 

have


 

been


 

characterized

from

 

India



 

for


 

high


 

1,8-cineole

 

(>75.0%)


 

content.


©

 

2014



 

Elsevier


 

B.V.


 

All


 

rights


 

reserved.

1.

 

Introduction



Myrtaceae

 

family



 

consisted

 

about


 

130


 

genera


 

and


 

more


 

than


3000

 

species



 

distributed

 

predominantly



 

in

 



tropical,

 

subtropical,



and

 

temperate



 

regions


 

of

 



the

 

world.



 

The


 

Melaleuca

 

genus


 

of

 



this

family,


 

belongs


 

to

 



the

 

Melaleucae



 

tribe,


 

subfamily

 

Myrtoideae,



 

is

known



 

for


 

the


 

production

 

of

 



medicinal

 

essential



 

oils.


 

It

 



comprises

approximately

 

230


 

species


 

of

 



worldwide

 

occurrence,



 

mainly


 

cen-


tered

 

in



 

Australia

 

and


 

Tasmania,

 

Indonesia,



 

New


 

Papua


 

Guinea,


 

and


south

 

Asia



 

in

 



open

 

forest,



 

woodlands

 

along


 

watercourses

 

and


 

the


edges

 

of



 

swamp


 

(

Barbosa



 

et

 



al.,

 

2013;



 

Craven


 

and


 

Lepschi,


 

1999;


Sciarrone

 

et



 

al.,


 

2010


).

 

Melaleuca



 

species


 

are


 

well


 

known


 

for


 

the


production

 

of



 

various


 

commercial

 

essential



 

oils


 

with


 

strong


 

aroma


and

 

a



 

myriad


 

of

 



oil

 

constituents



 

of

 



great

 

economic



 

importance.

Commercially

 

useful



 

essential

 

oils


 

are


 

sourced


 

from


 

most


 

common


and

 

well-known



 

plants


 

of

 



this

 

genus



 

are


 

Melaleuca

 

quinquenervia



(niaouli

 

oil),



 

M.

 



cajuputi

 

(cajuput



 

oil),


 

and


 

M.

 



alternifolia

 

(tea



 

tree


oil).

 

Several



 

other


 

well-known

 

plants


 

of

 



this

 

genus



 

such


 

as

 



M.

 

aca-



cioides,

 

M.



 

alsophila,

 

M.

 



bracteata,

 

M.



 

argentea,

 

M.

 



leucadendra,

 

and



∗ Corresponding

 

author.



 

Tel.:


 

+91


 

5944


 

234445;


 

fax:


 

+91


 

5944


 

234712.


E-mail

 

addresses:



 

rc.padalia@cimap.res.in

,

 

padaliarc@rediffmail.com



(R.C.

 

Padalia).



M.

 

viridiflora



 

are


 

also


 

reported


 

to

 



have

 

potential



 

for


 

their


 

commer-


cially

 

useful



 

essential

 

oils


 

and


 

aroma


 

constituents

 

(

Brophy,



 

1999;


Brophy

 

et



 

al.,


 

2012;


 

Farag


 

et

 



al.,

 

2004



).

 

M.



 

linariifolia

 

is

 



closely

related


 

to

 



M.

 

alternifolia,



 

and


 

many


 

researchers

 

described



 

it

 



as

 

a



variety

 

of



 

the


 

later.


 

Further,


 

based


 

on

 



essential

 

oil



 

constituents

of

 

varities/chemotypes



 

of

 



both

 

species



 

with


 

common


 

aroma


 

con-


stituents

 

complicated



 

the


 

M.

 



alternifolia–M.

 

linarrifolia



 

complex.


Later,

 

M.



 

linarrifolia

 

was


 

described

 

as

 



an

 

independent



 

species


 

sta-


tus

 

based



 

on

 



its

 

characteristics



 

taxonomic

 

characters.



