ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF EUGENIA
The ethanol extract of Eugenia singampattiana Bedd (Family: Myrtaceae) leaf was investigated for its antioxidant, antihyperlipidaemic and
antidiabetic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p). The ethanol
extracts of E. singampattiana at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a
period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of E. singampattiana leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated
haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density
lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C), high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C) and phospholipid (PL)] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum
enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT), and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatase
(ALP)], lipoprotein peroxidation (LPO) antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and
glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Eugenia singampattiana leaf elicited significant reductions
of blood glucose (P<0.05), lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C and antioxidant enzymes. The extracts
also caused significant increase in plasma insulin (P<0.05) in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Eugenia
possesses significant antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Antioxidant, Antihyperlipidaemic, Antidiabetic, E. singampattiana, Alloxan.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by
hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin
action or both
. The presence of diabetes mellitus confers increased
diseases (CVD), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), complications
such as coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, neuropathy, renal
failure, retinopathy amputations and blindness
. Several drugs
reduce hyperglycaemic in diabetes mellitus. The main disadvantages
of the currently available drugs are that, they have to be given
throughout the life and produce side effects
. Medicinal plants and
mellitus throughout the world. Although several medicinal plants
have gained importance for the treatment of diabetes, many remain
to be scientifically investigated
Bedd belong to the family Myrtaceae. It is
commonly known as “Kattukorandi” by Kanikkar tribals of
Agasthiarmalai, Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu,
India. The paste prepared from the leaf of E. singampattiana is given
to treat asthma and giddiness. Paste prepared from equal quantity of
leaves and flowers is consumed by Kanikkar tribals to cure body
pain and throat pain. Paste prepared from equal quantity of leaves,
flowers and tender fruits are consumed by the Kanikkars to relief
from leg sores and rheumatism. Paste prepared from equal quantity
of stems, leaves and flowers is consumed with palm sugar to get
relief from gastric complaints
. The ethanol extract of E.
leaf has been reported for its antitumour activity
MATERIALS AND METHODS
designed to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and
antioxidant activity of ethanol, extract of E. singampattiana leaf in
alloxan induced diabetic rats.
The leaves of Eugenia singampattiana Bedd were freshly collected
from the well grown healthy plants inhabiting the natural forests of
Karaiyar, Agasthiarmalai Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, Tamil
Nadu. The plant were identified and authenticated in Botanical
Survey of India, Southern Circle, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. A
voucher specimen was deposited in Ethnopharmacology Unit,
Research Department of Botany, V.O.Chidambaram College,
Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu.
Preparation of plant extract for phytochemical screening and
The E. singampattiana leaves were shade dried at room temperature
and the dried leaves were powdered in a Wiley mill. Hundred grams
of powdered E. singampattiana leaves was packed in a Soxhlet
apparatus and extracted with ethanol The extract were subjected to
qualitative test for the identification of various phytochemical
constituents as per the standard procedures
8, 9, 10
extracts were concentrated in a rotary evaporator. The concentrated
ethanol extract were used for antidiabetic studies.
Normal healthy male Wistar albino rats (180- 240g) were housed
under standard environmental conditions at temperature (25±2º C)
and light and dark (12: 12 h). Rats were fed with standard pellet diet
(Goldmohur brand, MS Hindustan lever Ltd., Mumbai, India) and
water ad libitum.
Acute Toxicity Study
Acute oral toxicity study was performed as per OECD – 423 guidelines
(acute toxic class method), albino rats (n=6) of either sex selected by
random sampling were used for acute toxicity study
Induction of Experimental Diabetes
. The animals
were kept fasting for overnight and provided only with water, after
which the extracts were administered orally at 5mg/kg body weight
by gastric intubations and observed for 14 days. If mortality was
observed in two out of three animals, then the dose administered was
assigned as toxic dose. If mortality was observed in one animal, then
the same dose was repeated again to confirm the toxic dose. If
mortality was not observed, the procedure was repeated for higher
doses such as 50,100, and 2000 mg/kg body weight.
Rats were induced diabetes by the administration of simple
intraperitoneal dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg)
glycosuria and hypoglycemia with blood glucose level of 200-260
mg/100 ml were taken for the study. All animals were allowed free
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
in plastic cages.
In the present investigation, a total of 30 rats (24 diabetic surviving
rats and 6 normal rats) were taken and divided into five groups of 6
Group I: Normal untreated rats
Group II: Diabetic control rats
Group III: Diabetic rats given ethanol extract of E. singampattiana
leaf (150mg/kg body weight)
Group IV: Diabetic rats given ethanol extract of E. singampattiana
leaf (300mg/kg body weight)
Group V: Diabetic rats given standard drug glibenclamide
(600mg/kg body weight).
