Species Related Terms and Concepts apes review Sheets



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Species Related Terms and Concepts
APES Review Sheets
Based on Miller's 11th Edition of Living in the Environment from Ben Smith, Palo Verdes High School
Know the "Parts of", "Dynamics and Processes of ", "Significance/Meaning of", AND be able to explain/discuss each of the following:

Types (Define these terms)

Examples (know why)

Endangered/Threatened

Giant Panda, Florida Manatee, Presido Manzanita, Black-footed ferret, Kangaroo Rat, Florida Panther, Sand Verbena, Bladder Pod, Torreya, Monk Seal, Northern Spotted Owl, Red Wolf, Wyoming Toad, Gopher Tortoise, Black Rhino, California Condor, Boulder Darter Scrub Mint, American Burying Beetle, Piping Plover, Florida Key Deer, Grizzly Bear, Chinook Salmon, Arizona Agave, Oahu Tree Snail, Greenback Cutthroat Trout, Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Wood Stork, Ocelot, American Crocodile, Green Pitcher Plant.

Characteristics of
Extinction-Prone Species

Low reproduction rate, Specialized feeding habits, Feed at high trophic levels, Large size, Limited or specialized nesting or breeding areas, Found in only one place or region, Fixed migratory patterns, Preys on livestock or people, Behavior patterns

Keystone

Alligator, Wolf, Prairie Dog, Fig Trees, Plankton, Kelp/Sea Otters, Mycorrhizae.

Indicator

Most Songbirds (e.g. Warblers), Amphibians (Frogs, Salamanders), songbirds, amphibians (frogs, salamanders, toads), trout, benthic invertebrates (mayfly, caddisfly, riffle beetle, dobson fly larvae) water bird, E. coli (fecal wastes), shell fish (tissues analyzed for pesticides, heavy metals), top level consumers (northern spotted owl, wolf, bear, mountain lion, great hombill), Elodea, Ceratophyllum, eel grass, alligator, lichen, dinofiagellates, fathead minnow, salmon, oysters, water penny, water pollution tolerant organisms (sludge worms, aquatic worms, midge larvae, tubifex worms, pouch snails, blood midges).

Introduced/Non-Native




Terrestrial Plants

Downy brome (Bromus tectorum)

Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)

Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum)

Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)

Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)

Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata)

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora)

Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)

Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.)

Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

Scotch thistle (Onopordum acanthium)

Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa)

Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima)

Yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis)



Terrestrial Animals

Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis)

Cane toad (Bufo marinus) - impact has been far-reaching, with the invasion of cane toads into Queensland thought to be an important factor in the decline of many native animals.

European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)

European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata)

Hemlock Woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)


Aquatic & Wetlands Plants

Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa)

Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta)

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)

Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia)

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

Water chestnut (Trapa natans)

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

Aquatic & Wetlands Animals

Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus)

Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

European green crab (Carcinus maenas)

Nutria (Myocastor coypus)

Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

Veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa)

Zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha)




Microbes

West Nile virus (Flavivirus)


http://www.orange.k12.oh.us/teachers/ohs/jsangdahl/APESWEB/intro.html

Pests

Gypsy Moth, European Red Mite, Boll Weevil, tobacco Horn worm, Grasshopper (Locust), Pink Bullworm, Brown Planthoppers, Aphids.

Introduced / Re-introduced to help control Pest Species

Wasps, Beetles (Lady Beetles, Lady Bugs), Vedalia Beetle Larva.

Interactions

Interspecific Competition, Predation, Parasitism, Mutualism, Commensalism, Interference Competition, Exploitation Competition, Competitive Exclusion, Resource Partitioning, Realized Niche, Fundamental Niche, Predator-Prey Relationship (in food chain or web arrows go towards higher trophic level)

r- or K-strategist

r
many small offspring, little or no parental care or protection of offspring, early reproductive age, most offspring die, small adults, adapted to unstable climate, high population growth rate, population size fluctuates wildly above and below , generalist niche, low ability to compete, early successional species

K
fewer, larger offspring, high parental care, later reproductive age, most offspring survive, larger adults, adapted to stable climate, lower population growth rate, population fairly stable, specialist niche, high ability to compete, late successional species




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