 

It

 



is

 

a



 

tree


up

 

to



 

10

 



m

 

high,



 

with


 

thick


 

and


 

spongy


 

bark,


 

and


 

is

 



widely

 

culti-



vated

 

in



 

Australia

 

as

 



it

 

is



 

hardy


 

and


 

forms


 

an

 



attractive

 

large



 

shrub


or

 

small



 

tree


 

with


 

masses


 

of

 



pure

 

white



 

flowers


 

(

Craven,



 

1999


).

The


 

essential

 

oils


 

of

 



various

 

Melaleuca



 

species


 

showed


 

extensive

compositional

 

variability



 

under


 

different

 

geographic



 

and


 

ecolog-


ical

 

conditions.



 

Phenylpropanoids

 

(methyl


 

eugenol,


 

(E)-methyl

isoeugenol),

 

monoterpenoids



 

(mainly,


 

1,8-cineole,

 

terpinen-4-ol,



terpinolene,

 

along



 

with


 

p-cymene,

 

␣-terpinene,



 

␣-terpineol,

 

␣-

pinene),



 

and


 

sesquiterpenoids

 

{(E)-nerolidol,



 

viridiflorol,

 

ledol,


␤-caryophyllene}

 

were



 

reported


 

as

 



the

 

major/marker



 

constituents

distributed

 

in



 

essential

 

oils


 

of

 



most

 

of



 

the


 

Melaleuca

 

species


(

Aboutabl


 

et

 



al.,

 

1991;



 

Brophy


 

et

 



al.,

 

2006,



 

2012;


 

Gupta


 

et

 



al.,

 

2012;



Silva

 

et



 

al.,


 

2007,


 

2010;


 

Southwell

 

et

 



al.,

 

2005;



 

Trilles


 

et

 



al.,

 

2006;



Wheeler

 

et



 

al.,


 

2007


).

 

Most



 

of

 



the

 

earlier



 

reports


 

on

 



essential

 

oil



compositions

 

of



 

Melaleuca

 

species


 

are


 

related


 

to

 



plants

 

growing



http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.09.039

0926-6690/©

 

2014


 

Elsevier


 

B.V.


 

All


 

rights


 

reserved.



R.C.

 

Padalia



 

et

 



al.

 

/



 

Industrial

 

Crops


 

and


 

Products


 

63

 



(2015)

 

264–268



 

265


in

 

Australia,



 

Tasmania,

 

Brazil,


 

and


 

Papua


 

New


 

Guinea,


 

and


 

a

 



little

attempt


 

has


 

been


 

made


 

to

 



investigate

 

the



 

essential

 

oil


 

compo-


sition

 

from



 

any


 

other


 

part


 

of

 



the

 

world.



 

Moreover,

 

a

 



survey

 

of



literature

 

revealed



 

that


 

the


 

Meleleuca

 

essential



 

oil


 

has


 

been


 

sub-


jected

 

to



 

only


 

few


 

preliminary

 

studies


 

from


 

India.


 

The


 

essential

oil

 

composition



 

of

 



M.

 

leucadendra



 

from


 

northern


 

Indian


 

plains


 

was


reported

 

to



 

contain


 

1,8-cineole

 

(19.9%),


 

␤-eudesmol

 

(15.8%),


 

␣-

eudesmol



 

(11.3%),


 

viridiflorol

 

(8.9%)


 

and


 

guaiol


 

(9.0%)


 

as

 



the

 

major



constituents

 

(



Kumar

 

et



 

al.,


 

2005


).

 

While



 

in

 



another

 

report,



 

methyl


eugenol

 

(92.4%)



 

was


 

reported


 

as

 



the

 

major



 

constituents

 

of

 



M.

 

decora



essential

 

oil



 

from


 

India


 

(

Gupta



 

et

 



al.,

 

2012



).

 

Terpinen-4-ol



 

(36.4%)


and

 

1,8-cineole



 

(15.6%)


 

were


 

reported


 

as

 



the

 

major



 

constituents

of

 

M.



 

alternifolia

 

from


 

India


 

(

Verghese



 

et

 



al.,

 

1996



).

 

Earlier



 

reports


on

 

essential



 

oil


 

composition

 

of

 



M.

 

linarrifolia



 

from


 

Australia

 

showed



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