Annexe – 5 TOR for Rapid Assessment of Apiculture Scheme
Bee keeping / Apiculture is a Cottage Industry. Bees harvest nectar and pollen from flowering plants and provide honey which is valued as food and medicine for ages. Bees are efficient pollinators in both natural and agricultural ecosystems and help in increasing the farm yields. Hence the government though it fit to have a separate scheme for promoting scientific Apiculture particularly with the species Apis cerana. Apiculture scheme was earlier with the Industries Board. It was shifted to Horticulture department during the year 2011-12 for popularizing throughout the state. The department provided additional funding under Suvarna Bhoomi Yojane for purchase of Bee-boxes and Bee-colonies in the first year of implementation. In continuation of this, during 2012-13, a budget provision of Rs.200.00 lakhs under the Head of account 2851-00-200-0-01 (Plan) was given for the development Madhuvana and Apiculture activities. Under this scheme short duration orientation training on bee keeping techniques was imparted to farmers, youth and women. Honey bee boxes and colonies were distributed at subsidized rates to the interested bee keepers. The scheme is due for up scaling in the coming years.
Key objectives of Madhuvana and Apiculture scheme
To create awareness among farmers in Karnataka on the importance of bee keeping practice for honey production and increasing farm production through bee pollination.
Establishment of bee nurseries and production of disease resistant bee colonies in Madhuvanas for supplying to the farmers on regular basis.
To distribute bee boxes and colonies to the interested bee keepers.
To popularize honey production and consumption through extension activities and
To create additional self employment opportunities in the rural areas.
Since the Horticulture Department intends to expand the Apiculture activity through increased investment, time and effort, it is considered necessary to make a rapid assessment of the experience gained in the last couple of years. It is proposed to hire an independent external agency to conduct the assessment and to provide independent feedback.
Terms of Reference
To assess the effectiveness of Madhuvana and Apiculture scheme implemented by Horticulture Department.
To provide a snapshot of the economic contribution of Apiculture to the participating households, particularly on the small and marginal farmers.
To assess the scope for further expansion of Apiculture activities in the state of Karnataka, and
To recommend ways and means to popularize the Madhuvana and Apiculture Scheme on a state-wide scale.
Required data and information is to be collected through focus group discussion of participating farmers and some potential participants, personal interviews of key officials, honey traders, marketing agencies and other key stakeholders. It is necessary to cover all the agro-ecological regions of the state during the study. If need be, a limited survey of households may be taken up. Sample size and the justification for the same are to be provided by the participating consultants. Number of households, yield of honey in quintals, increase in the farm yields in tons and economic returns in lakh rupees will be the units of analysis.
Deliverables and Time Schedule
Request for Proposal: A request for Proposal (RFP) will be issued to the prospective external consultants. Each one of them will be given an opportunity to conceive the study according to their expertise and understanding and make a power point presentation in about 20 minutes to a team of senior officers in the last week of May, 2013. The proposal which is the best in terms of methodology to adequately cover the objectives of the study and modest in terms of cost will be accepted and the contract will be awarded to the agency which makes such a proposal.
Inception Report: Contract agreement will be signed with the successful bidder within a week of the award. The consultant should submit a detailed Inception Report in accordance with the guidelines that will be provided and get this approved within two weeks from the date of agreement.
Field Survey and data collection:Successful consultant will undertake the field survey and data collection work in accordance with the approved inception report and complete the same within one month of its communication.
Midterm progress report: Upon completion of the 50% of the field survey work, the consultant will submit a midterm progress report and debrief the nodal officer.
Draft Evaluation Report:A draft evaluation report should be submitted by the consultant within one month of completing the field survey work. The same will be placed before a joint committee of officers of the Horticulture Department and the KEA. It will be reviewed rigorously. The Consultant should revise the draft in accordance with the advice of the committee.
Final Evaluation Report:Final Evaluation Report incorporating the review comments on the draft should be submitted within fifteen days after the review. 25 copies of the report, along with copies of survey tools, raw field data and processed outputs should be submitted. These items and a copy of the report will be posted on the website of Horticulture Department as well as that of KEA.
Payment schedule: Cost of contract will be paid in four installments as below:
50% will be released as advance on signing of the contract
30% will be released after the draft report is approved.
20% will be released after submitting the final report along with data etc.
Nodal Officer: Sri Maheswar, Additional Director of Horticulture will act as the nodal officer for this study. He will provide additional information if needed and clarify doubts if any. He will make necessary arrangements for coordinating the field survey work.