The animals were sacrificed at the end of experimental period of 14
days by decapitation. Blood was collected, sera separated by
centrifugation at 3000g for 10 minutes. Serum glucose was
measured by the O-toluidine method
. Insulin level was assayed by
. Urea estimation
; serum creatinine was
. Glycosylated haemoglobin
C) estimation was carried out by a modified colorimetric
. Serum total
, low density lipoprotein
and serum albumins
bromocresol green. The total protein minus the albumin gives the
globulin, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum
glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) was measured
spectrophotometrically by utilizing the method of Reitman and
. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was measured by the
method of King and Armstrong
. Catalase (CAT)
, lipid peroxidation (LPO)
, reduced glutathione
and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)
The data were analyzed using student’s t-test statistical methods.
For the statistical tests a p values of less than 0.01 and 0.05 was
taken as significant.
were analyzed in the
normal, diabetic induced and drug treated rats.
The phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of E. singampattiana
leaf revealed the presence of alkaloid, catechin, coumarin, tannin,
saponin, steroid, flavonoid, phenol, sugar, glycoside, xanthoprotein
and fixed oil. Acute toxicity study revealed the non-toxic nature of
the ethanol extract of E. singampattiana leaf. Table 1 shows the
levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, urea, creatinine and
glycosylated haemoglobin of normal, diabetic rats and drug treated
rats. The alloxan induced diabetic rats elicited significant rise in
blood glucose from 69.50 to 201.00mg/dl (p<0.05) and a significant
decrease in plasma insulin level from 24.50 to 5.40 (p<0.01). On the
contrary, diabetic rats treated with ethanol extract of E.
leaf exhibited decrease in blood glucose and
increase in plasma insulin significantly at a dose of 150 mg/kg and
300 mg/kg body weight. It was observed that ethanol extract of E.
reversed these effects in diabetic animals. The
possible mechanism by which ethanol extract brings about its
hyperglycemic action may be by induction of pancreatic insulin
secretion from β cells of islets of langerhans or due to enhanced
transport of blood glucose to peripheral tissue
. Earlier many plants
32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38,39
A significant elevation in serum constituents, urea and creatinine
were observed in alloxan induced diabetic rats (Group II), when
compared to control rats. The ethanol extracts of E. singampattiana
leaves were administered orally (150 mg/kg body weight- Group III
and 300mg/kg body weight- Group IV) to rats for fourteen days,
reversed the urea and creatinine level to near normal. The
administration of glibenclamide (Group V) also decreased the levels
of urea and creatinine to some extent. Alloxan is taken as indications
of an abnormal glomerular fraction where a simple injection of
cisplation at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight in rabbits caused a
marked reduction in the glomerular filtration rates, which was
accompanied by an increase in the creatinine level, indicating the
induction of acute renal failure. It is confirmed that there is a
significant increase in serum creatinine in albino rats 14 days after
alloxan administration. The present results show that, the treatment
with ethanol extract of E. singampattiana leaf was effective in
preventing alloxan induced increase in serum creatinine level when
compared with the control. Alloxan induced diabetic rats showed
significant increase (p<0.05) glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA
leaf treated rats showed a significant decrease
(p<0.05) in the content of glycosylated haemoglobin. Glycosylated
haemoglobin determinations are self monitoring of blood glucose
therefore play an important complementary roles for the
management of diabetes mellitus
Table 1: Effect of ethanol extracts of E. singampattiana leaves on the serum insulin, glucose, urea, creatinine and
comparison made between diabetic control to drug treated groups
alloxan induced diabetic rats and drug treated rats were
presented in Table 2. A significant reduction in serum protein,
albumin and globulin were observed in alloxan induced diabetic
rats (Group II) when compared to control (Group I) and
glibenclamide treated rats (Group V). On administration of
ethanol extract of E. singampattiana to the diabetic rats, the
levels of protein, albumin and globulin were found to be restored
in normal. These results were in accordance with the effects of
hepatic marker enzymes in serum. In the present study, the levels of
SGPT and SGOT in alloxan induced diabetic rats were elevated. It
may be due to leaking out of enzymes from the tissues and migrating
into the circulation by the adverse effect of alloxan
in diabetic rats.
. AST and ALT
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
. In this study, the ethanol
in liver of rats intoxicated with alloxan. The effect of glibenclamide
on the recovery of hepatic enzyme activity in serum was very similar
to that of the earlier study
Each value is SEM of 6 animals. Comparison made between normal control to diabetic control and drug treated groups *
The restorations of SGPT and SGOT to their respective normal levels
, further strengthen the antidiabegenic effect of this
extract. Moreover, SGPT and SGOT levels also act as indicators of
liver function and restoration of normal levels of these parameters
indicate normal functioning of liver. Since the alloxan can also affect
the liver by free radical mechanism.
