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procedure.

3.

 

Results



 

and


 

discussion

The

 

essential



 

oils


 

of

 



the

 

fresh



 

leaves


 

of

 



M.

 

linarrifolia,



 

isolated


by

 

hydrodistillation



 

method,


 

was


 

analyzed


 

by

 



gas

 

chromatog-



raphy

 

(GC)



 

and


 

GC-mass


 

spectrometry

 

(GC/MS)


 

techniques.

 

The


hydrodistilled

 

essential



 

oil


 

(yield:


 

1.10%,


 

on

 



fresh

 

weight



 

basis)


of

 

M.



 

linarrifolia

 

was


 

having


 

a

 



characteristic

 

eucalyptus-like



 

scent.


Analysis

 

of



 

essential

 

oil


 

revealed


 

44

 



constituents

 

comprising



98.90%

 

of



 

total


 

oil


 

composition,

 

represented



 

by

 



5.53%

 

of



 

monoter-


pene

 

hydrocarbons,



 

86.63%


 

of

 



oxygenated

 

monoterpenes,



 

5.67%


 

of

sesquiterpene



 

hydrocarbons,

 

and


 

1.07%


 

of

 



oxygenated

 

sesquiter-



penes.

 

Major



 

constituents

 

of

 



the

 

oil



 

were


 

1,8-cineole

 

(77.4%),


␣-terpineol

 

(7.72%)



 

along


 

with


 

␤-caryophyllene

 

(2.88%),


 

␣-pinene


(1.99%),

 

and



 

myrcene


 

(1.17%).


 

Other


 

identified

 

constituents



 

of

 



the

266

 

R.C.



 

Padalia


 

et

 



al.

 

/



 

Industrial

 

Crops


 

and


 

Products


 

63

 



(2015)

 

264–268



Table

 

1



Chemical

 

compositions



 

of

 



Melaleuca

 

linarrifolia



 

Sm.


 

essential

 

oil


 

from


 

India.


S.

 

No.



 

RI

Exp



RI

lit


Compound

 

Content



 

(%)


 

Identification

a

1

 



926

 

924



 

␣-Thujene

 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



2

 

930



 

932


 

␣-Pinene


 

1.99


 

RI,


 

MS,


 

Cs

3



 

944


 

946


 

Camphene


 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



4

 

972



 

974


 

␤-Pinene


 

0.85


 

RI,


 

MS,


 

Cs

5



 

986


 

988


 

Myrcene


 

1.78


 

RI,


 

MS,


 

Cs

6



 

1002


 

1003


 

p-Mentha-1(7),8-diene

 

0.14


 

RI,


 

MS

7



 

1016


 

1020


 

p-Cymene


 

0.21


 

RI,


 

MS

8



 

1020


 

1024


 

Limonene


 

0.15


 

RI,


 

MS

9



 

1022


 

1026


 

1,8-Cineole

 

77.40


 

±

 



2.39

RI,


 

MS,


 

Cs

10



 

1050


 

1054


 

␥-Terpinene

 

0.41


 

RI,


 

MS

11



 

1101


 

1095


 

Linalool


 

0.19


 

RI,


 

MS

12



 

1120


 

1118


 

exo-Fenchol

 

0.10


 

RI,


 

MS

13



 

1165


 

1162


 

␦-Terpineol

 

0.46


 

RI,


 

MS

14



 

1176


 

1174


 

Terpinen-4-ol

 

0.76


 

RI,


 

MS

15



 

1190


 

1186


 

␣-Terpineol

 

7.72


 

±

 



1.71

 

RI,



 

MS,


 

Cs

16



 

1351


 

1356


 

Eugenol


 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



17

 

1358



 

1359


 

Neryl


 

acetate


 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



18

 

1369



 

1373


 

␣-Ylangene

t

 

RI,



 

MS

19



 

1374


 

1374


 

␣-Copaene

 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



20

 

1379



 

1379


 

Geranyl


 

acetate


 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



21

 

1400



 

1403


 

Methyl


 

eugenol


 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



22

 

1407



 

1409


 

␣-Gurjunene

 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



23

 

1416



 

1417


 

␤-Caryophyllene

 

