a Faculty of Fisheries, Bogor Agricultural University Darmaga Campus, Bogor, Indonesia
b Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511, Singapore
Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased walking catfish from West Java, Indonesia was studied for its virulence using the following parameters: biochemical characteristics, presence of haemolysin genes by DNA-DNA hybridization, haemolytic activity, protein analysis by SDS-PAGE and LD50. The results showed that many strains of Aeromonas hydrophila with differing virulence are present in the aquatic environment of this region. The virulent strains possess haemolysin genes and showed a 52-kDa band in SDS gel. The bacteria could lyse erythrocytes not only from fish but also from sheep, man, cow, horse and rabbit. They caused severe skin and muscle lesion at the injected sites of catfish fingerlings and remained in their ulcerative tissues, liver and kidney until 5 days after intramuscular injection. Fish began to die at 18 h after the bacterial injection. It is concluded that the outbreak of such disease in walking catfish in Java in 1980 could be attributed to these virulent strains of Aeromonas hydrophila.
Anderson, 1990. D.P. Anderson, Immunological indicators: effects of environmental stress on immune protection and disease outbreaks. In: Am. Fish. Soc. Symp.8 (1990), pp. 38–50. Angka, 1990. S.L. Angka, The pathology of the walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.) infected intraperitoneally with Aeromonas hydrophila. Asian Fish. Sci.3 (1990), pp. 343–351.
Angka et al., 1982. S.L. Angka, S.U. Pramono, F.H. Pasaribu and M. Alifuddin, Isolasi dan identifikasi jasad renik penyebab epidemi penyakit bercak merah ikan di Jawa Barat. Bul. Perikanan1 1 (1982), pp. 1–14.
Angka et al., 1988. S.L. Angka, G.T. Wongkar and W. Karwani, Blood picture and bacteria isolated from ulcered and crooked-back Clarias batrachus. BIOTROP Spec. Publ. no. 28 (1988), pp. 129–137.
Areerat, 1987. S. Areerat, Clarias culture in Thailand. Aquaculture63 (1987), pp. 355–362.
Bloch and Monteil, 1989. S. Bloch and H. Monteil, Purification and characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila β-haemolysin. Toxicon.27 12 (1989), pp. 1279–1287. Abstract | PDF (554 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (5)
Bondad-Reantaso et al., 1992. M.G. Bondad-Reantaso, S.C. Lumanlan, J.M. Natividad and M.J. Phillips, Environmental monitoring of the Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in fish from Munoz, Nueva Eciji in the Philippines. In: M. Shariff, R.P. Subasinghe and J.R. Arthur, Editors, Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. I, Fish Health Section. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila (1992), pp. 475–490.
Dooley and Trust, 1988. J.G. Dooley and T.J. Trust, Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein. J. Bacteriol.170 2 (1988), pp. 499–506. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (45)
Frerichs and Millar, 1993. G.N. Frerichs and S.D. Millar. In: Manual for the isolation and identification of fish bacterial pathogens, Pisces Press, Stirling (1993), p. 60.
Hazen et al., 1978. T.C. Hazen, M.L. Raker, G.W. Esch and C.B. Fliermans, Ultrastructure of red-sore lesions on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) association of the ciliate Epistylis sp. and the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Protozool.25 (1978), pp. 351–355. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12)
Laemmli, 1970. U.K. Laemmli, Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of Bacteriophage T4. Nature227 (1970), pp. 680–685. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (87367)
Lallier and Daigneault, 1984. R. Lallier and P. Daigneault, Antigenic differentiation of pili from non-virulent fish pathogenic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Fish Dis.7 (1984), pp. 509–572.
Leung and Stevenson, 1988. K.Y. Leung and R.M.W. Stevenson, Characteristics and distribution of extracellular proteases from Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Gen. Microbiol.134 (1988), pp. 151–160. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (35)
Lewis and Plumb, 1979. D.H. Lewis and J.A. Plumb, Bacterial diseases. In: Principal Diseases of Farm Raised CatfishJ.A. Plumb, Editor, Southern Coop. Series 225, Auburn Univ. (1979), pp. 15–24.
Llobrera and Gacutan, 1987. A.T. Llobrera and R.Q. Gacutan, Aeromonas hydrophila associated with ulcerative disease epizootic in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. Aquaculture67 3/4 (1987), pp. 273–278. Abstract | PDF (464 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (16)
McDaniel, 1979. D. McDaniel, Editor, Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Certain Fish Pathogens, Am. Fish. Soc., Fish Health Section, Bethesda, MD (1979), p. 118.
Meyer, 1975. F.P. Meyer, The pathology of the major diseases of catfish. In: W.E. Ribelin and G. Migaki, Editors, The Pathology of Fishes, Univ. Wisconsin Press (1975), pp. 275–286.
Munday, 1988. B.L. Munday, Bacterial diseases of fish. In: Fish Diseases Refresher Course for VeterinariansUniv. Sydney Proc.106 (1988), pp. 101–108.
Richards and Roberts, 1978. R.H. Richards and R.J. Roberts, The bacteriology of teleosts. In: R.J. Roberts, Editor, Fish Pathology, Bailliere Tindall, London (1978), pp. 183–204. Full Text via CrossRef
Roberts, 1993. R.J. Roberts, Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia. In: V. Inglis, R.J. Roberts and N.R. Bromage, Editors, Bacterial Diseases of Fish, Blackwell Scientific Publications (1993), pp. 143–157.
Roberts et al., 1992. R.J. Roberts, G.N. Frerichs and S.D. Miller, Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome, the current position. In: M. Shariff, R.P. Subasinghe and J.R. Arthur, Editors, Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. I, Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila (1992), pp. 431–436.
Ruangpan et al., 1986. L. Ruangpan, T. Kitao and Y. Yoshida, Protective efficacy of Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines in Nile tilapia. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.12 (1986), pp. 345–350. Abstract | PDF (228 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12)
Shimojo, 1990. T. Shimojo, A study on surface structures and pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish. In: Master thesis, Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Japan (1990), p. 76.
Shotts and Rimler, 1973. E.B. Shotts, Jr. and R. Rimler, Medium for the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila. Appl. Microbiol.26 (1973), pp. 550–553. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (19)
Stickney, 1979. R.R. Stickney, Principles of Warmwater Aquaculture. In: , Wiley Interscience, John Wiley & Sons (1979), p. 375.
Tajima et al., 1992. K. Tajima, Y. Ezura and T. Kimura, Serological relationship of motile Aeromonas spp. among Japanese, Malaysia and Philippines isolates. In: I.M. Shariff, R.P Subasinghe and J.R. Arthur, Editors, Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. I, Fish Health Section. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila (1992), pp. 437–449.
Thune et al., 1993. R.L. Thune, L.A. Stanley and R.K. Cooper, Pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacterial infection in warm-water fish. In: M. Faisal and F.M. Hetrick, Editors, Annual Review of Fish Diseases, Pergamon Press, New York (1993), pp. 37–68. Abstract | PDF (3692 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (118)
Tonguthai, 1985. K. Tonguthai, A preliminary account of ulcerative fish diseases in the Indo Pacific (a comprehensive study based on Thai experiences). Natl. Inland Fish. Inst. Bangkok, Project FAO/TCP/RAS/4508 (1985), p. 39.
Wretlind et al., 1971. B. Wretlind, R. Mollby and T. Wadstrom, Separation of two haemolysins from A. hydrophila by isoelectric focusing. Infect. Immun.4 (1971), pp. 503–505. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (1)