In addition to the assessment of SGPT and SGOT levels during
diabetes the measurement of enzymatic activities of
phosphatases such as acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) is of clinical and toxicological importance as
changes in their activities are indicative of tissue damage by
toxicants. In the present study, serum ALP increased in alloxan
induced diabetic rats (Table 2). Elevated level of this enzyme in
diabetes may be due to extensive damage to liver in the
experimental animal by alloxan. Treatment with ethanol extract
of E. singampattiana in alloxan induced diabetic rats produces a
decline in ALP level.
Each value is SEM of 6 animals. Comparison made between normal control to diabetic control and drug treated groups * p < 0.05;**p<0.01 ***
: p<0.05 ;
(TG), LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C in control, diabetic induced and
drug treated rats were presented in Table 3. Alloxan induced rats
showed significant increase in serum lipid profiles except HDL-C
when compared with normal rats. The glibenclamide (Group V) and
ethanol extract of E. singampattiana (Group III and IV) treated rats
showed a significant decrease in the content of lipid profiles when
compared with diabetic induced rats. Similarly HDL-C level
decreased in alloxan induced diabetic rats when compared to
normal rats. On administration of ethanol extract of E.
and glibenclamide to the diabetic rats, HDL-C level
was found to be restored to normal. The level of serum lipid profiles
are usually raised in diabetic rats in the present study and such
elevation represents risk factor for coronary heart diseases
. In normal metabolism insulin activates the enzyme
insulin results in inactivation of these enzymes thereby causing
hypertriglyceridemia. The significant reduction of serum lipid levels
in diabetic rats after E. singampattiana treatment may be directly
attributed to improvements in insulin levels. Phospholipids are
present in cell membrane and make up vast majority of the surface
lipoprotein forming a lipid bilayer that acts as an interface with both
polar plasma environment and non-polar lipoprotein of lipoprotein
. Increased phospholipids levels in tissues were reported by
; Pari and Satheesh
diabetic rats. Administration of ethanol extract of E. singampattiana
leaf and glibenclamide decreased the levels of phospholipids.
Each value is SEM of 6 animals. Comparison made between normal control to diabetic control and dry treated groups. * p < 0.05;**p<0.01 and
p<0.05. x; One unit of SOD is defined as the enzyme concentration which gives
of GPx is defined as the μ g of glutathione
The results (Table 4) showed increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) of
alloxan induced diabetic rats. Earlier studies have reported that,
there was an increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain
of diabetic rats
consumed per minute.
LPO (p<0.05) was found and these levels were significantly reduced
after the supplementation of the ethanol extract of E. singampattiana
and glibenclamide. This indicates that plant extracts inhibit
oxidative damage due to the antiperoxidative effect of ingredients
present in ethanol extract of E. singampattiana. This could be
correlated with previous study reported that Cassia auriculata
, Scoparia dulcis
, Wattakaka volubilis
and Pterocarpus marsupium
The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT),
glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) (Table
4) were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in alloxan induced rats. These
adverse changes were reversed to near normal values in ethanol
extract of E. singampattiana leaf treated. It is well known that CAT,
SOD and GPx play an important role as protective enzymes against
free radical formation in tissues
. Enzymatic antioxidant such as
involved in the direct elimination of ROS
SOD is an important
anion from H
diminishes the toxic effects due to this radical or other free radicals
derived from secondary reaction
CAT is a haemoprotein, which
. The antioxidant
mellitus as a result of non- enzymatic glycosylation and oxidation
In the present study, the activities of SOD and CAT decreased in
caused by alloxan generated ROS
In conclusion, the present study has shown that, the ethanol extract
antioxidant effects. The possible antidiabetic activity of the extracts
might be due to stimulation of residual pancreatic insulin or by
increasing peripheral utilization of glucose. Glycosides, flavonoids,
tannins, organic sulphur compounds, catechol and alkaloids are
active ingredients of hypoglycemic plant
. The ethanol extract of E.
had reversed the activities of these enzymatic
antioxidants, which might be due to decreased oxidative stress as
evidenced by decreased LPO.
. Flavonoids are reported
. Phenols have
. In the present
study, the phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract of E.
clearly pointed out the presence of above said active
phytochemicals. It denotes that, the antidiabetic effect of ethanol
extract of E. singampattiana may be due to the presence of more
than one antihyperglycemic principle and their synergistic effects.
Thanks to Dr. Sampathraj, Honorary Advisor, Samsun Clinical
Research Laboratory, Tirupur for their assistance in animal studies.
The last two authors are thankful to University Grants Commission –
New Delhi, for their financial support (Ref. No: 39-429/2010(SR)
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