SəRBƏst iŞ. 1 Fakültə: Nəqliyyat və logistika İxtisas: Nəqliyyat mühəndisliyi Qrup: 101a3 Müəllim: Allahverdiyeva Qənirə

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Azərbaycan Respublikasının Təhsil Nazirliyi

Azərbaycan Texniki Universiteti

Kafedra: Xarici dillər

Fənnin adı: Xarici dildə işgüzar və akademik kommunikasiya-1 (İngilis)


Fakültə: Nəqliyyat və logistika

İxtisas: Nəqliyyat mühəndisliyi
Qrup: 101a3
Müəllim: Allahverdiyeva Qənirə
Tələbə: Salamova Gülxanım


Environmental issues in Azerbaijan.

Severe pollution from heavy industries and agriculture has damaged the environment of Azerbaijan. The contamination of the Caspian Sea from oil drilling in Baku has been a problem since the 19th century, when the Russian Empire took control of the region and began to rapidly exploit its oil reserves. Although oil production waned during the Soviet period, petroleum waste was routinely dumped into the Caspian. The Caspian also suffers from the discharge of untreated sewage, and pollution has depleted the sea’s stocks of sturgeon. Severe air pollution is a problem in the major cities due to emissions from petroleum and chemical industries. During the Soviet period, dangerously high concentrations of pesticides and fertilizers were used to increase Azerbaijan’s agricultural output. In the late 1980s, when environmental awareness began to surface in the USSR, Azerbaijan’s high infant mortality rate and high rates of infectious diseases were linked to the chemicals used in cotton growing. Although the people of Azerbaijan are generally aware of the need to protect the environment, the republic’s environmental issues have not received significant attention from the government. Salinization of plain soils in our Republic has a special place within the ecoethic problems. Saline soils spread widely in Azerbaijan Republic Approximately about 60% of the Kur-Araz lowland soils witch's total area is 2.2 million hectares, became medium and strongly saline soils. In addition, saline soils are spread in Siyazan-Sumgait, Jeyranchol areas, in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and other areas of Azerbaijan Republic. In general, moderate and intensive saline soils in the territory of our Republic consist of 1.3 million hectare total area. It means that 15% of the territory of the Republic has suffered this Ecoethic problem. As a result of carried investigations it was defined that, 565 481 ha of the 1444.9 thousand hectares or 47.6% of total irrigated suitable for agriculture soils of the country, became saline in different degrees (152 898 ha or 27% of this less saline, 146 235 ha or 25.9% average saline, 223 838 ha or 39.6% intensive saline, 42 510 ha, or 7.5% salty soils), 508.3 thousand hectares (29.0%) of the different saline degrees (385 037 ha or 75.8% of the low saline, 102 110 ha, or 20.1% average saline, 21 123 ha or 4.1% intensive saline). Although soil salinization or becoming salty are the natural processes occurring in thesoil, it causes a negative impact on agricultural production, natural communities, including low-lying areas and in low-lying forest formations if not to take necessary measures in a timely manner. From the second half of the XX century, the development in Azerbaijan of the mining and heavy industry, transport led to increase the anthropogenic pressure upon the cover of lands in several times. As a result of carrying in the Republic of mining works, production of organic and mineral resources, their further processing and transportation disturbed fertility of lands and make problems on the areas covered with materials of mud volcanoes eruptions, including trade waters, turned into bogs. The total area of such lands in our Republic is more than 49,6 ha.To carry out recultivation on the grounds polluted by oil, along with extent of pollution, it is very important the definition of its type, subtype and species. The researchers conducted in the Republic.Technogenic disturbed land of Republic are widespread mainly in Absheron, Gobustan, Siyazan, Devechi, Ganja-Kazakh zone area by the removal of building materials - clay, sand, stone, gravel, limestone, and in Nakhchivan, Dashkesen Kedabek as a result of withdrawal ferrous and non-ferrous metals.The waste received in overtime and productions of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and consisting of slimes, slags and ashes were received round the cities of Baku, Sumgait, Shirvan, and Gandja.

From this category of recultivation of the technogenic degraded lands playgreat importance in the solution of ecoethical problems of lands and in environment protection. Thus, despite awareness in broad aspect of ecoethical problems of technogenic lands (recultivation, legal, administrative, technological, etc.), in the arisen situation in the country remediation works were accepted into the forefront. Researchers showed that after production by researchers of minerals in the last decades, and now (generally round Baku construction materials - clay, exhaust powder, limestone, etc.) the territory was left on self-restoration. As a result, creates technogenic landscape type deprived of earth and vegetable cover. Generally, as it was already noted, the total area of the lands needing recultivation makes 49,6 million hectares. Depending on character and extent of pollution recultivation has to be carried out in two stages:

1.Phase of technical recultivation;

2.Phase of biological recultivation;

As the severity of environmental problems on a global scale the coordination of measures taken to solve them each year, there is a great need for those.World experience shows that the steps taken towards the solution of environmental problems at the national level to support a wide range of different section of the population, together with the activities of governmental and non-governmental organizations can not be achieved without the necessary benefits. Interested in solving environmental problems in this regard, government and non-governmental organizations, individuals and legal entities, which combines the ordinary citizens who are coordinating their efforts, “Environmental Coordination Center” in the creation of the challenge, is a vital requirement of the period.

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