Apis cerana japonicaforming a ball around twohornets: The body heat trapped by the ball will overheat and kill the hornets.
All honey bees live in colonies where the workers sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees release apheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees. The different species of honey bees are distinguished from all other bee species (and virtually all other Hymenoptera) by the possession of small barbs on the sting, but these barbs are found only in the worker bees. The sting and associated venom sac of honey bees are also modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged (autotomy), and the sting apparatus has its own musculature and ganglion, which allow it to keep delivering venom once detached. The worker dies after the sting becomes lodged and is subsequently torn loose from the bee's abdomen.
This complex apparatus, including the barbs on the sting, is thought to have evolved specifically in response to predation by vertebrates, as the barbs do not usually function (and the sting apparatus does not detach) unless the sting is embedded in fleshy tissue. While the sting can also penetrate the membranes between joints in the exoskeleton of other insects (and is used in fights between queens), in the case of Apis cerana japonica, defense against larger insects such as predatory wasps (e.g. Asian giant hornet) is usually performed by surrounding the intruder with a mass of defending worker bees, which vibrate their muscles vigorously to raise the temperature of the intruder to a lethal level. Previously, heat alone was thought to be responsible for killing intruding wasps, but recent experiments have demonstrated the increased temperature in combination with increased carbon dioxide levels within the ball produce the lethal effect. This phenomenon is also used to kill a queen perceived as intruding or defective, an action known to beekeepers as 'balling the queen', named for the ball of bees formed.
In the case of those honey bee species with open combs (e.g., A. dorsata), would-be predators are given a warning signal that takes the form of a "Mexican wave" that spreads as a ripple across a layer of bees densely packed on the surface of the comb when a threat is perceived, and consists of bees momentarily arching their bodies and flicking their wings.
Chapter – 5 : Floral Cycle with Botanical Names of Flowering
The floral cycle is nothing but flowering season of plant flora. It is providing pollen and nectar to bees. Nectar will be converted into honey – reserve food and pollens as immediate food for the bees. The floral cycle is directly helpful for beekeeping activity. It is an essential information required for every beekeeper to organize annual Apiculture activity by mapping geographical flora in the vicinity of the apiary / apiculture activity. All the beekeepers should prepare floral cycle and update from time to time regarding the flowering plants and flowering season to avail maximum economical benefit from beekeeping activity. So, the floral cycle is given for selected flowering plants, provide nectar & pollen to the bees. This list may be extended based on local geographical condition of the flora.
Floral Cycle with Botanical Names of Flowering Plants