Oversight for the study:Karnataka Evaluation Authority will provide the complete oversight for the study. All technical aspects of the study are subject their approval.
Expectation from the study: The proposed study is expected to provide a strategy for expanding the Apiculture activity effectively throughout the state. It should provide the necessary inputs in terms of policy changes, modalities of implementation and convergence possibilities with a view to benefit the rural community to the maximum extent possible.
With regards to terms of study it was suggested that the productivity of honey should be a parameter to be studied across the districts / agro climatic regions. The data to be collected and analysed is as to what was the quantity of honey produced per box in the year and the rate at which it was sold? Who was the buyer? A middle man or consumer? Can the yield of honey be increased and / or the rate received at selling increased using value addition / cooperative selling etc? What other measures can be suggested for the same?
In case of sample design, the intention to cover “about 275 beneficiaries” seems to give an impression that the study is going to be done in a casual way suiting one’s convenience and not in accordance with tenets of statistics. Care may be taken to select a finite and certain sampling intensity on the basis of statistical principles in all future studies too.
The floral cycle should include botanical names of flowering plants.
The life cycle of the bee Apis cerana and Apis mellifera may be provided in the beginning of the report as the study is of honey produced by these two species.
The final report should conform to the points detailed in Annexure – 4.
Chief Evaluation Officer
Karnataka Evaluation Authority
Findings of the Study
Karnataka Evaluation Authority has assigned TECSOK for Rapid Assessment of Apiculture Scheme for the year 2011-12 (Suvarna Bhoomi Yojana) & 2012-13 (Madhuvana & Apiculture Development Scheme of District & State Sector) in Karnataka.
The sample size of 605 beneficiaries and 50 stakeholders (Societies, Manufacturers, Officials & others) has been covered from 10 Agro Climatic Zones during the field survey.
Majority of beekeepers throughout the State practice Apis cerana beekeeping activity. It has black & red variety.
Majority beekeepers in the State practice stationery beekeeping with 4 – 8 bee boxes. Migration of bee colonies and its benefits are not known to the beekeepers and farmers to avail the economic benefits.
Apis mellifera is less known in the State except few beekeepers in coastal districts due to climatic factor. Stationery beekeeping practices for Apis mellifera is not feasible due to lack of nectar during lean flowering season.
The scheme targets have been achieved by training beneficiaries and providing bee boxes with colonies. The Department organised Madhu Mahothsavas, distributed pamphlets / booklets about beekeeping to beneficiaries & public. Institutions concerned to Apiculture have imparted knowledge in respective fields to the beneficiaries during training programme and in field demos.
Field observation indicates that, very few beekeepers have taken beekeeping seriously as economical / commercial activity. Majority of beekeepers are hobby beekeepers and not worried about the bee colony, propagation, expansion, yield, quality, branding, marketing & other aspects for overall development.
Honey collection from the comb is partly manual by squeezing and mainly by using mechanical centrifugal extractor. The honey collected from bee boxes is sold in the raw form locally without label / brand name in the price range of Rs.350/kg to Rs.650/kg. Honey collected during specific flowering season fetches Rs.850/kg to Rs.900/kg (Atla Honey / Soap nut Honey).
Beekeepers do not sell honey to local societies due to low procurement price ranging from Rs.120/kg to Rs.170/kg.
Beekeepers Co-operative Societies at Sakleshpur, Madikeri are mainly processing wild honey from the forest (Apis dorsata) collected by tribals, who sells at low price. The processed honey is priced in the range of Rs.220/kg to Rs.250/kg.
LAMP societies in B R Hills, Madikeri and in other places are procuring wild raw honey and selling in bulk to the Ayurvedic & Pharmaceutical companies within and outside the State. These societies are also procuring other forest produces in addition to honey.
Awareness among officials, farmers – Agriculture & Horticulture is lacking. The concentration among the trained candidates by the department is limited to beekeeping for honey collection. Knowledge about collection of other bee products - pollen, wax, propalis, bee venom, royal jelly, etc., is lacking. The increase in crop yield is not much appreciated by the farmers due to lack of quantification, education and awareness.
Employment generation in rural areas from beekeeping is limited due to less than 10 bee boxes maintained by each beekeeper. If, commercial beekeeping is taken up and migratory beekeeping practices are adopted, the employment generation will be very large among rural youths and women.
Average honey yield from Apis cerana colonies is 7 kg/box/year. There are few beekeepers, who collect as much as 20 kg to 25 kg/box/year. In a year, each colony may be divided into 3. These divided colonies are being sold at a price fixed by the department to other farmers for Apiculture. The crop yield is an additional income which is difficult to quantify. The economics of beekeeping gives net revenue of Rs.8,050/box/annum.