2.88


 

RI,


 

MS,


 

Cs

24



 

1432


 

1437


 

␣-Guaiene

 

0.46


 

RI,


 

MS

25



 

1437


 

1439


 

Aromadendrene

 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



26

 

1452



 

1452


 

␣-Humulene

 

0.31


 

RI,


 

MS

27



 

1456


 

1458


 

Allo-Aromadendrene

 

0.10


 

RI,


 

MS

28



 

1485


 

1483


 

␣-Amorphene

 

0.10


 

RI,


 

MS

29



 

1502


 

1500


 

␣-Muurolene

 

0.18


 

RI,


 

MS

30



 

1510


 

1513


 

␥-Cadinene

0.12

 

RI,



 

MS

31



 

1515


 

1514


 

␤-Curcumene

 

0.43


 

RI,


 

MS

32



 

1523


 

1521


 

trans-Calamenene

 

0.10


 

RI,


 

MS

33



 

1558


 

1559


 

Germacrene

 

B

 



0.99

 

RI,



 

MS

34



 

1567


 

1561


 

(E)-Nerolidol

 

0.10


 

RI,


 

MS

35



 

1572


 

1577


 

Spathulenol

 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



36

 

1578



 

1582


 

Caryophyllene

 

oxide


 

0.10


 

RI,


 

MS

37



 

1592


 

1595


 

Cubeban-11-ol

 

0.52


 

RI,


 

MS

38



 

1599


 

1599


 

Juniperol

 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



40

 

1602



 

1600


 

Rosifoliol

 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



41

 

1617



 

1618


 

1,10-di-epi-Cubenol

 

0.10


 

RI,


 

MS

42



 

1623


 

1627


 

1-

 



epi-Cubenol

 

0.25



 

RI,


 

MS

43



 

1638


 

1638


 

epi-


␣-Cadinol

 

t



 

RI,


 

MS

44



 

1667


 

1675


 

Cadalane


 

t

 



RI,

 

MS



Class

 

compositions



Monoterpene

 

hydrocarbons



 

5.53


Oxygenated

 

monoterpenes



 

86.63


Sesquiterpene

 

hydrocarbons



 

5.67


Oxygenated

 

sesquiterpenes



 

1.07


Total

 

identified



 

(%)


 

98.90


a

Identification:

 

RI:


 

retention

 

index


 

(GC-RI);


 

MS:


 

mass


 

spectra


 

(GC-MS);


 

t,

 



trace

 

(<0.05%);



 

Compounds

 

higher


 

than


 

5.00%


 

are


 

highlighted

 

in

 



boldface

 

and



 

their


 

FID


 

percentage

in

 

an



 

average


 

of

 



three

 

replicate



 

(

±SD);



 

RI

Exp



,

 

retention



 

index


 

determined

 

in

 



DB-5

 

(60



 

m

 



×

 

0.32



 

mm)


 

using


 

n-alkanes;

 

RI

Lit



,

 

retention



 

index


 

from


 

literature

 

(

Adams,



 

2007


);

 

Cs,



coinjection/comparison

 

with



 

the


 

RI

 



and

 

mass



 

spectra


 

of

 



standard.

essential

 

oil


 

are


 

summarized

 

in

 



Table

 

1



.

 

Earlier,



 

various


 

studies


have

 

been



 

carried


 

out


 

to

 



explore

 

the



 

compositional

 

variability



of

 

various



 

Meleleuca

 

species.


 

Results


 

showed


 

intricate

 

chemical


compositions

 

of



 

essential

 

oils


 

characterized

 

by

 



a

 

high



 

proportion

of

 

monoterpenoids



 

(mainly


 

1,8-cineole,

 

terpinen-4-ol,



 

terpino-


lene),

 

phenylpropanoids



 

(mainly


 

methyl


 

eugenol,


 

(E)-methyl

isoeugenol),

 

and



 

sesquiterpenoids

 

(mainly


 

(E)-nerolidol,

 

viridi-


florol).