The honey is mainly sold in the raw form without brand name or label. Only few societies – Madikeri, B R Hills and Sakleshpur are selling processed honey with brand name. Very few beekeepers sell the honey in their own brand name, which are Giridarshini from B R Hills, Nisarga Honey, Cauvery Honey, etc.
The beekeeping activity in dry areas of the State in first 6 Agro Climatic Zones is required to be given serious effort for development and expansion. These areas are in need of Apiculture activity for increasing crop yield especially oil seeds. The hilly and forest areas have floral feed available throughout the year. So, stationery beekeeping activity sustains by itself. Honey yield is very low due to lack of flowering plants in coffee plantation areas.
Short Term - Capacity building
Provide intensive training programme at different levels including focus on importance of migratory beekeeping.
Propagating beekeeping activity as an entrepreneurial venture rather than a supplementary activity.
Officers of the Department need to be trained in creating awareness about the importance of Floral Mapping for providing boost to Apiculture Sector in the State.
Arranging frequent visits of beneficiaries and progressive farmers to major beekeeping regions across the Country.
Creating wide awareness about the economic & environmental benefits of beekeeping among all the stakeholders in the beekeeping.
Organising awareness programme to the Bankers, Insurance Companies regarding the importance of Apiculture as an income generating activity in order to provide loans for the activity.
The Department should take initiative to fill up the existing vacancies and appoint additional staff for giving thrust to Apiculture activity in the northern part of Karnataka where the activity is essential for crop yield but lagging behind to a large extent due to lack of staff.
Intensive awareness at all levels need to be created among farmers & horticulturists regarding the benefits and importance of Apiculture in increasing crop yield, improving quality of agriculture & horticulture produce, medicinal importance of honey, economic importance of other bye-products, etc.
Long Term - Strengthening the Institutional Framework
Facilitate beekeepers to form SHGs in the similar line existing in dairy sector.
Encourage SHGs to have network with the other similar SHGs in beekeeping in the region to enable operating, collection & marketing of honey & other products in large scale on commercial footing.
The existing Madhuvanas may be handed over to the interested progressive beekeepers to manage the activities under the supervision of Horticulture Department.
Integrate different schemes intended for development of apiculture viz. S-25, S-21, Madhuvana & SBY of State sector and National Horticulture Mission & RKVY of the Central sector in addition to ZP scheme. There should be a common guideline in order to avoid the confusion at the field level due to multiplicity of scheme.
Strengthen & upgrade the existing Beekeeping Training Institute at Bhagamandala, which is of tourist destination for foreigners (marked on the World Map). The training facilities attached to Madhuvanas at Chickmagalur, Dharwad, Gulbarga and other places may be upgraded with present infrastructure facilities.
Madhuvanas may also act as a Common Facility Centre for the beekeepers in & around the region for providing necessary facilities in the field of basic low cost honey processing units, basic quality control testing facilities, guidance cell, etc.
Establish Karnataka Beekeeping Board (KBB) in similar line with National Beekeeping Board (NBB) with the following salient features:
- The proposed KBB may be established in Public Private Partnership mode.
- The objective of KBB is overall development of beekeeping by popularizing state of art technologies relating to nucleus stock production, capacity building and training of bee breeders and beekeepers, processing and quality control of bee products, etc.
Promotion of scientific beekeeping and serve as advisory body to the Government on the subject.
- The Board may comprise of 10 - 15 members representing various stakeholders including beekeepers, beekeepers societies, NGOs promoting beekeeping activity, representatives of Horticulture Department, processing units, marketing agencies, etc. An officer in the rank of Additional Director, Horticulture Department may be appointed as Ex-officio Executive Director.
Policy changes in the Scheme
Extend Interest Subsidy to the beekeepers / SHGs, who avail loan assistance from Banks / Financial Institutions for Apiculture.
Introduce necessary changes in the scheme to take up activities like management of Madhuvanas, migratory beekeeping, providing common facility centre covering testing, grading, quality control & packaging of honey and honey products on PPP model.
Linking supply of bee colonies with boxes through progressive beekeepers at a subsidized rate.
Integrating the various existing schemes for development of Apiculture and implement single programme for effective implementation of the scheme.
Certification & Brand Registration may be encouraged for export of honey to various overseas countries.
Dovetail existing schemes in Agriculture & Horticulture Department for creating awareness for Apiculture among the farmers and other beneficiaries (non-Apiculturists) in all the activities of the Department.