 

Further,



 

the


 

commercial

 

value


 

of

 



their

 

essential



 

oils


 

depends


upon

 

the



 

presence


 

of

 



these

 

aroma



 

constituents

 

for


 

their


 

indus-


trial

 

utility



 

(

Brophy,



 

1999;


 

Brophy


 

et

 



al.,

 

2006,



 

2012;


 

Gupta


 

et

 



al.,

2012;


 

Silva


 

et

 



al.,

 

2007,



 

2010;


 

Southwell

 

et

 



al.,

 

2005;



 

Trilles


 

et

 



al.,

2006;


 

Wheeler


 

et

 



al.,

 

2007



).

 

As



 

per


 

earlier


 

reports,


 

the


 

essential

 

oil


composition

 

of



 

M.

 



linarrifolia

 

from



 

Australia

 

was


 

characterized

 

as

‘terpinen-4-ol’



 

and


 

‘1,8-cineole’

 

type


 

based


 

upon


 

the


 

dominance

of

 

these



 

monoterpenoids

 

(

Brophy,



 

1999;


 

Butcher


 

et

 



al.,

 

1992;



 

Park


et

 

al.,



 

2011;


 

Southwell

 

et

 



al.,

 

1992



).

 

However,



 

the


 

volatile


 

oil


 

of

 



M.

linarrifolia

 

from


 

Brazil


 

was


 

shown


 

to

 



be

 

characterized



 

by

 



a

 

high



 

con-


tent

 

of



 

methyleugenol

 

(86.8%)


 

(

Silva



 

et

 



al.,

 

2010



).

 

Further,



 

there


 

is

no



 

report


 

on

 



essential

 

oil



 

composition

 

of

 



M.

 

linarrifolia



 

from


 

India;


therefore,

 

present



 

study


 

reported


 

1,8-cineole

 

rich


 

oil


 

composition

of

 

M.



 

linarrifolia

 

for


 

the


 

first


 

time


 

from


 

foothills

 

of

 



Uttarakhand,

India.


The

 

essential



 

oil


 

of

 



M.

 

linarrifolia



 

was


 

tested


 

against


 

nine


pathogenic

 

bacterial



 

strains


 

[five


 

Gram-positive:

 

S.

 



aureus

 

(MTCC



96),

 

S.



 

aureus


 

(MTCC


 

2940),


 

S.

 



mutans

 

(MTCC



 

890),


 

S.

 



epidermidis

(MTCC


 

435),


 

B.

 



subtilis

 

(MTCC



 

121),


 

and


 

four


 

Gram-negative:

 

K.

pneumoniae



 

(MTCC


 

109),


 

E.

 



coli

 

(MTCC



 

723),


 

P.

 



aeruginosa

 

(MTCC



741),

 

S.



 

typhimurium

 

(MTCC


 

98)].


 

The


 

results


 

of

 



antibacterial

 

activ-



ity

 

in



 

terms


 

of

 



net

 

zone



 

of

 



inhibition

 

(mm)



 

and


 

MIC


 

(

␮g



 

mL

−1



)

are


 

presented

 

in

 



Table

 

2



.

 

The



 

essential

 

oil


 

showed


 

good


 

activity


against

 

E.



 

coli


 

(MTCC


 

723),


 

S.

 



typhimurium

 

(MTCC



 

98),


 

B.

 



subtilis

(MTCC


 

121),


 

and


 

moderate


 

activity


 

against


 

S.

 



epidermidis,

 

S.



 

aureus


(MTCC

 

2940),



 

S.

 



aureus

 

(MTCC



 

96),


 

and


 

S.

 



mutans.

 

However,



 

the


 

oil


exhibited

 

relatively



 

very


 

low


 

activity


 

against


 

P.

 



aeruginosa

 

and



 

K.

pneumoniae



 

in

 



microdilution

 

broth



 

assay.


 

The


 

antimicrobial

 

poten-


tial

 

of



 

various


 

Melaleuca

 

species


 

were


 

explored


 

earlier,


 

against


 

a


R.C.

 

Padalia



 

et

 



al.

 

/



 

Industrial

 

Crops


 

and


 

Products


 

63

 



(2015)

 

264–268



 

267


Table

 

2



Antibacterial

 

activities



 

of

 



Melaleuca

 

linarrifolia



 

Sm.


 

essential

 

oil



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